Event Management 17(3) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 179–194
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13668224082422
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing the Viability of First-Time and Repeat Visitors to an International Jazz Festival in South Africa

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society (TREES), North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

The Cape Town International Jazz Festival is South Africa’s most renowned jazz festival and, from quite modest beginnings, has grown into a successful international event. Since its inception in 2000, attendance figures have increased from the initial 14,000 to 32,000 in the past 9 years. The festival’s winning formula of bringing more than 40 international and local artists to perform over 2 days on five stages has earned it the status of being the most prestigious event on the African continent. The festival is furthermore currently ranked as the number four jazz festival in the world; even outshining events such as Switzerland’s Montreux Festival and the North Sea Jazz Festival in Holland. A research survey was done for the first time at the festival in 2009 where 432 visitor questionnaires were completed, and a second survey was conducted during the festival in April 2010 where 420 questionnaires were administered. The aim of this research is to segment visitors to the Cape Town International Jazz Festival based on the frequency of visits to distinguish between first-time and repeat festival attendees. Both first-time and repeat visitor groups play a fundamental role in the overall well-being and success of a festival and festival organizers must strive to achieve a balance between first-time and repeat visitors. Therefore, festival organizers should be aware of the festival attributes that differentiate between the first-time visitor group and repeat visitors attending the festival. Two-way frequency tables and chi-square tests as well as ANOVAs and Tukey’s multiple comparisons were used to analyze the data and segment first-time and repeat visitors based on sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and overall satisfaction and travel motivations. These differences should be considered when the festival program is designed and marketed. The latter will greatly contribute to the long-term sustainability of the festival.

Key words: Festivals; Music tourism; Music events; Chi-square tests; ANOVA; Market segmentation


Address correspondence to Dr. Martinette Kruger, TREES (Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society), North West University, Private Bag x6001, Box 204, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 2520. Tel: +27 018 299 1980; Fax: +27 018 299 4140; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 195–212
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377755
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Grant and Sponsorship Revenue for Festivals

T. D. Andersson,*† D. Getz,* J. Mykletun,* K. Jæger,‡ and H. Dolles†

*Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway
†School of Business, Economics, and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
‡Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway

This article contributes to event management theory and practice, and more generally to sponsorship research, by examining grant and sponsorship revenue for festivals. In particular, a number of factors that appear to influence the amounts and sources of external revenues are examined for significant differences. Data obtained from 260 festival managers in Australia, Norway, Sweden, and UK are compared with respect to their events’ revenue sources, ownership, and other factors thought to influence revenue. Statistical tests reveal that festival size (i.e., attendance), professionalism (as measured by staff members), and the “fit” between event and sponsor (as measured by type of event correlated with different sponsors and grant sources) significantly affect festival revenue. It is argued in the conclusion that by applying certain strategies festival managers can enhance their external revenue generation and support. Future research needs and theory development are discussed in the conclusions, focused on a new set of propositions derived from the analysis.

Key words: Festivals; Revenue; Grants; Sponsorship; Strategy; Ownership

Address correspondence to Tommy D. Andersson, School of Business, Economics, and Law, University of Gothenburg, Vasagatan 1, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. Tel: +46 (0)31-786-1526; Fax: +46 (0)31-786-4652; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 213–226
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377791
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Festivals, Identities, and Belonging

Kari Jaeger* and Reidar J. Mykletun†

*Department of Tourism and Media Studies, Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway
†Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway

Research has suggested that festivals may influence the identities of the people involved and the host community itself. This impact may be a result of the events functioning as occasions to express collective belonging to a group or a place, and provide opportunities to create united histories, cultural practices, and ideals, but there is little evidence for this. Hence, this article seeks to investigate (1) how festivals influence individual and social identities, (2) what this influence on identities means for the people involved (collective identities) and identity with a place (place belongingness), and (3) how festivals influence the self-image and place identity of the local community. The findings are based on a qualitative study with 32 in-depth interviews with festival organizers, operational festival workers, municipality officers, and tourism firms related to three festivals in rural areas in Finnmark, Norway. These festivals provide core activities that build on or are displayed in a frame of local culture and heritage. The area has different challenges, in some ways related to a difficult climate, lack of work, and different ethnicities, represented by Norwegian, Russian, Finnish, and Sami cultures. In line with the approach, it is concluded that festivals do influence the identities of people and place and that all processes related to festivals influence the need to belong.

Key words: Festivals; Identities; Place; Belonging; Sami; Finnmark

Address correspondence to Reidar J. Mykletun, Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 227–240
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377836
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

At the Nexus of Leisure and Event Studies

Ian Patterson and Donald Getz

School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland Australia

In this conceptual article we examine the interrelationships between two fields of study, specifically the real and potential contributions of leisure studies to event studies. Furthermore, we consider the evolution of the two fields, philosophical discourses and theories associated with both. Epistemologically, both event and leisure studies have drawn heavily from the same foundation disciplines when focusing on motivation, experience, and benefits. Ontologically, event studies seeks to develop distinct concepts that differentiate planned event experiences and the meanings attached to them, but there are definitely shared areas of knowledge with leisure studies. Specific leisure philosophies, and theories are examined as to their current and potential application within event studies, and insights are provided about how these two closely related fields can cooperate in the future for their mutual benefit.

