Technology & Innovation 14(3-4) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 223–235, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168776
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Advances in Medical Research: The Case of China Medical University Beigang Hospital

Calvin Yu-Chian Chen,*†‡§¶ Su-sen Chang,† and Shinn-Zong Lin#**††

*Department of Medical Research and Education, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan
†Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
‡Laboratory of Computational and Systems Biology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
§Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
¶Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
#Center for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
**Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan
††Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

China Medical University (CMU) was established in 1958 as the oldest medical university specializing in traditional Chinese medicine. In an effort to directly service the society, China Medical University Hospital was established in 1980. CMU Beigang Hospital (CMUBH) was established in 1983 as part of the expansion blueprint to provide medical services to rural communities in Taiwan and has become the key provider of medical care in Chiayi and Yunlin. Despite its compact size and remote location, CMUBH is a world leader in cutting-edge medical research, covering medical fields of cancer, drug design, stem cell, gynecology, new technology development, integrative medicine, physiology, and other topics of public health concerns. Notable advancements in cancer research, acute and chronic stroke therapy via stem cells, and integration of computer-aided drug design with traditional Chinese medicine are discussed in this article. We hope that our strive for research excellence will initiate a cycle of advancements that will ultimately benefit the general welfare of the human race.

Key words: China Medical University Beigang Hospital (CMUBH); Stem cell; Cancer; TCM database@Taiwan; iScreen; iSMART

Accepted April 12, 2012.
Address correspondence to Shinn-Zong Lin, No.123, Xinde Rd., Beigang Township, Yunlin County 651, Taiwan. Tel: +886-4-22052121-6034; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 237–247, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168811
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Software Copyright: A Programmer’s Perspective

Nigel Gwee

Department of Computer Science, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

We discuss the writing of meaningful descriptions in copyright applications for computer software. In stark contrast with the sedate pace of legal historical development, rapid advances in the computer field bring unique difficulties in software copyright. Within the framework of current requirements, we relate aspects of copyright to the source code, programming languages, and design used to implement Terpsichore©, a multimedia dance choreography program.

Key words: Software; Copyright; Dance; Choreography

Accepted March 22, 2012.
Address correspondence to Nigel Gwee, Department of Computer Science, Southern University and A&M College, P.O. Box 9221, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA. Tel: 225-771-3431; Fax: 225-771-4223; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 249–275, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168857
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Salinity Gradient Power (SGP): A Developmental Roadmap Covering Existing Generation Technologies and Recent Investigative Results Into the Feasibility of Bipolar Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Power Generation

Clifford R. Merz,* Wilfrido A. Moreno,† Marilyn Barger,‡ and Stephen M. Lipka§

*College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA
†College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
‡Florida Advanced Technological Education (Flate) Center for Excellence, Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, FL, USA
§UK Center for Applied Energy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Besides wind and solar-based renewable energy technologies, marine sources are being actively discussed. Sources of marine renewable energy traditionally have included ocean currents, ocean waves, tides, thermal gradients, and salinity gradients. Salinity gradient power (SGP) is an attractive marine renewable resource because it possesses not only the largest energy potential but likely the largest total available resource as well. SGP is instantly available when diluted and concentrated ionic solutions are mixed; is renewable, sustainable, and produces no CO2 emissions or other significant effluents that may interfere with global climate. The ultimate challenge is in the economics of the recovery method used and the matching of the resulting energy density delivered to a suitable end application. The transformative technical challenges required in advancing the knowledge and understanding of SGP, both within and across related scientific fields, lies in advances in membrane development, supply source utilization, energy generation, and storage/delivery of the generated power. This article begins with an introductory overview of SGP, provides background into the major SGP membrane-based processes under development, and then discusses recent investigative results into the use of bipolar membranes in SGP generation applications.

