Event Management 16(4) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 269–281
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539850271377
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Will They Stay or Will They Go? A Study of Volunteer Retention at Film/Music Festivals in the Southwest United States

George W. Love,* Kenneth Sherman,† and Rob Olding‡

*School of Business, University of Phoenix, Tempe, AZ, USA
†School of Advanced Studies, University of Phoenix, Baltimore, MD, USA
‡School of Advanced Studies-Sperling Center, University of Phoenix, Tempe, AZ, USA

Events, such as festivals, which often provide significant economic benefits to local communities, generally require the efforts of both new and experienced volunteers to operate successfully. The purpose of this research was to develop a theoretical model of intent to continue to volunteer building upon a study done with festival volunteers in Europe and expanded to include additional theories of volunteer commitment. This study was carried out using survey results from 261 volunteers at film and music festivals in the Southwest US. Results supported some findings from the prior study of factors related to both motivations to volunteer and how the experience of being a volunteer explained volunteer continuance commitment. However, results of this study showed that fulfillment of the volunteer psychological contract and role identity as a volunteer were also significant but not years as a volunteer, the most significant influence on volunteer continuance commitment in the prior study. Close to 40% of volunteers are shown to have considered quitting and reasons for possibly quitting are provided.

Key words: Organizational commitment; Psychological contract; Role identity; Functional motivation; Festival volunteers

Address correspondence to George W. Love, D.B.A., Regional Director of Academic Affairs, School of Business, University of Phoenix, 1625 W. Fountainhead Parkway, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA. Tel: 602-387-6877; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 283–294
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583374938
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants of Arts Festival Participation: An Investigation of Macao Residents

Wengsi (CLARA) Lei and Weibing Zhao

Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China

Arts festivals target a diverse body of audience, and the participation of local residents to a large extent defines the event success. However, little has been known regarding what local attendees expect, how they perceive the value or benefits, and in which way they get involved in these festivals. Based on a survey on 159 local respondents attending the 2009 Macao Arts Festival, this study has examined a range of factors that may have pulled and pushed local resident of Macao to attend and participate in the annual festival. For comparative purposes, up to 379 local respondents who did not attend the festival were also investigated. It is found that local attendees’ participation is largely determined by festival participation frequency, convenience of purchasing tickets, personal curiosity about unique performances, and interest in arts appreciation. In addition, there exists a significant, positive relationship between the overall satisfaction of local festival attendees and their intention to return in future. Local nonattendees in general have poorer perception of the festival’s pull factors. They are interested in arts, but their participation is constrained by a number of external barriers. The information revealed is helpful to improving the current practices of governments and organizers in the program design and marketing of urban arts festivals. Important research implications of the results are also drawn.

Key words: Macao; Arts festival; Local attendees; Motivations

Address correspondence to Wengsi (Clara) Lei, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao (Taipa Campus), Estrada Coronel Nicolau de Mesquita No.14, Edif. Cesar Fortune AC/V1-V3, Taipa, Macao, China. Tel: +853 8598 2122; Fax: +853 8598 2005; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 295–303
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583374974
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Assessment of Food Safety Risk at Fairs and Festivals: A Comparison of Health Inspection Violations Between Fairs and Festivals and Restaurants

Jin-Kyung Choi* and Barbara Almanza†

*Department of Foodservice Management, Woosong University, Daegeon, Korea
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA

Food safety practices have always been a sensitive topic for food service providers and consumers. Consumers want to know if the food they consume has been prepared safely. Food service establishment inspections by health inspectors are considered a reflection of restaurant cleanliness and presumably represent the “safety” of the establishment when eating out. Food services at temporary events, such as fairs, festivals, and farmers’ markets are inspected differently from restaurants, however, and in some cases may not required to be inspected at all according to some state food codes if they are “not-for-profit.” The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the differences in health inspection violations between temporary food services (those found at fairs, festivals, and farmers’ markets) and restaurants. The study provides event planners with insight into the most common violations at these locations to help guide them to hold events successfully without occurrence of food-borne illnesses outbreaks at fairs, festivals, and farmers’ markets. In fact, results of this study showed that more violations were found in restaurants than in temporary food services. Results of the study suggested that training for food handler and inspection guidelines for temporary food services should differ from those of permanent food service establishments.

Key words: Health inspection violations; Fairs and festivals; Farmers’ markets; Restaurants; Food safety

Address correspondence to Jin-Kyung Choi, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Foodservice Management, Woosong University, 17-2 Jayang-dong, dong-gu, Daegeon, Korea. Tel: 82-42-630-9253; Fax: 82-42-630-9251; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 305–318
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583375018
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

More Than Words: Analyzing the Media Discourses Surrounding Dance Music Events

Dewi Jaimangal-Jones

The Welsh Centre for Tourism Research, Department for Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Cardiff School of Management, UWIC, Cardiff, UK

Over recent decades the number of festivals occurring annually has grown exponentially, with one area of events witnessing significant growth being dance music festivals—outdoor events that feature various genres of electronic dance music. This article contributes to the academic study of festivals by exploring the discourses surrounding the construction and consumption of dance music events within the niche media that support and inform the various scenes represented under the umbrella term “dance culture.” A central tenant of this article is that the positive and sensationalist reporting of events by the media and the discourses they construct surrounding events is a driver of demand for large scale events. Through studying the lexicon of the dance music media this article reveals and dissects pertinent discourses surrounding the reporting of events, which emphasize cultural significance and the centrality of events to contemporary dance music culture through a variety of means.

