Technology & Innovation 15(1) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 5–15, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060411
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Microbiome: A Mediator of Human Wellness

William A. Peck

Center for Health Policy, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA

The human microbiome refers to the millions of genes contained in the genomes of tens of trillions of microbes inhabiting the exposed surfaces of our bodies. Our microbial communities are dominated by bacteria; other microbes are also represented. Understanding of the microbiome has expanded dramatically through the application of advanced technologies—particularly culture-independent DNA sequencing and computational analytics. Mounting evidence indicates its important roles in human health and disease. We review a small but significant fraction of available knowledge, focusing initially on the de novo perinatal acquisition of bacterial communities, their maturation over time, and their variation among habitats and between individuals. We emphasize the intestinal (gut) habitat—wherein bacteria are major determinants of the organ’s postnatal maturation and physiological functions, including its immune system. Early exposure to certain microbes may decrease subsequent human susceptibility to allergic and autoimmune conditions. Gut bacteria facilitate the processing of key dietary constituents and, among other effects, impact drug metabolism. Differences in gut bacterial communities appear to contribute to obesity and may also promote gastroesophageal reflux and other intestinal disorders. Additional research on microbiome manipulations may well yield novel preventive strategies and treatments.

Key words: Gut microbiome; Microbiota; Gnotobiotic animal models

Accepted November 5, 2012.
Address correspondence to William A. Peck, M.D., Director, Center for Health Policy, Washington University in St. Louis, Former Dean, Washington University School of Medicine, Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1162, Charles Knight Education Center, Room 166, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Tel: 314-935-9108; Fax: 314-935-9199; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 17–29, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060457
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

BRAINnet: A Standardized Global Human Brain Project

Stephen H. Koslow,*†‡ Yuyun Wang,*† Donna M. Palmer,*†§ Evian Gordon,† and Leanne M. Williams*†§¶

*BRAINnet Foundation, San Francisco, CA, USA
†Brain Resource Ltd., Sydney, Australia and San Francisco, CA, USA
‡Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
§Brain Dynamics Center, University of Sydney Medical School and Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research at Westmead, Sydney, Australia
¶Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

The BRAINnet Foundation goal is to understand mental illness as a human brain disease and to ultimately discover how to prevent and cure these illnesses; this is accomplished through open electronic sharing and continued expansion of a global database of human brain data in health and disease across the life span. It is a 501(c) 3 US-Based Tax Exempt Research Foundation, with these unique features: (i) standardized protocols and assessment platforms so that data can be pooled across disorders, sites, and studies and (ii) multiple types of data spanning clinical, behavioral, physiological, imaging, and genomic domains in the same subjects. These domains align with those of NIMH’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), (iii) open sharing of data without needing to contribute new data, and (iv) network of collaborating researchers, for seeking grant support to carry out studies, drawing on existing data and standardized methods. The BRAINnet methods span self-report scales, computerized behavioral measures of cognition and emotion, physiology (EEG, ERP, and concurrent autonomic recordings), magnetic resonance imaging (structural, functional, and diffusion tensor imaging), and salivary or blood draws for genotyping. Currently, data are available for 5,092 healthy subjects and others from specific disorders. Recent outcomes from the published studies using BRAINnet data demonstrate how the standardized approach is a quality and efficient way to take a lead in initiatives being forged in psychiatry and neuroscience, such as NIMH’s RDoC, to identify biomarkers that will make a difference in understanding the cause of mental illness, tailoring current treatments, and developing novel ones.

Key words: Standardization; Databases; Genomics; Imaging; Brain disorders; International human brain project

Accepted August 20, 2012.
Address correspondence to Stephen H. Koslow, BRAINnet, 71 Stevenson Street, Suite 400, San Francisco, CA 94105-0908, USA. Tel: 301-237-6690; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 31–41, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060493
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

A Dynamic Method for Quantifying Healthcare Status and Burden of Disease Through Health Outcomes Indices

Efthimios Parasidis,*† Gerasimos Petratos,†‡ Emily Dastrup,§ Aaron Kamauu,§ Caleb DesRosiers,†¶ and Javaid Zafar†

*Center for Health Law Studies, St. Louis University School of Law, St. Louis, MO, USA
†Global Health Outcomes, Inc., New York, NY, USA
‡Northwestern University School for Continuing Studies, Masters in Medical Informatics Program, Evanston, IL, USA
§Anolinx LLC, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
¶Former Special Assistant, US Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, MD, USA

The preferred method of measuring and reporting patient outcomes at the population level should reflect the core activity of the healthcare system—treating patients by disease and assessing the impact of treatments on health outcomes and healthcare costs. Despite the need, presently, there is no widely accepted metric that timely and accurately measures the burden of disease or tracks health status or health system performance through use of real-world patient data. We aim to fill this gap through the creation of health outcomes indices (HOIs). We explain the theoretical foundation for the HOI model and discuss practical applications of the model through a paradigm based on clinical data. By accurately tracking patient outcomes over time, HOIs provide healthcare stakeholders with a valuable tool with which to measure, assess, and predict health outcomes.

