Tourism Review International 16(3-4) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 153-167
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840442
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Spring Break Travel: Thirty Years of Scholarly Evidence, 1980–2010

Nuno F. Ribeiro and Benjamin D. Hickerson

*Indigenous Peoples’ Health Research Centre, Centre for Kinesiology Health and Sport, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada
†Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Spring break is a week-long North American collegiate travel vacation period that draws hundreds of thousands of young tourists to a few select tourism destinations, and has become a topic of growing social and economic importance. In spite of a rising interest by tourism scholars, most of the spring break literature remains dispersed through a wide variety of outlets and disciplines. Moreover, critical appraisals of the current spring break literature in light of the wider phenomenon of youth tourism are absent. The present study presents an integrative and comprehensive assessment of extant spring break literature for the 30-year period of 1980–2010. Our findings identified literature focusing primarily on college students’ motivations and behavior while on spring break, with an emphasis on risky health behaviors such as alcohol consumption and unprotected sex. The majority of the studies surveyed relied heavily on quantitative approaches of data collection and analysis. This review found numerous discrepancies in regard to spring breakers’ previous intentions, motivations, behavior, involvement in the spring break experience, and factors affecting spring break behavior. This review highlighted the complexity of the spring break phenomenon, as well as the necessity of moving beyond the “Spring Bacchanal” paradigm. Directions for future research based upon contradictions and/or gaps identified in the literature are discussed.

Key words: Spring break travel; Youth tourism; College student travel behavior; Literature review

Address correspondence to Nuno F. Ribeiro, Ph.D., Indigenous Peoples’ Health Research Centre, Centre for Kinesiology Health and Sport, Room 115, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Pkwy, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada. Tel: (306) 585-3187; Fax: (306) 585-4854; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 169-181
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840488
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Comparing Customer Ratings From Multiple Reputation Systems: The Case of New York City Hotels

Douglas Sanford* and James Otto†

*Department of Management, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA
†Department of e-business and Technology Management, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA

This exploratory study analyzes the customer ratings of hotels across multiple reputation systems: Expedia, Orbitz, and Travelocity. We investigate the extent to which the websites’ customer ratings for overall satisfaction are equivalent. Our analysis of a random sample of 99 hotels in New York City and 5,575 individual customer ratings suggests that the ratings are not equivalent across websites, and that each website’s customer ratings offers unique information on the ability of hotels to satisfy customers. We discuss how this finding affects strategies for users to combine the ratings and implications for consumers, hotel managers, and website administrators.

Key words: Online customer ratings; Reputation systems; Customer satisfaction; Online product reviews; Electronic word of mouth

Address correspondence to James Otto, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of e-business and Technology Management, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252-0001, USA. Tel: 410-704-2088; Fax: 410-704-3454; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 183-202
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840523
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Human Rights and Human Travel? Modeling Global Travel Patterns Under an Ethical Tourism Regime

Brent Lovelock

Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

In response to calls for a more ethical approach to tourism, this article investigates how travel patterns would appear in the world if travel sanctions were applied to destinations that have well-documented serious human rights abuses. A discussion of travel boycotts and travel sanctions builds the case for considering the potential of travel sanctions as a tool to address human rights issues. Two scenarios of ethical travel are developed, based upon UNWTO international arrival data, together with human rights indices (using the World Freedom Survey) for over 200 destinations. Both scenarios see substantial numbers of visitors being ‘redirected’ from destinations with human rights abuses to those destinations classified as “Free.” The article discusses the significance of this in terms of the moralization and politicization of outbound tourism.

Key words: Human rights; Ethical travel; Ethical tourism; Politics; Travel sanctions; Travel boycotts; Scenario modeling

Address correspondence to Brent Lovelock, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64-3-4798069; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 203-216
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840569
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Characteristics and Travel Behaviors of Senior Leisure Travelers: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between China and the US

Sandy C. Chen

College of Business, Oregon State University–Cascades, Bend, OR, USA

The study compared senior leisure travelers residing in two distinct cultures, Chinese and American, with respect to travel psychology and behavior. Using two datasets collected through survey questionnaires in China and the US by different methods, the author conducted t-tests of independent samples on the variables of travel motivations, attitudes, destination selection, activities, and perceived barriers. The empirical results indicated that senior leisure travelers in China differed significantly from those in the US, although both groups did share some characteristics in common. These findings have implications for tourism marketers in both China and the US. Also, this study appears to be the first to compare empirically Chinese senior travelers with their counterparts in the US, thereby highlighting the need for more cross-cultural research in senior tourism.

Key words: Chinese senior traveler; American senior traveler; Cross-cultural research; Travel behavior; Senior tourism

Address correspondence to Sandy C. Chen, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Hospitality Management Option, College of Business, Oregon State University–Cascades, Cascades Hall #227, 2600 College Way, Bend, OR 97701, USA. Tel: 541-410-0641; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 217-226
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840604
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Casino Travel Motivations of Chinese Tourists: Differences in Visitation Attributes

IpKin Anthony Wong

Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Há, Macau, China

Tourism scholars have identified a need to understand why Chinese like to visit casinos and to segment tourists’ travel motivation by their visitation characteristics. The principal purpose of this article is to explore Chinese tourists’ travel motivations to casinos and to seek differences in visit frequency and length. Based on a sample of mainland Chinese tourists in Macau, the world gambling capital, the results indicate significant differences between first-time and repeat tourists in respect to casino and gambling experience seeking, socialization, and accessibility. The results also suggest that Chinese tourists’ length of stay is primarily contingent on their desire to escape from pressure and mundane life. In light of these findings, managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.

Key words: Travel motivation; Casino; Tourism; Length of stay; Repeat visit; Chinese

Address correspondence to IpKin Anthony Wong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Há, Macau, China . Tel: (853) 8598-3360; Fax: (853) 8506-1283; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 227-237
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840640
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Towards New Tourism Policies: The Role of Fiscal Policy in Increasing Competitiveness

Valentina Feliziani and Salvatore Monni

Department of Economics, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy

The aim of this article is to analyze the role of fiscal policies in the tourist sector. In this regard, an analysis of competitiveness in the Italian tourist sector has been carried out to prove that governance is one of the major causes of weakness. A study, at regional level, has shown that territorial imbalance on supply, demand, and public spending weakens the overall system. Medium/long-term policies are needed to bring about a recovery. This article discusses the specific role that fiscal policy plays and the tools that could be used to improve competitiveness.

Key words: Tourism; Fiscal policy; Italy

Address correspondence to Valentina Feliziani, Faculty of Economics, Department of Economics, Roma Tre University, Via Silvio D’Amico 77, 00145 Rome, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 16, pp. 239-246
1544-2721/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427213X13600072840686
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Tourists’ Indulgence Towards Unplanned Expenditure: A Study in an Emerging Destination

Uttam K. Baruah* and Mrinmoy K. Sarma†

*Darrang College, Tezpur, Assam, India
†Department of Business Administration, Tezpur University, Assam, India

This research note aims at gauging the importance of expenditures incurred by tourists other than the planned and common ones while visiting a destination. As it is, such expenditures might be more meaningful for the economic benefit of the locals. This exploratory empirical study tries to measure the nature of tourists’ expenditure, especially of the unplanned ones, in Northeast India, an emerging tourist destination. Certain relationships could be established between the classification variables like age, origin, and budget with the extent of other expenditures of the tourists.

Key words: Economic benefits; Travel expenditure; Components of tourists’ expenditure; Other or unplanned expenditure

Address correspondence to Mrinmoy K. Sarma, Professor, Department of Business Administration, Tezpur University, Assam, India 784028. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it