Key words: Salinity gradient power (SGP); Dialytic battery; Osmotic power generation; Bipolar semipermeable membrane; Reverse electrodialysis (RED); Ocean energy

Accepted April 6, 2012.
Address correspondence to Clifford R. Merz, Ph.D., P.E., College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave South, MSL Room 136M, St. Petersburg, FL 33701, USA. Tel: (727) 553-3729; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 277–285, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168893
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Innovative Approach to the Diagnosis of Growth Hormone Insufficiency Using Growth Hormone Secretagogues

Barry B. Bercu* and Richard F. Walker†

*Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†BioSciences, LLC, Clearwater, FL, USA

The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) insufficiency has been a diagnostic dilemma for many decades. Over the years, we have developed rodent and nonhuman primate models to address this clinical challenge in children and adults, including the adult aging population. Deficits in GH secretion can be attributed to pituitary and/or hypothalamic ideologies with the most common cause (especially in children and aging adults) being insufficient production and/or secretion of neuroregulatory hormones [GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and ghrelin]. Here we present a patented innovative three-step provocative test as an improvement over traditional provocative testing. This diagnostic approach better addresses the physiologic neuroregulatory control of GH secretagogues on pituitary function. This sequential and combined stimulation with GHRH and ghrelin mimetics supports the hypothetical model for the complementary relationship of GHRH and ghrelin. Data are presented to support the utility of this diagnostic procedure.

Key words: Diagnostic test; Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH); Ghrelin; Hypothalamic–pituitary function; Growth hormone deficiency and insufficiency; Aging

Accepted May 7, 2012.
Address correspondence to Barry B. Bercu, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics Emeritus, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, 1925 Floresta View Drive, Tampa, FL 33618, USA. Tel: 813-963-6342; Fax: 813-963-1929; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 287–291, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168938
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Inventing and Innovating: Legal and Intellectual Requirements

Joseph P. Kennedy

Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA

This article concerns the difficulty of defining creativity; a brief analysis of a fundamental flaw in U.S. Patent Law; the definition of patentable creativity; how inventions come about; the intellectual requirements of inventing; and thoughts on how inventions need to progress toward innovation.

Key words: Inventing; Patenting; Person having ordinary skill in the art (PHOSITA); Patentable creativity; Innovation

Accepted May 14, 2012.
Address correspondence to Joseph Kennedy, Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3909, USA. Tel: 330-972-7512; Fax: 330-972-5290; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 293–298, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042168974
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

What Might Have Happened if the America Invents Act Had Been a Law in 1886

Dean F. Martin

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Persons are debating the implications of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act of 2011, which brings a certain rule of the Patent and Trademark Office in compliance with patent practices in the rest of the world. Time will tell, but it is interesting to speculate on the consequences had the law been in effect in 1886. One consequence is that Charles Martin Hall, American discoverer of the electrochemical reduction of bauxite, a major aluminum mineral, in molten cryolite, would not have received the critical patents; Paul L. T. Héroult, a Frenchman, would have. Héroult had obtained a patent in France and applied for a U.S. patent about the same time. The rule at the time, and until March 16, 2013, awarded the patent to the inventor who first conceived of the invention and diligently reduced it to practice. In the patent trial of 1886, Hall was able to show that he was the first to invent. Consequences were that the supporters of Hall formed the Pittsburgh Reduction Co., later to be known as Alcoa, which held a monopoly in the US until after World War II. Hall became a multimillionaire, generously enhanced the endowment of Oberlin College, his alma mater, and Alcoa ran aluminum processing plants that made a significant contribution to the production of airplanes during World War II.

Key words: America Invents Act; Aluminum; Electrochemical; Priority

Accepted June 19, 2012.
Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Department of Chemistry-CHE 205, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: 813:974-2374; Fax: 813-974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 299–301, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169018
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary: Job Creation Through Innovation

Daniel Daly

The Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneur Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA

