Tourism Analysis 18(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 119–131
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247576
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Comparison of Implicit and Explicit Attitude Measures: An Application of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to Fast Food Restaurant Brands

Kwang-Ho Lee and Dae-Young Kim

Department of Hospitality Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA

The study attempted to assess people’s attitudes toward fast food restaurant brands by comparing the results of explicit and implicit attitude measures. A total of 60 college students (33 Americans and 27 Koreans) were recruited to complete both a self-report survey and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Two known fast food restaurant brands were selected and the results of this study show that Korean respondents have inconsistent response patterns in explicit/implicit measures toward the two brands, while consistent patterns are found among Americans in the same context. In terms of the correlation results, it was observed that both explicit and implicit attitude measures are significantly correlated with the frequency of fast food restaurant visits (FFRV) among Koreans, whereas explicit liking was not correlated with FFRV in the significant correlations between other variables (GEA and IA) among Americans. The researchers’ elaborations on the literature and the experimental study reveal several conclusions, recommendations, and implications.

Key words: Explicit attitudes; Implicit attitudes; Implicit Association Test (IAT); Ethnic differences

Address correspondence to Dae-Young Kim, Hospitality Management, 220 Eckles Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Tel: 573-884-7185; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 133–144
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247611
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Changing Distribution of Global Tourism: Evidence From Gini Coefficients and Markov Matrixes

R. Geoffrey Lacher* and Sanjay K. Nepal†

*School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

This article examines the global distribution of tourism arrivals over 1995–2008 to determine whether there is a pattern of concentration or dispersal of tourist arrivals at a global scale, and then predicts the possible future distribution of global tourists arrival based on changes in those years. The study employs Gini coefficients and a Markov matrix to international arrival data in 153 countries for the period between 1995 and 2008. The Gini coefficient is used to measure the dispersion of total international tourist arrivals (ITA) in each country. Results show that the Gini coefficient has decreased over time (i.e., the distribution is gradually dispersed but the overall pattern remains unchanged). Using the same data, Markov matrix is used to predict the future distribution based on changes over the 14-year period. These results suggest future dispersion of international tourist arrivals would be somewhat different than it is today but the overall dominance of the leading countries (i.e., those with high arrival numbers) will continue. The implication is that the leading countries must develop strategies to continue to remain competitive, as other less visited countries make stronger efforts to promote tourism to counterbalance the current imbalance in international arrivals.

Key words: International tourist arrivals; Gini coefficient; Markov matrix; Economic geography

Address correspondence to Sanjay K. Nepal, Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel: 519 888 4567, ext. 31239; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 145–155
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247657
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Coordinating Relationships Among Destination Stakeholders: Evidence From Edinburgh (UK)

Ilenia Bregoli* and Giacomo Del Chiappa†

*Business School, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK
†Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari and CRENoS, Sassari, Italy

Tourism destination governance is a topic that has been attracting the interest of scholars in the tourism field due to the difficulties associated with the management of destinations that are characterized by high fragmentation. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies addressing the topic of the stakeholder coordination that is needed so that all stakeholders work towards the development and promotion of the destination in a comprehensive and unique way. The present research aims to explore this somewhat neglected area of tourism research by studying how stakeholders working within a destination are coordinated. In order to achieve this aim, a case study approach on the city of Edinburgh in Scotland was applied. Two partnerships were studied: one was responsible for promoting the city as a place to live, invest, work, and study, and the other was responsible for the city’s tourism development. Secondary data such as documents and reports from the two partnerships were analyzed and primary data were collected through 12 semistructured interviews with people involved in one or both partnerships. The results show that coordination needs to be carried out by adopting several mechanisms that can be used in conjunction in order to complement each other.

Key words: Destination governance; Destination management; Stakeholder coordination; Edinburgh

Address correspondence to Dr. Ilenia Bregoli, Lecturer in Marketing, Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, LN6 7TS, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1522 835685; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 157–172
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247693
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Developing and Testing a Suite of Institutional Indices to Underpin the Measurement and Management of Tourism Destination Transformation

Char-lee J. McLennan,* Brent D. Moyle,† Lisa M. Ruhanen,‡ and Brent W. Ritchie‡

*Centre for Tourism, Sport and Services Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
†Centre of Leisure and Work, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Australia
‡School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Economic, social, and environmental transformation of destinations as a consequence of tourism has been observed and studied extensively within the tourism literature. Transformation theory has evolved as a tool for understanding structural economic, social, or environmental change, which is driven by institutions. There is an emerging body of research that has sought to identify the institutional aspects of the tourism transformation process. Despite this, there has been limited development of tools that can measure institutions, inhibiting the development of long-run decision-making models that governments can use when developing policies for tourism destination development. As a result this research contributes a suite of institutional indices that can be used by tourism managers and planners to monitor, evaluate, and benchmark the tourism industry’s institutions. Drawing from the organizational change literature, the proposed indices focus on competition, management processes, data and research capabilities, collaboration efforts, benchmarking processes, learning ability, and agility and adaptability. This research is an important step in developing combined structural and institutional models that will contribute to the development and implementation of decision-making tools to assist destinations seeking to achieve long-term sustainable tourism transformation.