Key words: Health outcomes; Comparative effectiveness; Healthcare index; Health risk management

Accepted August 28, 2012.
Address correspondence to Efthimios Parasidis, Center for Health Law Studies, St. Louis University School of Law, 3700 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108, USA. Tel: 314-977-4269; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 43–51, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060538
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Transforming Physician Prescribing: The Reduction of Pharmacy and Hospital Costs in a Population of State Medicaid Patients Through an Automated Educational Intervention

John P. Docherty,* Jeffrey Veach,† Harold Carmel,‡ George L. Oestreich,§ Jack M. Gorman,¶ and Joseph J. Parks#

*Care Management Technologies, Inc., Weill Cornell Medical College, Morrisville, NC, USA
†Comprehensive Clinical Development, Miramar, FL, USA
‡Care Management Technologies, Inc., Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
§G. L. O. and Associates, Jefferson City, MO, USA
¶Franklin Behavioral Health Consultants, Franklin, MA, USA
#Missouri Department of Mental Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA

A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a program developed by Care Management Technologies (CMT) launched in the State of Missouri in 2003. This program analyzes prescription data to identify deviations from best practice and provides an automated educational intervention to physicians accounting for large numbers of the deviations. The study population consisted of Medicaid patients whose physician received an educational intervention and of the other patients in that physician’s practice whose prescriptions did not trigger an educational intervention. Behavioral pharmacy costs, estimated annual behavioral pharmacy costs avoided, and costs avoided per patient per month were calculated. Data on service utilization were available for the subset of schizophrenic patients. Estimated changes in inpatient and outpatient utilization and costs in the year following the first educational intervention were calculated. Of 173,609 Medicaid patients eligible through the 2002–2005 period, 16,962 were identified whose physicians received an educational intervention about the patient’s prescription(s); 42,960 were identified whose physician received an educational intervention about another patient’s prescription(s). Cost reductions in the year following the intervention were estimated for 6,310 schizophrenic patients. In all groups, cost reductions were observed, providing evidence for the effectiveness of the CMT program in reducing costs.

Key words: Prescribing; Psychotropic; Medicaid; Audit and feedback

Accepted July 30, 2012.
Address correspondence to John P. Docherty, M.D., Care Management Technologies, Inc., 1 Copley Parkway, Suite 500, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA. Tel: 919-674-2520; Fax: 919-674-2538; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 53–62, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060574
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Online Cognitive Brain Training Associated With Measurable Improvements in Cognition and Emotional Well-Being

Evian Gordon,* Donna M. Palmer,*† Helen Liu,* William Rekshan,* and Savannah DeVarney*

*Brain Resource Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA
†Brain Dynamics Center, Westmead Millennium Institute and University of Sydney Medical School at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

The extent to which brain training is beneficial for both cognition and emotional well-being is explored in a naturalistic study design capturing users of the online brain training program MyBrainSolutions over a 2.5-year period. A total of 2,752 users trained to a minimum required level and completed a validated assessment battery of cognitive and emotional states before and after training, which compared their performance to a large database of healthy norms. Both the games and the assessment were designed to tap both cognitive (thinking) and emotional domains, with emotional functioning broken out into nonconscious reactions (emotion), conscious experience (feeling), and conscious regulation (self-regulation). The relationships between game play and improvement in assessment scores were established using linear regression models. Games within the domains of thinking, emotion, feeling, and self-regulation were found to have beneficial effects in improving measured scores on the assessment within these same domains. The most significant benefits were found for games training positivity to improve scores within anxiety, stress, and depression (feeling scores). In addition, training in self-regulation was found to be beneficial in terms of improved memory, attention, and executive function and reduction in anxiety, stress, and depression levels. While follow-up studies are needed to further elucidate these findings, initial results from a snapshot of naturalistic use indicate a beneficial effect of brain training on cognitive skills and emotional well-being. Furthermore, results suggest a synergistic effect of cognitive and emotional training.