Key words: Dance music; DJs; Festivals; Media discourse; Demand; Expectations; Experiences; Norms and values

Address correspondence to Dr. Dewi Jaimangal-Jones, The Welsh Centre for Tourism Research, Department for Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Cardiff School of Management, UWIC, Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB, UK. Tel: 02920 416321; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 319–334
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583375054
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Decision-Making Factors in Selecting Virtual Worlds for Events: Advocacy, Computer Efficacy, Perceived Risks, and Collaborative Benefits

Arhlene A. Flowers* and Kimberly Gregson†

*Integrated Marketing Communications, Roy H. Park School of Communications, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA
†Candor, NY, USA

Virtual worlds present more options on how people can “meet,” attracting corporations, nonprofits, and government entities to navigate these new worlds that demand computer skills yet offer benefits in reduced travel time, expenditures, and carbon footprints. This study utilized qualitative interviews with experienced hosts of social virtual-world events representing a variety of industries. Questions were designed to elicit responses about the decision-making process in selecting virtual worlds for meetings and events for business applications, as well as to discover opportunities and challenges in in-world collaborations. The research extends the technology acceptance model by examining use of technology beyond the individual’s intention to the decision making of choosing technology—specifically virtual worlds—on behalf of an organization for attendees to use. Responses raised practical implications on the unique attributes and sense of presence in a 3D virtual world. This includes fantastic environments evoking fun, playfulness, and creativity, to limitations of the technological learning curve and risk factors, such as loss of control, privacy, and security. This study can be used as a basis for future research on Second Life and other virtual worlds for business-to-business and business-to-consumer collaboration, particularly for the meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) industry. Findings also provide real-world considerations that are beneficial for meeting and event planners exploring virtual-world events or hybrid events.

Key words: Virtual-world events; Decision-making factors; Business applications

Address correspondence to Arhlene A. Flowers, Associate Professor, Integrated Marketing Communications, Roy H. Park School of Communications, Ithaca College, Park Hall 366, 953 Danby Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. Tel: 607-274-3066; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 335–339
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583375090
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sponsorship Change and the Ghost of Sponsorship Past

Wayne W. Smith and Stephen W. Litvin

School of Business, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

One of the primary funding sources for various festival and event types is corporate sponsorship. These partnerships allow festivals to operate at a sufficient level while providing their corporate sponsors a variety of benefits. One of the key benefits (especially for larger sponsorships) is having the two brands (the corporate and the event’s) become synonymous with each other in the mind of the consumer. The customer perceives a corporate entity supporting an event as sharing a common interest and thus the sponsorship can be used by sponsors as a tool to increase awareness and enhance image. What happens though when an event replaces a major sponsor with another? This case study examines participants’ sponsor recall following such a change. Using 5 years of data, this case illustrates that changes in major sponsorship need to be strategically conducted in order to ensure that the incoming partner is not haunted by the ghost of the sponsor they have replaced.

Key words: Sponsorship; Events; Naming rights; Affinity; Loyalty

Address correspondence to Wayne W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Business, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, The College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. Tel: 843-953-6663; Fax: 843-953-5697;E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 341–349
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583375135
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Effect of Identification on Attendance at Team Sporting Events

Leon J. Mohan* and Lionel Thomas†

*Department of Physical Education and Recreation, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, USA
†Hospitality and Tourism Administration, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, USA

This study examines the relationship between identification and attendance at team sporting events. Based on Daniel Wann’s Spectator Sport Team Identification Index attributes were selected to measure the relationship between identification and decision to attend road games of the Carolina Hurricanes. The study was conducted at the RBC Center in Raleigh, North Carolina during a weekday home game and a weekend home game. Fans of differing levels of ticket purchasing behavior were surveyed. The different levels ranged from season ticket holders to mini plan purchasers to game day purchasers. The results of the study indicated that team identification is a predictor of attendance at road games. Index items, in particular, that were stronger relationships include: “how closely the fan followed the team,” “how strongly the fan’s friend deemed them as a fan of the team,” and “how important is being a fan of the team to them.” The results show that the relationship between team identification and attendance at road games is unaffected by the type of ticket the fan purchased or whether they attend a weekend or weekday game. Professionals in the area of sport management can utilize the results in order to increase as well as cultivate their fan base. Currently, attendance figures for the National Hockey League are relatively low in comparison to other professional sports leagues in America. Therefore, offering trips to road games provides teams the opportunity to strengthen current relationships with fans and develop new relationships.

Key words: Sport; Tourism; Team identification; Attendance

Address correspondence to Leon Mohan, Assistant Professor, North Carolina Central University, Department of Physical Education and Recreation, P.O. Box 19542, Durham, NC 27707, USA. Tel: 919-530-6186; Fax: 919-530-6156; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 16, pp. 351–362
1525-9951/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599512X13539583375171
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Segmented Spectator Markets of a Minor League Baseball (MiLB) Team

Cindy Lee* and Doyeon Won†

*Sport Management, Department of Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
†Department of Sport & Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

This study aimed to examine different segments of spectators at minor league baseball games in motivation, external factors, and their consumption behaviors. Using spectator identification, a combined scale of fan identification and sport identification, spectators were grouped into four clusters using K-means cluster analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance and chi-square tests were conducted to determine group differences. The results showed significant mean differences in the dimensions of motivation and external factors by clusters. In addition, different behavioral patterns were found in their game attendance and ticket purchase. The implications of acknowledging segmented spectator markets of the minor league baseball were discussed.

Key words: Minor league baseball; Leisure activity; Motivation; External factors; Sport marketing; Market segment; Spectators

Address correspondence to Doyeon Won, Ph.D., Department of Sport & Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2123-6191; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it