Tourism Analysis 18(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 227–243
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610538
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Diasporic Identity, Heritage, and “Homecoming”: How Sarawakian-Chinese Tourists Feel on Tour in Beijing

Caroline Tie* and Tony Seaton†

*Division of Tourism and Leisure, University of Bedfordshire, Bedfordshire, UK
†Department of Economics, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

The Chinese have become one of the most widely dispersed races across the globe. Yet they have often implicitly resisted this dispersion by a powerful, but often unspoken, mythic commitment to the image of China as an enduring homeland, rather than accepting any irreversible transfer of cultural allegiance and identity to the receiving country. Part of this myth of temporary exile, held and cherished by some diasporic groups, has been the dream of “going back,” the return to one’s roots. Increasingly, modern tourism apparently offers an easily accessed and temporary mechanism for going back to a Chinese “homeland” and seeking to discover and explore authentic Chinese identity. This article focuses on the possibilities of diasporic reconnection through tourism and specifically the role of heritage tourism encounters in an ethnic homeland from which some have been separated for long periods, and others have never seen. It explores theoretical and empirical issues attached to diasporic identity and “homecoming” tourism, using case study data collected from Chinese diasporic tourists from Sarawak on a package tour of China. In presenting the results, the analysis adopts a dual interpretative approach to heritage that evolved from the data analysis, in which it was decoded by the tour party members as both observations of the quotidian cultural activities and values of the Chinese people, and observations of the selective constructions of public culture provided and promoted by public agencies. The two perceived aspects of heritage generated contradictory responses within the tour party that were partly a reflection of perceptions and judgments about the intrinsic features of things observed (e.g., their authenticity and social acceptability). They were also due to differences in the backgrounds of members of the diasporic party in terms of language resources, span of generational residence in Sarawak as emigrants from China, and religion.

Key words: China; Heritage; Identity; Sarawakian-Chinese

Address correspondence to Dr. Caroline Tie, Division of Tourism and Leisure, University of Bedfordshire, Park Square Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU, UK. Tel: +44 01582 743759; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 245–257
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610574
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Roots Tourism: Blackbirding and the South Sea Islander Diaspora

Joseph Cheer and Keir Reeves

Australia International Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

Roots tourism and diaspora travel are inextricably aligned and embody more than just another avenue for the expansion of tourism. This article, using Vanuatu as the context, argues that roots tourism has far broader implications for diaspora, especially in so far as geopolitical relationships between colonial powers and their former outposts are concerned. The return sojourns of Australia’s South Sea Islander diaspora are used in this article to highlight the phenomenon of roots tourism. The circumstances surrounding the arrival of the first islanders during what became known as the blackbirding era, beginning in the 1860s through to the early 1900s, is subject to contestation as to whether this constituted free or forced labor. Such narratives are common among diaspora when evaluating the legacy of colonialism, particularly when the specter of exploitation and mistreatment resonates. Roots tourism and the travel of diaspora are aimed at reconciling the ensuing questions of identity, culture, and place. This article argues that roots tourism offers personal relief and restitution as well as contributes to broader sociopolitical advancement between the descendants of the colonized and present-day institutions.

Key words: Roots tourism; Diaspora travel; Blackbirding; Australian South Sea Islanders; Vanuatu

Address correspondence to Joseph Cheer, Australia International Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, PO Box 197, Caulfield East, Victoria 3145, Australia. Tel: +61-3-9903-4097; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 259–271
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610619
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Diaspora Market and Homeland Representations: Implications for Niche Marketing

Deepak Chhabra

School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This study seeks to unveil important information related to Indian diaspora tourists and examines promotional representations of India by the travel trade in the US. Key motivations of visits to India include the desire to strengthen family and friendly connections, to be in touch with themselves, and to feel a sense of belonging. For the most part, perceived images of India are congruent with the most frequently observed themes in the promotional representations. Representative dissonance to a moderate extent is also noted. The results of the study offer important implications for the travel trade and the homeland government on how to appeal to this niche market.

Key words: Diaspora tourists; Representative dissonance; Promotional representations

Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Suite 550, 411 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Tel: +1-602-496-0172; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 273–284
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610655
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Return Travel, Assimilation, and Cultural Maintenance: An Example of Turkish-Americans in Arizona

Burcu Kaftanoglu and Dallen J. Timothy

School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Within the context of diaspora studies, immigration, assimilation, and return travel, this study examines the relationships between elements of cultural integration and travel characteristics among Turkish-Americans living in the state of Arizona. The findings suggest that integration activities and characteristics have little bearing on immigrants’ travel patterns to the homeland, with the exception of length of stay and the types of accommodations used while in Turkey.

