Tourism Analysis 17(6) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 691–704
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127104
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Rural Tourism Production and the Experience-Scape

Jean-Christophe Dissart* and David W. Marcouiller†

*UR DTM, Irstea, Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France
†Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA

Careful investigations of the supply-side components of tourism are critical to the creation of informed public policy that addresses amenity production, regional change, and integrative tourism planning. In this article we develop a conceptual basis of the rural tourism experience from a supply perspective that includes latent inputs, joint productivity, and the experience-scape within a capability framework. These tourism building blocks allow for alternative compatibility and sustainability outcomes resulting from rural tourism development. The analysis suggests implications for planning and policy analysis that span economic, social, and environmental issues central to rural regions and their communities.

Key words: Amenities; Capability approach; Experience; Rural development; Tourism planning

Address correspondence to Jean-Christophe Dissart, Irstea Grenoble, UR DTM, Domaine universitaire, 2 rue de la Papeterie, BP 76, 38402 Saint-Martin-d’Hères Cedex, France. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 705–719
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127140
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Model of ICDT Internet Flows on Mobile Devices for the Travel and Tourism Consumer

Stephen Burgess,* Carmine Sellitto,* and Stan Karanasios†

*School of Management and Information Systems, Victoria University, Australia
†AIMTech Research Group, Leeds University Business School, UK

Despite the increasing use of mobile devices and their applications in the travel and tourism arena, there is a lack of literature that considers how mobile device tourism applications could be evaluated. Built around a discussion of information attributes (a series of dimensions by which the delivery of information can be assessed) that have been specifically developed for the tourism sector and an examination of the specific characteristics of mobile devices, this theoretical article classifies different online tourism applications that can be accessed by mobile devices according to Angehrn’s four virtual “spaces” (information, communication, distribution, and transaction). This is for the purpose of demonstrating that the majority of applications in the mobile tourism arena eventually fall within the realm of information provision and can thus be assessed according to how they perform in relation to information attributes. A model of ICDT Internet flows on mobile devices for the travel and tourism consumer is presented.

Key words: Mobile devices; Information attributes; Travel; Tourism; Model

Address correspondence to Dr. Stephen Burgess, College of Business, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 8001. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 721–732
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127186
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Efficiency of the Malaysian Hotel Industry: A Distance Function Approach

Ali Salman Saleh,* A. George Assaf,† and Hong Son Nghiem‡

*Strategy International Business & Entrepreneurship (SIBE) Group, Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia
†Hospitality and Tourism Management, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
‡Centre of National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation Medicine (CONROD), University of Queensland, Herston QLD, Australia

This article introduces the distance function approach with both the DEA bootstrap and SF methods to examine the efficiency of the hotel industry in Malaysia. The DEA results reveal that, on average, the Malaysian hotels under investigation are 66% efficient compared with the best practices in the industry. It is also shown that large hotels are relatively more efficient than small hotels. After taking into account the differences in size and operational practices (proxies by the availability of a food and beverage operation), the average efficiency of Malaysian hotels rose to 83%. It seems also that the inclusion of a food and beverage operation is a source of inefficiency, especially for small hotels.

Key words: Hotels; Malaysia; Data envelopment analysis (DEA); Stochastic frontier (SF); Distance function; Efficiency

Address correspondence to Ali Salman Saleh, Strategy International Business & Entrepreneurship (SIBE) Group, Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Tel: +613 9214 8791; Fax: +613 9819 2117; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 733–745
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127186
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Domestic Nature-Based Tourism: A Case Study of Norway

Nina K Prebensen* and Aaron Tkaczynski†

*Tromsø University Business School, Tromsø, Norway
†School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland Brisbane Qld, Australia