The US has long been the economic leader of the world. In a large part it was due to the blessing of an abundant supply of natural resources. Thus, it only made sense that we would take the lead in converting those natural resources into goods and products. However, the world is ever changing. The location of a processing center is no longer necessary to be within a limited proximity to its supply source. Also, as the wealth of a nation increases so does the resistance to take or perform low-paying jobs. For example, in the chemical industry since 2008 nearly 25,000 jobs, which include higher paying jobs in research and development (R&D), have been lost. Higher labor costs, shrinking margins, and a growing aversion to the risks in longer term R&D appear to play significant roles. Unlike any previous time in the history of chemistry innovation, entrepreneurs and small businesses may now hold the key to limiting the losses in jobs, in generating new job opportunities for chemists in the US, and in helping chemistry solve the problems faced by society. It is clear that the US has a great innovative capability. However, infrastructure changes do need to occur to unleash this creative force. The American Chemical Society (ACS) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have recognized the infrastructural problems and are beginning to address them. These efforts will be discussed in this article.

Key words: Job creation; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Start-up companies; Economy; Professional organizations

Accepted May 16, 2012.
Address correspondence to Daniel Daly, Director of AIME, 101 AIME Building, The Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneur Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. Tel: 205-348-3502; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 303–327, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169054
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

HITRAN-PC: 25 Years of Academic Development and Commercialization of Laser Atmospheric Transmission Software for Environmental Remote Sensing

Dennis K. Killinger,* William E. Wilcox, Jr.,*† and Denis Pliutau*‡

*Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, USA
‡NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

A large complex computer program, HITRAN-PC, has been developed by our laser remote sensing research group that can calculate the absorption and transmission of optical light and laser radiation through the atmosphere and of environmental gas plumes and clouds for a variety of geometrical and atmospheric conditions using the HITRAN molecular database and other optical spectral databases. The program was developed over the past 25 years, initially to serve as an aid for the laser remote sensing of species and global gases in the atmosphere for our university research group, but later offered commercially for use in environmental and laser detection of gases for analytical sensors. Details of the history of the development is presented, including initial selling of the software through our university, documentation of bug-lists and extensive versions and enhanced capabilities, related CRADA agreements with spectral database providers, and commercial selling through an outside software company. The user can select different line broadening models, slant path atmospheric layers, path length, partial gas concentrations, and different US Standard Atmospheres. The high-resolution spectra of individual gases, composite spectra, and instrumentation smoothed spectra can be calculated and displayed in real time. The program has become a widely used user-friendly PC design tool for quick analysis of the predicted transmission of light and laser beams through the atmosphere, and compares well with more extensive government-developed software programs including FASCODE and MODTRAN. In addition, a free demo version has been developed that is often used by other universities in optical spectroscopy graduate classes to show details of atmospheric spectroscopy.

Key words: Laser remote sensing; Laser atmospheric propagation; Atmospheric transmission; Software for laser transmission

Accepted July 6, 2012.
Address correspondence to Dennis K. Killinger, Department of Physics, ISA 2019, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: (813) 974-3995; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 329–340, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169090
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

MARVEL In Vivo Wireless Video System

A. Alqassis,* T. Ketterl,* C. Castro,*1 R. Gitlin,* S. Ross,† Y. Sun,‡ and A. Rosemurgy§

*Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
‡Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
§Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA

This article describes the design, optimization, and prototype testing of a Miniature Anchored Robotic Videoscope for networked Expedited Laparoscopy (MARVEL), which is a camera module (CM) that features wireless communications and control and is designed to decrease the surgical-tool bottleneck experienced by surgeons in state-of-the art Laparoscopic Endoscopic Single-Site (LESS) minimally invasive abdominal surgery. Software simulation is utilized to characterize the internal human body (in vivo) wireless channel to optimize the antenna, transceiver architecture, and communication protocols between multiple CMs. A CM research platform has been realized that includes: a near-zero latency video wireless communications link; a pan/tilt camera platform, actuated by two motors, which provides surgeons a full hemisphere field of view inside the abdominal cavity; a small wireless camera; an illumination control system; wireless controlled focus; digital zoom; and a wireless human–machine interface (HMI) to control the CM. An in vivo experiment on a porcine subject has been carried out to test the performance of the system and features, with the exception of recently added autofocus and digital zoom. MARVEL is a research platform for a broad range of experiments for faculty and students in the Colleges of Engineering and Medicine at USF and at Tampa General Hospital.