Key words: Turkish immigrants; Diaspora; Immigration; United States; Heritage

Address correspondence to Dallen J. Timothy, School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020, 411 N. Central Avenue, Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. Tel: +1-602-496-1566; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 285–296
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610691
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Diaspora Tourism and Homeland Attachment: An Exploratory Analysis

Wei-Jue Huang,* William J. Haller,† and Gregory P. Ramshaw‡

*Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
†Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
‡Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

Diaspora tourism refers to the travel of people in diaspora to their ancestral homelands in search of their roots or to feel connected to their personal heritage. Whereas most tourists become attached to a destination after repeat visits, the tourist-destination relation in diaspora tourism is unique because tourists with immigrant origins often feel connected to the people, culture, and heritage of the destination before actually visiting the place. This study explores the relationship between second-generation immigrants’ attachment to their ancestral homeland and their journey back “home,” focusing on whether or not the second generation could feel at home in their parents’ country of origin versus their current country of residence. This study employs secondary data from two studies on second-generation immigrants in the US: the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study and the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles study. Findings revealed that there was an association between the number of diaspora tourism trips and feeling at home in their parents’ country of origin. Second-generation immigrants who considered both America and their ancestral homeland as home took the highest number of trips, and their transnational attachment to two countries reflected the dual loyalty and identity of people in diaspora. In addition, those who experienced extended stays were more likely to feel at home in their ancestral homeland. Whereas such relationship was not necessarily causal, both length and frequency of diaspora tourism trips were found to be associated with immigrants’ connection to the land of their ancestors.

Key words: Diaspora; Transnationalism; Diaspora tourism; Homecoming

Address correspondence to Wei-Jue Huang at her present address: School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 297–311
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610736
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Conceptual Boundaries of Diaspora and Battlefield Tourism: Australians’ Travel to the Gallipoli Battlefield, Turkey, as a Case Study

Leonie Lockstone-Binney,* John Hall,† and Lutfi Atay ‡

*College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
†Graduate School of Business, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia
‡School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey

Historical tourism resources associated with diasporic communities and battlefields would at face value appear to have little in common. On closer inspection, however, diaspora and battlefield tourism share several elements in common. These commonalities are explored in greater detail, with an eye to investigating battlefield tourism sites indelibly linked to the birth of modern nations, where it is argued that there is a particularly blurred boundary between these two forms of tourism that must be recognized. The Gallipoli battlefield, Turkey, provides the contextual anchor for this discussion in suggesting that a key reason Australians travel to this foreign place to is to find out what it means to be an Australian. The prominence of this battlefield in the psyche of Australians is borne out of the involvement of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (Anzac) in the First World War campaign that commenced at what is now known as Anzac Cove at Gallipoli on April 25, 1915. This campaign was the first united action of the fledging Australian nation bought together through federation in 1901. Qualitative data collected from Australians visiting the Gallipoli battlefields in Turkey during 2010 is used to explore whether the experiences of those traveling to battlefields strongly associated with nation building legends and stories resemble those of diasporic tourists in seeking to return to their homeland. Emerging from the analysis, the confines of the blurred boundary between diaspora tourism and battlefield tourism is discussed in detail and an associated research agenda is proposed that aims to further clarify the scope of these concepts in relation to the broad spectrum of heritage tourism resources.

Key words: Australia; Battlefield tourism; Diaspora tourism; Gallipoli; Nationhood

Address correspondence to Leonie Lockstone-Binney, College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. Tel: +61-3-9919-5361; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 313–322
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610772
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Creation of Closeness: Identity Tourists in Who Do You Think You Are?

Elspeth Frew* and Leanne White†

*Tourism and Hospitality Research Unit, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
†College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

This article examines the techniques used by the makers of a popular documentary series that may encourage interest in identity, genealogical, ancestral, roots, or even diaspora tourism—where individuals travel to discover more about their ancestry. By adapting Jens Eder’s theory of character closeness to a nonfiction series, this article identifies the means by which the producers of the Australian series of the television program Who Do You Think You Are? have created a “closeness” for the viewer to the featured identity tourism celebrities.

Key words: Identity tourism; Genealogy; Closeness; Celebrities; Who Do You Think You Are?