Domestic tourism represents an attractive market for most countries, in particular for high-cost countries such as Norway. Based on this market’s notable size and financial potential, tourism marketers are aiming to attract residents to experience their country’s tourism offerings. By identifying the characteristics of domestic tourists such as their preference for nature-based activities, tourism marketers can segment these tourists and target them accordingly. The present study puts forward preferences as a theoretical construct in order to outline preferred nature-based activities in addition to demographic, geographic, and behavioral characteristics as the basis to study variety within domestic nature-based tourism. A total of 1,201 Norwegian residents who exhibit an interest in nature-based vacations in Norway participated in an online questionnaire and were segmented using two-step cluster analysis. The results revealed four valid domestic nature-based activity clusters that differ based on several profiling characteristics. Based on the research findings, several theoretical contributions and recommendations for tourism marketers are provided. Future research opportunities and the limitations of the research are also outlined.

Key words: Activities; Market segmentation; Nature-based tourism; Preferences; Two-step cluster analysis

Address correspondence to Aaron Tkaczynski, Lecturer, School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Qld 4072, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 7093; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 747–759
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127267
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Preferences for Heritage Tourism Development Using a Choice Modeling Approach

Jason Draper,* Chi-Ok Oh,† and Rich Harrill‡

*Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
†Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation, and Resource Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
‡Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel & Tourism Industry Center, College of Hospitality, Retail, & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Development and management of heritage tourism attractions pose several challenges, such as lack of financial resources and political support. Heritage sites and attractions often include numerous attributes (e.g., education, guided tours, shopping for local products) that can be provided at various levels of involvement and interest. However, the financial constraints of heritage tourism sites inhibit the ability to improve programs and services. The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the preferences of consumers and ambassadors (i.e., local tourism and community leaders) for improving management programs and services of the South Carolina National Heritage Corridor using a choice modeling method. Both groups were generally in favor of developing more opportunities for local shopping, education/interpretation, and enhancing the cultural experience when visiting the South Carolina National Heritage Corridor. However, ambassadors were more in favor of developing education/interpretation and the cultural experience compared to consumers. As agencies develop programs and services designed to increase visitation, preference information from different constituent groups are valuable to effectively decide what programs and services to develop.

Key words: Tourism development; Heritage tourism; Cultural tourism; Choice modeling

Address correspondence to Jason Draper, Assistant Professor, Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Houston, 229 C. N. Hilton Hotel & College, Houston, TX 77204-3028, USA. Tel: 1-713-743-2416; Fax: 713-743-3696; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 761–774
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127302
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cultural Differences in Tourism Web Communication: A Preliminary Study

Sangwon Park* and Yvette Reisinger†

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK
†James Cook University, Singapore

This article analyzes cultural differences in web communication in the tourism context. The conceptual framework presenting cultural differences in the three types of web communication is developed. The specific hypotheses are tested on the US American and Chinese sample. Although the findings support the developed framework they also reveal nonsignificant differences between the groups. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are identified and recommendations for future studies are made.

Key words: Information technology; Internet; Web communication; Cultural differences; Hofstede; Hall communication patterns; Tourism

Address correspondence to Sangwon Park, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Surrey, 53MS02, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK. Tel: +44- 1483-68-9660; Fax: +44-1483-68-6346; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 775–789
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127348
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Strategies and Challenges of Tourist Facilities Management in the World Heritage Site: Case of the Maritime Greenwich, London

Azizul Hassan*1 and Katia Iankova†

*Tourism Consultants Network of the Tourism Society
†Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, Business School, University of Greenwich, London, UK

The World Heritage Site status is transforming into a highly priced honor in terms of destination branding and attracting diversified types of tourists. This study is based on the opinions of these tourists at Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site (MGWHS). The first objective is to identify these tourists’ satisfaction with existing facilities and their management. The second objective is to find out any lack of facilities and to suggest ways of overcoming this. Following the qualitative research method, this explanatory case study depends on primary data collection through semistructured interviews. The results exhibit a gap between perception and expectation of the tourists. The results also demonstrate the need for recuperating the building and management of tourist facilities without disturbing the architectural and natural aesthetics. Areas identified for attention include the sanitation, resting places, catering, facilities for the disabled or parents with infants, and the multilingual directional signage.