Key words: Minimally invasive surgery; In vivo wireless networking; In vivo channel modeling

Accepted June 5, 2012.
1Current address: RFMD, Inc., Greensboro, NC, USA.
Address correspondence to R. Gitlin, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Ave., ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: (813) 974 1321; Fax: (813) 974 5250; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 341–349, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169135
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Design of an Electromechanical Hands-Free Control User Interface

Kathryn J. De Laurentis* and Matthew Wills†

*Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

This article introduces the design of a novel patent pending user interface that provides multidirectional hands-free control for a diversity of mechanisms and a variety of activities. This versatile compact, modular electromechanical control system user interface can stand alone or be added to a device. Example applications for this control system are mobility devices, video games, exercise games (exergaming), skateboards, robotic devices, surveillance or movie camera controllers, or construction equipment. This system has multiple plates with sensors fixed to the device that moves, tilts, or deflects via the individual’s movements, body lean, or gestures to provide the desired hands-free control. The upper body movement or leaning to operate this hands-free user interface can be compared to the action needed to manipulate a joystick. This solves the problem of continuous attention to the operation of a machine such as a wheelchair via one or both hands. To assess the operation of this controller it has been added to a power wheelchair to replace the joystick. The design and preliminary test results as a comparison of this controller to a previously developed hands-free dance wheelchair are presented.

Key words: Assistive technology; User interface; Human–machine interaction; Device control; Hands free

Accepted July 30, 2012.
Address correspondence to Kathryn J. De Laurentis, Ph.D., 2701 Greenmoor Pl., Tampa, FL 33618, USA. Tel: 813-528-1642; Fax: 813-412-6804; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 351–363, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169171
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Impact of Collaboration Network Position on Innovative Performance

Fethullah Caliskan,* Kingsley A. Reeves, Jr.,* Ozan Ozcan,* and David Zeller†

*Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Department of Sociology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

This research investigates the impact of position in a collaboration network on the innovative performance of organizations (as measured by the number of patents issued). As inventions require recombination/reconfiguration of technological knowledge, an inventive organization seeks to maximize its opportunities using collaborations as conduits for inflow of technological knowledge. We surveyed 28 high-tech companies and universities located in Florida to reveal their collaboration networking map. Collaboration ties are identified by a reported alliance, supplier and customer relationship, common ownership, and social connection among organizations. Using UCINET, a Social Network Analysis tool, we obtained the network structural measures in order to test the hypotheses that high values in centrality metrics indicate higher innovative performance. The regression analyses imply that Eigenvalue Centrality has the most predictive power of the indicators of high innovative performance. Therefore, it suggests that an organization does not necessarily have to be central in its surrounding network but has to be in collaboration with central actors to benefit from the positive impact of its network position. The results also indicate that, as opposed to the other collaboration ties, customer and alliance connections have a stronger impact on the efforts of new product and service development.

Key words: Collaboration; Network analysis; Innovative performance

Accepted July 5, 2012.
Address correspondence to Kingsley A. Reeves, Jr., 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB118, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33547, USA. Tel: (813) 974 3352; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 365–380, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169216
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Journey of a Potential Alzheimer Therapy From the Laboratory Bench Through the Patent Office and Into the Clinic

Tim D. Boyd*† and Huntington Potter*†‡

*Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Denver, CO, USA
†Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Denver, CO, USA
‡USF Chapter of the National Academy of Inventors, Tampa, FL, USA

People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not tend to develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While it has been commonly assumed that RA patients’ usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) helps prevent AD onset, NSAID clinical trials have proven unsuccessful in AD patients. To determine whether intrinsic factors within RA pathogenesis itself underlie RA’s protective effect, we investigated hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors, upregulated in RA, on the pathology and behavior of transgenic AD mice. We found that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) rapidly reversed cognitive impairment and reduced cerebral amyloidosis in AD mice. Because these findings were novel, we filed a patent application for a method to treat cognitive impairment. We also developed and submitted for patent on a novel device, which we used to reduce reagent amounts during our histopathology of the AD mice. A retrospective analysis of bone marrow transplant patients at Moffitt, who also garner cognitive deficits from the high-dose chemotherapy, showed GM-CSF to be associated with improvements in cognition, and resulted in filing a Continuation-in-Part patent application. Because recombinant human GM-CSF has been FDA approved and used safely for over 20 years to treat leukopenia, we initiated a clinical trial in AD patients. Future research is aiming to investigate GM-CSF in other neurodegenerative diseases.