Key words: Brain training; Cognition; Cognitive training; Emotional well-being; Stress

Accepted November 5, 2012.
Address correspondence to Dr. Evian Gordon, Brain Resource Inc., 1000 Sansome Street, Suite 200, San Francisco, CA 94111, USA. Tel: 415-499-7990; Fax: 415-852-5198; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 63–66, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060619
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary:
21st Century Innovation for All in a Global Patent System

Adam Burrowbridge* and Alex Camarota†

*Law Clerk, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, Washington, DC, USA
†Office of Innovation Development, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, VA, USA

Nonprejudicial disclosure periods are vital to many small and medium-sized enterprises seeking to patent their technology. Also known as a “grace period,” nonprejudicial disclosures allow inventors to publicly disclose their inventions 1 year prior to filing without compromising the patentability of the invention on grounds of novelty. As the US and European Union move forward in harmonization, the need to build nonprejudicial disclosures into global patent harmonization framework has never been more timely or important.

Key words: Patents; Nonprejudicial disclosure; Grace period; Innovation; United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO); Harmonization

Accepted November 9, 2012.
Address correspondence to Alexander Camarota, Office of Innovation Development, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 67–79, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060655
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Additive Manufacturing as a Disruptive Technology: Implications of Three-Dimensional Printing

Thomas A. Campbell and Olga S. Ivanova

Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Additive manufacturing (AM), or three-dimensional (3D) printing as it is often referenced, offers a new paradigm for engineering design and manufacturing that could have significant economic, geopolitical, environmental, intellectual property, and security implications. Although AM has existed at various levels of sophistication for decades, it has only recently caught the attention of policy and economics experts. In particular, the ability to print metal objects (e.g., titanium alloys) holds special promises. As a technology that offers the potential to print almost any physical 3D object at will, AM is already having effects on our economy. How far AM progresses remains to be seen, but more dialogue around its implications is needed. Here, we describe the state of the art of AM, implications of AM to our society at large, risks due to counterfeiting of 3D printed objects, and research into future AM capabilities and applications.

Key words: Additive manufacturing (AM); Policy; Disruptive technology; Three-dimensional (3D) printing

Accepted November 20, 2012.
Address correspondence to Thomas A. Campbell, Research Associate Professor, Associate Director for Outreach, Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Tech, 325 Stanger Street, MC 0193, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Tel: (540) 231-8359; Fax: (540) 231-0970; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 81–86, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060691
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Kamlet Laboratories and Clinitest: Idea to Product

Dean F. Martin and Brodie A. Reiger

Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

This article examines the process of development of Clinitest pills that could be used in clinics or physicians’ offices for rapid, convenient analysis of glucose and other components of clinical interest. It was invented by Dr. Jonas Kamlet. We were able to follow the process because his papers are accessible (as The Kamlet Laboratories Collection) at the University of South Florida Library. The accessibility of these papers gives an opportunity to see steps in the development of a successful product from conception to patent and commercialization. Kamlet, a consulting chemist, took the invention to Miles Laboratories of Elkhart, Indiana, in the early 1940s. Ultimately, it was replaced by a Miles invention, Clinistix, which had the same purpose. While Dr. Kamlet earned money for his two-person laboratory, contemporary accounts give credit to the Director of Miles Laboratories, Walter Ames Compton, M.D., for the invention of Clinitest. Correspondence between Kamlet Laboratories and Miles Laboratories (1940–1945) was reviewed, with no written evidence of hurt feelings or acrimony discovered.

Key words: Clinitest; Clinistix; Miles Laboratories; Recognition; Invention

Accepted November 20, 2012.
Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Department of Chemistry, CHE 205, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: 813-974-2374; Fax: 813-974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 87–90, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13608676060736
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Book Review:
The Cuban Cure: Reason and Resistance in Global Science
(S. M. Reid-Henry, 2010, The University of Chicago Press)

Logan D. A. Williams

Science and Technology Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA

This article reviews Simon Reid-Henry’s book, The Cuban Cure: Reason and Resistance in Global Science. As a location for a viable biotechnology industry, Cuba is the antithesis of what one might expect. Its 2011 gross domestic product (purchasing power parity) places it at 68 out of 226 countries. With a socialist political economy, the science of this developing country is directed by the public interest instead of the market. Reid-Henry explains how The Cuban Cure has been shaped by both globalization and nationalist rhetoric to become material (meningitis vaccines and other biotechnology products) and ideological (a reflexive scientific rationality of consagración).

Key words: Cuba; Science; Biotechnology; Innovation; Developing countries; Socialism

Accepted March 9, 2012.
Address correspondence to Logan D. A. Williams, 110 8th Street, Sage Lab 5th Floor, Science and Technology Studies, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Fax: 518-276-2659; Voicemail: 518-328-8304; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it