Event Management 17(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 97–110
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082224
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Development of a Scale for Measuring Event Attendees’ Evaluations of a Sporting Event to Determine Loyalty

James F. Petrick,* Gregg Bennett,† and Yosuke Tsuji‡

*Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
†Department of Health and Kinesiology, Sport Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
‡Department of Industrial Management, Tourism Sciences and Industrial Management, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan

The purpose of the current study was to determine if different evaluative measures (in this case, motivation, importance, transaction satisfaction, quality, value, and word of mouth) form one construct when examining specific attractions (in this case, the festival village, music/concerts, and athletes/competition) of an event, or if subjects are able to differentiate between these constructs when examining specific attractions of an event. Additional purposes of the study included: to develop a scale for measuring event attendees’ evaluation of the event, and to examine the relationships between these evaluations and their overall satisfaction and loyalty. It was found that evaluation items loaded strongly on the attraction they were measuring instead of on similar items and that these factors help to explain event attendees’ satisfaction and loyalty to the event. Specific theoretical, managerial, and methodological implications are discussed.

Key words: Perceived value; Quality; Satisfaction; Loyalty; Word of mouth; EVENTQUAL

Address correspondence to James F. Petrick, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: (979) 845-8806; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 111-122
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082260
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Conceptualizing Sport Event Legacy

Alana Thomson, Katie Schlenker, and Nico Schulenkorf

UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, Lindfield, NSW, Australia

Events legacies have become a common feature in the public policy rhetoric surrounding sport events of all sizes. Public policy planners and event organizers are increasingly promoting the legacies of sport events to justify significant investments required to host them. Within the context of special events, legacy is most often recognized as the long-term or permanent outcomes for a host city from staging an event. These outcomes include potential economic, tourism, social, physical, and/or environmental factors. However, the justification of legacies from events remains complicated due to inconsistent conceptualizations of legacy across academic and industry practice. While legacy is an increasing component of event bids as well as funding justifications and postevent reports, the concept itself has attracted limited critical analysis. This article puts forth a comprehensive review of literature that has sought to define legacy, from 1991–2008, drawing on event management, sport management, and urban planning contexts. An inductive interpretive analysis of definitions was undertaken, in which key considerations were identified and definitions assessed against these. The analysis revealed five key considerations of legacy in application to the sport event management context. In doing so, this article contributes to both theoretical debate and improved strategic practice surrounding the emergence of “legacy” as justification for staging sport events.

Key words: Legacy; Sport events; Strategic management; Event policy

Address correspondence to Alana Thomson, Events, Leisure, Sport, Tourism and Arts Programs, Management Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 222, Lindfield NSW 2070, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 123-133
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082305
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Differences in Perceived Destination Image and Event Satisfaction Among Cultural Visitors: The Case of the European Biennial of Contemporary Art “Manifesta 7”

Harald Pechlaner,* Giulia Dal Bò,† and Sabine Pichler†

*Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt, Germany
†Institute for Regional Development and Location Management, European Academy Bolzano (EURAC Research), Bozen-Bolzano, Italy

The destination image reflects the impressions and ideas tourists have of a holiday region and strongly influences visitors’ behavior. Visitors to cultural events have differing images of destinations according to their interest in seeing the event itself. Destination managers can exploit the factors that influence the destination image and customer satisfaction with a cultural event in order to successfully position the destination and improve communication. Destination image, quality of event, and customer satisfaction are highly related, and this study analyzes these factors for three differently motivated groups of visitors. An empirical investigation of visitors at 2008 Manifesta 7, the European Biennial of Contemporary Art, was conducted in order to ascertain differences among groups according to these variables. The results show that differentiation of promotion measures is needed depending on the single items that influence satisfaction with cultural event and tourist offerings.