Key words: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Alzheimer’s disease (AD); Patent; Clinical trial

Accepted June 6, 2012.
Address correspondence to Tim D. Boyd, Ph.D., M.S.B., Department of Neurology and Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado, Denver Mailstop 8608, 12700 E. 19th Ave., Aurora, CO 80218, USA. Tel: (303) 724-7367; Fax: (303) 724-5741; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 381–385, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169252
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Transvaginal Specimen Extraction Device: A Novel Approach to Minimally Invasive Surgery in Women

Mark A. Zakaria,*† Phil Hipol,† Mario A. Simoes,† and Stuart R. Hart*†

*Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Center for Advanced Medical Learning and Simulation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Laparoscopic surgery uses small (5–12-mm diameter) incisions in the abdominal wall, through which ports are placed and instruments dissect tissue and remove specimens that may be several centimeters in diameter. Usually, the extraction of these specimens requires either enlarging these incisions or cutting the tissue, called morcellation, to allow removal through these ports. The vagina provides a safe, convenient, and underutilized access to the abdominal cavity for women undergoing minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. Unlike traditional laparoscopic instruments based on the transabdominal approach, very few advances in vaginal access have been made. We report a novel device used to extract specimens, transvaginally, during laparoscopic surgery, using a pilot design of a novel medical device. The Transvaginal Specimen Extraction Device uses a novel sheath and introducer mechanism to access a woman’s abdominal cavity and extract large (multiple-centimeter) specimens through the vagina. This device avoids the requirement of morcellating tissue or enlarging abdominal incisions, thereby permitting removal of intact specimens and faster recovery following surgery. The Transvaginal Specimen Extraction Device allows the removal of tissues or organs from a woman’s abdominal cavity using a novel approach.

Key words: Colpotomy; Transvaginal; Laparoscopy; Natural orifice; Surgery

Accepted July 2, 2012.
Address correspondence to Mark A. Zakaria, M.D., Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida, 2 Tampa General Circle, STC, 6th Floor, Tampa, FL 33606, USA. Tel: 813-259-8532; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 14, pp. 387–401, 2012
1929-8241/12 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982412X13500042169298
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Key Challenges in Establishing an Entrepreneurial Culture in an Academic Environment: A Case Study

Christos Christodoulatos,* Thomas Lechler,† Sandra Furnbach,* and Vikki Hazelwood‡

*Office of Academic Entrepreneurship, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA
†Wesley J. Howe School of Technology Management, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA
‡Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA

There is a general perception that academic entrepreneurship (AE) refers mainly to the creation of commercializable output from a university’s intellectual property by creating new ventures, also called spin-offs. We question this perspective as too limited, and propose that the university as a whole serves as a catalyst to the output; therefore, a holistic culture has to be created to involve and motivate all stakeholders, particularly students, to create innovations. Thus, academic entrepreneurship is conceived to span across research and education. We discuss how we have implemented basic principles of AE at a small university with limited resources and modest research expenditures. Our lesson learned is that it is not possible to implement AE successfully if it operates outside of the academic structure. Furthermore, institutionalization of AE through proper policies and processes built into the university’s governance structure is the fastest and most efficient way to effect cultural change and gain acceptance of AE by all stakeholders.

Key words: Academic; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Culture; Metrics; Assessment

Accepted July 31, 2012.
Address correspondence to Christos Christodoulatos, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1 Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA. Tel: 201-216-8186; Fax: 201-216-8185; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it