Tourism Culture & Communication 12(1) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 12, pp. 5–18
1098-304X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830412X13542041184658
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism, Culture, and the Creative Industries: Reviving Distressed Neighborhoods With Arts-Based Community Tourism

Jessica Aquino, Rhonda Phillips, and HeeKyung Sung

School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Ample attention is paid to the role of arts and culture in community and economic development. However, much less attention is given to its role at the neighborhood area, as well as relationships to local or community tourism. Our goal in this article is to explore how arts and the creative industries influence community-based tourism in neighborhoods needing revitalization. Using an embedded case study analysis approach, two areas were explored: one in the Roosevelt Arts District in Phoenix, Arizona and the other in the South End Arts + Business District in Burlington, Vermont. We find that arts and creative industries do indeed play a role in fostering neighborhood revitalization. Much of the activity centers on fostering capacity building and social interactions, leading to community development outcomes. In both cases, revitalization is occurring. Lessons learned are presented, illustrating the importance of arts and culture in a framework of community-based tourism and revitalization.

Key words: Arts and culture; Community-based tourism; Neighborhood-level development and revitalization; Capacity; Social interactions

Address correspondence to Rhonda Phillips, Professor, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Tel: 602-496-0160; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 12, pp. 19–28
1098-304X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830412X13542041184694
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Póvoa Dão Village: An Instance of “Heritagization” for Tourist Attraction and Local Development

Orlando Simões and Vivina Almeida Carreira

CERNAS–Center for the Study of Natural Resources, Environment and Society, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

The valorization of cultural heritage very often means the search for new uses and rationales for material items that have lost their usefulness or intangible cultural expressions in risk of disappearing. These new uses may ensue from heritage processes through which material or intangible assets acquire values of cultural identity. This requires a process of legitimization, either through academic study, public recognition, or valorization by the market, among others. Based in regional and national periodicals information and semistructured interviews with key informants, this article examines a case in which such a process was legitimized through the market, by means of which a medieval abandoned village, Póvoa Dão, in the district of Viseu (central Portugal), was restored and given a new use in the tourism industry. The village was completely rebuilt in accordance with an architectural plan that respected the original design. The process began by creating market value for a set of buildings as well as for a number of goods and activities that derive directly from its location in a rural area, such as gastronomy and agricultural activities carried out according to traditional methods. The article concludes that the market can play an important role in the valorization of heritage and contribute to create identity and cultural value after rehabilitation. New forms of sociability are identified in the “new” village in contrast to the old rural sociability. Last, but not the least, this study looks into some of the ways in which villages rehabilitation can contribute to local development.

Key words: Cultural heritage; Heritage processes; Rural tourism; Local development; Heritagization

Address correspondence to Vivina Almeida Carreira, CERNAS–Center for the Study of Natural Resources, Environment and Society, School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 12, pp. 29–38
1098-304X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830412X13542041184739
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Greening of the Pride Toronto Festival: Lessons Learned

Rachel Dodds and Sonya Graci

Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Pride Toronto is one of Canada’s biggest festivals, drawing in over 1 million people. This festival attempted to become the greenest festival in Canada by achieving zero waste and carbon neutrality by 2015. Despite specific goals, funding, and expertise along with a carbon, waste, and benchmark audit, the festival failed to continue greening its operations. This article, using a case study approach, outlines findings that include a misalignment of sustainability values as part of their corporate culture. In addition, other politics and power struggles within the organization overrode sustainability efforts. Recommendations include having an inside leader to spearhead sustainability efforts and that greening must become a core initiative rather than a side project of a festival to ensure success. Conclusions suggest that despite the support from government and a not-for-profit organization, the efforts made were still unsuccessful. Lessons learned from this case study can be applied on a worldwide basis as a lack of awareness about sustainability, stakeholders with conflicting interests, bureaucracy, and politics can all hinder a greening program.

Key words: Greening; Mega-festivals; Barriers; Canada

Address correspondence to Dr. Sonya Graci, Associate Professor, Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Tel: 416-979-5000, ext. 6696; Fax: 416-979-5281; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 12, pp. 39–50
1098-304X/12 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830412X13542041184775
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2012 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mementos of Place: Souvenir Purchases at the Bridgetown Cruise Terminal in Barbados

Jenny Cave,* Lee Jolliffe,† and Delysia De Coteau‡

*Tourism & Hospitality Management, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
†Applied Management in Hospitality and Tourism, University of New Brunswick, Saint John Campus, Canada
‡University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Saint Michael, Barbados

As cultural artifacts, souvenirs can serve as mementos of place for the purchasers. Shopping for a souvenir is a cruise tourism activity, both on board and during port calls. Tourists like to take home a reminder of their trip and portray different shopping behaviors when they are away from home. In addition to shopping for a memento of the trip tourists also purchase gifts for family and friends, influenced by the nature and availability of goods and how they are presented. This article contributes a new perspective on tourist shopping by examining purchase intentions, the role of retail atmospherics in the purchase decision, and purchases made by cruise visitors at the shopping precinct in the Bridgetown Cruise Terminal in Barbados. A survey of 178 cruise visitors found that gender influences the souvenir purchase decision and that cruise tourists buy souvenirs based both on the nature of the item in terms of authenticity, size, weight, and quality and as a memento of place. Further, it was found that high-quality window displays and location are key factors in the decision to enter retail premises. The souvenir memento may be purchased by a visitor for himself or herself or a family or friend, fulfilling a personal need to mark the visit and remember the destination. This article offers recommendations to the industry about design and layout, also adding new information on the importance of gender in purchase decisions.

Key words: Cruise; Souvenirs; Atmospherics; Gender; Caribbean

Address correspondence to Jenny Cave, Senior Lecturer Tourism & Hospitality Management, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Tel: (647) 8384466, ext. 6233; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it