Address correspondence to Dr. Elspeth Frew, Tourism and Hospitality Research Unit, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia. Tel: +61-3-9479-2333; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 323–334
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610817
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Food, Wine . . . Heritage, Identity? Two Case Studies of Italian Diaspora Festivals in Regional Victoria

Jennifer Laing and Warwick Frost

Tourism and Hospitality Research Unit, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

Festivals have a particularly important role in rural areas struggling to arrest or prevent economic decline and seeking to develop vibrant, livable communities. Some of these places are looking to their immigrant past for inspiration, given that Australia has a rich history of immigrant settlement in rural areas, and are developing festivals or events that leverage off a distinctive cultural heritage linked to a diaspora community. This article examines two Italian-themed festivals in regional Victoria, Australia, and their use of diaspora heritage as a source of distinctiveness and potential competitive advantage for tourism purposes, as well as the role played by the diaspora-themed festivals in the local community. Findings, based on detailed semistructured interviews with 12 members of the organizing committees, and participant observation during site visits, suggest that these events, while helping to shape a sense of community or place identity for these diaspora communities, also attract some tourists with little or no connection to the diaspora in question. The appeal of the events to ethnic “outsiders” lies in their perceived authenticity and nostalgic references as well as the increasing allure of Italian culture and lifestyle. The article also provides an analysis of some of the challenges associated with theming a festival around diaspora heritage, including issues of contestation and measurement of its role in building strong communities.

Key words: Heritage; Diaspora; Food; Wine; Festival

Address correspondence to Jennifer Laing, Tourism and Hospitality Research Unit, Department of Marketing and Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 3105; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 335–338
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610899
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Enjoying Aeronautic Sports: A Strategic Plan for Hot Air Ballooning Development in Taiwan


Chiung-Tzu Lucetta Tsai

Department of Leisure & Sport Management, National Taipei University, Taipei, Taiwan

Hot air ballooning is a form of popular leisure activity in Taiwan owing to government support in promoting the activity. This study aims to address the opportunities and constraints facing the development of hot air ballooning as a leisure activity in Taiwan. In addition, the role that hot air ballooning might play in the development of tourism in rural regions of Taiwan is explored. The purpose of the study is to explore the constraints on Taiwan’s development of hot air ballooning, analyze hot air ballooning trends in Taiwan, and discuss safety issues related to hot air ballooning.

Key words: Hot air balloon; Leisure; Aeronautic sport; Sports tourism; Taiwan

Address correspondence to Chiung-Tzu Lucetta Tsai, Department of Leisure & Sport Management, National Taipei University, #151 University Road, Sanshia, Taipei 237, Taiwan. Tel: +886-963-456-369; Fax: +886-2-27009900; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 341–351
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610934
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

The Risky Business of Understanding: Philosophical Hermeneutics and the Knowing Subject in Worldmaking

Kellee Caton

Tourism Studies, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

In this critical commentary, Caton argues that since its introduction to the literature over the past decade by Hollinshead, the notion of “worldmaking” has risen to become an important organizing concept within tourism studies. Here, Caton deems worldmaking to be “a wonderfully holistic notion,” because it takes into account not only the interactions of the diverse agents, the structures, the ideologies, and the material conditions that make up what she sees as “our tourism world,” but also the larger world beyond—of which the sphere of tourism is such a powerful part. Yet Caton is concerned that, currently, the epistemological dimensions of worldmaking have not been rigorously or vigorously explored. In this review article, therefore, she explores how the seeds of the so-called worldmaking process (or ordinary worldmaking activity, in general) conceivably begin at the level of the individual knowing mind. Her critical commentary thereby seeks to remind readers of Tourism Analysis of the work of the great 20th-century philosopher, Hans-Georg Gadamer, specifically with regard to his development of the position called “philosophical hermeneutics.” Caton argues here that Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics can indeed stand as a/or the epistemological foundation par excellence for “tourism” as may be seen and interpreted through worldmaking lenses. In this review piece, Caton maintains that pondering of and about Gadamer’s work can not only vitally help us all toward improved understanding of ourselves as “epistemic subjects” but lead us to become much more aware and reflective about the power we actually do hold in the production of our times. (Abstract by the Review’s Editor)

Key words: Worldmaking; Philosophy; Epistemology; Hermeneutics; Interpretation; Imagination; Critical tourism; Gadamer

Address correspondence to Dr. Kellee Caton, Assistant Professor of Tourism Management, Tourism Studies, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, V2C 0C8 Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it