Key words: Tourists’ opinions; Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site; Facilities management; Satisfaction; Conservation

1Independent tourism consultant and member of the Tourism Consultants Network of the Tourism Society.
Address correspondence to Dr. Katia Iankova, Senior Lecturer, Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, Business School, University of Greenwich, London, SE10 9LS, UK. Tel: 0044 02083318663; Fax: 0044 02083319005; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 791–803
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127384
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Machismo–Marianismo and the Involvement of Women in a Community-Based Tourism Project in Ecuador, South America

Lauren N. Duffy,* Rasul A. Mowatt,* H. Charles Chancellor,* and David A. Cárdenas†

*Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
†SmartState Center of Economic Excellence in Tourism and Economic Development, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of machismo–marianismo gender ideology on a tourism planning dialogue within a community-based tourism planning project. Using community-based research methodology, three focus groups were conducted in a rural Ecuadorian community. Findings indicate that gender ideology influences the planning discourse in various ways, which affect if and how women are involved in the tourism industry. This study provides evidence for why tourism planning frameworks need to be critical of existing power structures such as gender ideology. Recommendations include the application of gender-aware development frameworks and gender impact assessments throughout the planning process.

Key words: Gender ideology; Machismo–marianismo; Community-based tourism planning (CBTP); Ecuador

Address correspondence to Lauren Duffy, Ph.D. Candidate and Visiting Lecturer, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Studies, Indiana University, 1025 E. 7th Street, SPH 133, Bloomington, IN 47408, USA. Tel: 812-855-8504; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 805–812
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127429
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Understanding Constraints and Their Impact on School Excursion Tourism

Naomi F. Dale,* Brent W. Ritchie,† and Byron W. Keating*

*Faculty of Business, Government & Law, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia
†School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia

School excursion tourism is a relatively underresearched and poorly understood segment of the tourism industry despite its strong economic potential. This article draws on the leisure constraints theory to examine barriers to overnight school excursions in Australia. A self-completed online survey by 1,314 school excursion decision makers measured the importance of these constraints to overnight school excursions, together with information on the schools’ characteristics. The results reveal a four-factor structure instead of a three-factor structure, with structural constraints divided into destination and school-based structural factors. Intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints were also found to be important in undertaking overnight school excursions. Our analysis also revealed that constraints differ based on school characteristics, reconfirming that the school market is not a homogenous one. The article concludes with recommendations for destination and attraction managers interested in increasing school excursion visitations.

Key words: Constraints; School excursions; Barriers; Educational tourism

Address correspondence to Byron Keating, Faculty of Business Government and Law, University of Canberra, Bruce ACT 2601, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6201 5441; Fax: +61 2 6201 2130; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 17, pp. 813–817
1083-5423/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354212X13531051127465
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Tourism, Conventional Wisdom, and the News Media

Rich Harrill* and Ryan R. Peterson†

*International Tourism Research Institute, College of Hospitality, Retail, & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†Faculty of Hospitality & Tourism Management Studies, University of Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba

For the millions of people that travel worldwide, the news media supplies pictures and stories that stimulate interest in attractions and destinations. However, some coverage of tourism topics can mean new preferences and motivations, creation of new images, consolidation of brands, and reinforcement of conventional wisdom—ideas, concepts, or explanations, largely unexamined, held as true by the public or experts. The purpose of this research note is to identify some examples of prevalent thinking about tourism processes or outcomes that are more complex than they appear. The note will then discuss what destination marketing and management organizations (DMOs) can do about erroneous conventional wisdom, as well as some research methods for understanding how these ideas and concepts are promoted to and understood by the public.

Key words: Destination marketing; Destination branding; Tourist behavior; News media; Netography

Address correspondence to Rich Harrill, Ph.D., Director, International Tourism Research Institute, College of Hospitality, Retail, & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: (803) 777-7682; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it