Key words: Cultural visitors; Destination image; Cultural offerings; Customer satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dott.ssa Sabine Pichler, M.Sc., Institute for Regional Development and Location Management, European Academy Bolzano (EURAC Research), viale Druso 1, 39100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy. Tel: +39-0471-055428; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 135-144
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082341
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The “Right” Person for the Job: Exploring the Aesthetics of Labor Within the Events Industry

Katherine L. Dashper

UK Centre for Events Management, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK

The events industry is an underresearched section of the service sector and can be usefully understood as a “customer-orientated bureaucracy” (Korczynski, 2002). The dual, and often contradictory, logics of customer orientation and bureaucratization coexist and place heavy demands on employees. The concept of aesthetic labor, first conceived by Warhurst, Nickson, Witz, and Cullen (2000), has been usefully applied to recruitment processes in other parts of the service sector, notably hospitality and retail, in order to understand better the complex and embodied demands required of employees in contemporary service organizations. This article presents an exploratory study into the recruitment process in the events industry in the UK. Through an analysis of online event management job advertisements, the implicit embodied attributes required of successful candidates are explored, and the underlying gendered and class-based assumptions of these corporeal dispositions are considered.

Key words: Aesthetic labor; Event management; Gender; Recruitment

Address correspondence to Katherine L. Dashper, UK Centre for Events Management, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds LS6 3QW, UK. Tel: +44-113-812-3460; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 145-154
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082387
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Motives of Visits to Ethno Music Festivals With Regard to Gender and Age Structure of Visitors

Ivana Blešić, Tatjana Pivac , Igor Stamenković, and Snežana Besermenji

Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, The Republic of Serbia

The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival (DTF) in Guča (the Republic of Serbia) is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. The article delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of the DTF in Guča in August 2010. The results were based on 300 questionnaires. There are two purposes of the research: to identify the underlying dimensions of motivation for visitors attending ethno music festivals, using a factor analysis, and to explore the differences between attitudes of the respondents of different gender and age structure. The factor analysis generated four factors: Festival Perception and Learning, Exploration of Festival Program and Atmosphere, Psychophysical Welfare, and Socialization. The respondents rated the factor Exploration of Festival Program and Atmosphere the highest, followed by Festival Perception and Learning, Psychophysical Welfare, and Socialization. The results of the t test showed that female respondents rated Psychophysical Welfare and Socialization significantly higher compared to male respondents. Analysis of variance tests demonstrated statistically different respondents’ ratings of extracted factors with regard to age group of the respondents.

Key words: ANOVA; Factor analysis; Motivation; Music festival; Serbia; t Test

Address correspondence to Tatjana Pivac, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad, The Republic of Serbia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 155-163
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082468
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sense of Community and Festival Attendance

Christine M. Van Winkle,* Kyle M. Woosnam,† and Ann M. Mohammed*

*Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
†Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Examining how festival involvement contributes to sense of community (SOC) is important to our understanding of how festivals impact the communities in which they exist; therefore, this study examines the relation between festival attendance and sense of community to provide insight, based on community psychology theory, into how festivals contribute to community development. Sense of community was measured using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS), and the relation between the BSCS and festival attendance was examined. Although no relation between overall SOC and festival attendance was found, the relation between festival attendance and the emotional connection factor of the BSCS suggests that festivals do contribute to SOC. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Key words: Psychological sense of community (SOC); Festival; Resident; Confirmatory factor analysis

Address correspondence to Christine M. Van Winkle, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 313 Max Bell Centre, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada. Tel: +1-204-474-8647; Fax: +1-204-261-4802; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 165-178
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082503
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Intentions to Attend a Convention: A Gender Perspective

Danielle Ramirez,* Jennifer Laing,† and Judith Mair*

*Australia & International Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
†Department of Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia

The number of people attending conventions is growing worldwide, yet little is still known about convention attendees, particularly from a gender perspective. Scholars have recognized that gender is fundamental to travel decisions, yet there is still an absence of gender-specific research in the convention attendee travel context. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of gender on the convention attendance travel decision. It involved interviewing attendees at an international medical convention about their intentions to attend the next convention. The exploratory findings reveal that some women consider certain factors to be more influential on their convention attendance decision than men, such as the networking opportunities. The results provide some preliminary insights into the potential role gender plays in the convention attendance decision. The implications of these findings for convention marketing are discussed.

Key words: Convention attendance; Intention; Gender; Decision making

Address correspondence to Danielle Ramirez, Monash University (Melbourne, Australia), c/o Melbourne Convention + Visitors Bureau, Level 12, IBM Centre, 60 City Road, Southbank, Victoria 3006, Australia. Tel: +61-3-9693-3333; Fax: +61-3-9693-3344; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it