Key words: Tourism; Transformation; Businesses; Institutions; Performance measurement; Indices

Address correspondence to Char-lee McLennan, Centre for Tourism, Sport and Services Research, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia 4222. Tel: +61 407 589 110; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 173–182
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247738
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Argentinian and Brazilian Demands for Tourism in Uruguay

Silvia Altmark,* Gabriela Mordecki,† Florencia Santiñaque,* and W. Adrián Risso*

*Institute of Statistics (IESTA), University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay
†Institute of Economics (IECON), University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay

Argentinian and Brazilian demands for tourism in Uruguay are analyzed separately. These countries represent 66.25% of the receptive tourism in Uruguay; however, they present different characteristics. Two long-run relationships among tourism expenditures—income and real touristic exchange rate—are found by applying the cointegrating methodology. The income–demand elasticity is positive and larger than one in both cases, confirming the hypothesis that tourism is a luxury good. Moreover, this elasticity is smaller in Argentina (1.899) than in the Brazilian case (2.679). The relatively larger inelasticity in the Argentinian case could be due to the important percentage of Argentinian with second homes in Uruguay. In addition, the real touristic exchange rate elasticity is positive and more inelastic in the Argentinian case (0.623) than in Brazil (1.168).

Key words: Tourism demand; Touristic real exchange rate; Cointegration

Address correspondence to Silvia Altmark, Institute of Statistics (IESTA), University of the Republic, Eduardo Acevedo 1139, C.P. 1200, Montevideo, Uruguay. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 183–191
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247774
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating the Impact of Crime on Tourism in Barbados: A Transfer Function Approach

Troy Lorde* and Mahalia Jackman†

*The University of the West Indies–Economics Cave Hill Campus, Cave Hill, St. Michael, Barbados
†The Central Bank of Barbados–Research and Economic Analysis, Bridgetown, St. Michael, Barbados

The impact of crime on tourism to Barbados was examined using a transfer function approach. Results indicate that an increase in the overall crime rate has a negative and significant impact on arrivals to the island, and the fall-off is delayed, starting 6 months after a one-unit increase in the crime rate. The impulse response function shows that a 1% shock to crime reduces arrivals to Barbados, but takes about 20 months for arrivals to return to normalcy. This results in direct income losses of US$47,000 and indirect losses of US$108,000. Impacts for murder, assault with intent to rob, rape, and residential burglary rates were also investigated. Qualitatively, the results resemble those for the overall crime rate; however, the magnitudes of the impacts are greater and income losses are generally in the millions. Given the country’s dependence on tourism receipts to sustain its current account, shocks to the crime rate can lead to balance of payment problems. Since there is a lag before the impact of increases in crime takes its full toll on arrivals, it is advised that at the first sign of heightened criminal activity policy makers should act to minimize losses.

Key words: Crime; Transfer function; Barbados; Income losses

Address correspondence to Troy Lorde, The University of the West Indies–Economics Cave Hill Campus, Cave Hill, St. Michael BB11000, Barbados. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 193–206
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247819
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Processing Fluency in the Use of Destination Websites

Liang (Rebecca) Tang,* Soocheong (Shawn) Jang,† and Seonjeong (Ally) Lee‡

*Department of Apparel, Education Studies, & Hospitality Management, College of Human Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Consumer and Family Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
‡Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA

This study applies processing fluency theory in order to investigate its effectiveness in evaluating destination websites. Processing fluency reveals processes and manipulations that occur at different levels. It can be described as the ease with which externally presented stimuli (i.e., destination websites presented to users) are processed. This study investigates the impacts of four primary website features (information quality, ease of use, interactivity, and visual attractiveness) on processing fluency using destination websites. The results indicate that information quality has the greatest impact on processing fluency, followed by ease of use, and interactivity. The study provides an innovative approach to understanding the effectiveness of destination websites and suggests strategies for website designers.

Key words: Processing fluency; Information quality; Ease of use; Interactivity; Visual attractiveness

Address correspondence to Liang (Rebecca) Tang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Apparel, Education Studies, & Hospitality Management, College of Human Science, Iowa State University, 12 MacKay Hall, Ames, IA 50010, USA. Tel: (515) 294-8489; Fax: (515) 294-7474; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 207–214
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247855
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Taking Dogs to Tourism Activities: Testing a Pet-Related Constraint–Negotiation Model

Annie Chen,* Norman Peng,* and Kuang-peng Hung†
*University of Westminster, London, UK
†Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan

This research’s purpose is to examine the factors that affect pet owners’ decisions when taking pets to participate in tourism activities. Unlike tourist traveling alone, pet owners must consider their own circumstances as well as the constraints their pets place on them. After examining 30 British dog owners’ interview transcripts through interpretive approach and 388 British dog owners’ surveys through structural equation modeling, the results show pet-associated constraints will negatively affect owners’ motivation and behavior. However, motivated owners can still participate if they have sufficient negotiation strategies. Contrary to the literature, owners’ attachment with their pets will not directly cause them to take pets when participating in tourism activities.

Key words: Pet owners; Tourism participation; Dogs

Address correspondence to Annie Chen, University of Westminster, 35 Marylebone Rd , London NW1 5LS, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 215–220
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354213X13645733247891
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Workplace Mobbing and Effects on Female Employees Health and Safety Needs and Turnover Cognitions

Derya Kara

Department of Tourism Management Education, Commerce and Tourism Education Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

The main objective of this study is to investigate workplace mobbing in Turkish hospitality industry and effects on female employees’ health and safety needs and turnover cognitions. Application field of the research consists of 373 female employees who work at five-star hotel establishments in Turkey. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicate that high levels of mobbing activities are associated with lower levels of employee health and safety needs. Moreover, there was no correlation between employees’ turnover cognitions and managers mobbing behaviors.

Key words: Workplace mobbing; Health and safety needs; Turnover cognitions; Turkish hospitality industry

Address correspondence to Derya Kara, Ph.D., Department of Tourism Management Education, Commerce and Tourism Education Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: 312-485-1460; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it