Key words: Leisure studies; Event studies; Theory; Philosophy; Epistemology; Ontology

Address correspondence to Dr. Ian Patterson, Associate Professor, School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 241–255
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377872
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Portrait of the US Fair Sector

J. M. Lillywhite, J. E. Simonsen, and B. J. H. Wilson

Department of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA

The viability of agricultural fairs as educational and outreach opportunities for American agriculture, as well as American traditions and social events, may depend on the ability of fair managers to adapt to trends that are driven by changing tastes and preferences in the US events and attractions industry. Using data collected in a nationwide survey of fair managers, this article (1) creates a snapshot of US fairs that can be used to assist stakeholders with identifying fair challenges and opportunities, (2) explores how fair managers define success, and (3) identifies current and future trends influencing the sector, as perceived by fair managers. The fairs represented in the survey are diverse in both scale and scope. Youth involvement and agricultural events remain prevalent in many of the fairs, despite an increased interest in non-agricultural-related entertainment attractions.

Key words: Agricultural fair; Special events; Management; Success; Trends

Address correspondence to J. M. Lillywhite, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agricultural Business, New Mexico State University, MSC 3169 NMSU, P.O. Box 30003, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8003, USA. Tel: +1 (575) 646-5321; Fax: +1 (575) 646-3808; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 257–270
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377917
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Confirming the Festival Social Impact Attitude Scale in the Context of a Rural Texas Cultural Festival

Kyle M. Woosnam,* Christine M. Van Winkle,† and Seonhee An*

*Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
†Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Although numerous scales exist measuring residents’ perceptions of festival impacts, the first of its kind, the Festival Social Impact Attitude Scale (FSIAS), has never been examined to confirm its proposed factor structure. In addition, recent calls have been made to utilize the FSIAS in a novel context and assess its reliability and validity. Utilizing the context of a Czech heritage festival, this article has three purposes: (1) to confirm the FSIAS factor structure, (2) to examine psychometric properties of the scale, and (3) to determine if impacts of the festival were perceived differently among residents living in a community in which the festival is held. Results confirm the factor structure of the FSIAS is identical to that found in previous studies and psychometric properties were strong. A number of significant differences in perceived festival impacts were found across sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and future research opportunities are provided.

Key words: Confirmatory factor analysis; Multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA); Resident; Festival; Social impacts; Multistage cluster sampling; Sociodemographic variables; Socioeconomic variables

Address correspondence to Kyle M. Woosnam, Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, 454 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: +1-979-845-9781; Fax: +1-979-845-0446; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 271–282
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377953
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Estimating Consumer’s Willingness-to-Pay for Participation in and Traveling to Marathon Events

Pamela Wicker* and Kirstin Hallmann†

*Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Queensland, Australia
†Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany

Although research on marathon running has gained in importance during recent years, a lack of research regarding the economic aspects of marathon runners has been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for participation in and traveling to marathon events. Data on marathon runners in Germany were collected using a nationwide online survey (n = 285). Behavioral, psychographic (opinion), and demographic variables were used to explain the WTP for traveling to a marathon in Germany, in Europe, and overseas. Respondents were found to be willing to pay on average €270 for traveling to a marathon event in Germany, €568 to one in Europe, and €1,429 to an overseas marathon. The factor analysis showed that the psychographic variables could be summarized in four factors labeled casual, health-conscious, identity-driven, and switching. The regression results revealed that particularly psychographic (health- conscious, casual) and demographic variables (income) were significant determinants of WTP.

Key words: Participant behavior; Willingness-to-pay (WTP); Marathon runner; Active sport consumption; Pricing; Psychographics

Address correspondence to Pamela Wicker, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Parklands Drive, Southport Queensland 4222, Australia. Tel: +61-7-555-28552; Fax: +61-7-555-28507; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 283–298
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863377999
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Stakeholder Approach to Attendee Segmentation: A Case Study of an Australian Christian Music Festival

Aaron Tkaczynski

School of Tourism, Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Festivals provide many benefits to regions and communities such as tourism expenditure, community pride, and the celebration of culture. Whereas the literature has emphasized the need to incorporate stakeholders into the management of festivals, researchers have not considered how these stakeholders are segmenting their attendees. This article applies a stakeholder approach to attendee segmentation through the utilization of a case study approach with semistructured interviews to profile visitors to Easterfest, an Australian Christian music festival. The results suggest that stakeholders, although not actively segmenting visitors, share many similarities in their description of the characteristics and behavioral patterns of attendees to the festival. Limitations based on the findings are made while future opportunities are also outlined.

Key words: Case study; Easterfest; Festival; Market segmentation; Stakeholder theory

Address correspondence to Aaron Tkaczynski, Lecturer, School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Tel: +61-7-3346-7093; Fax: +61-7-3346-8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 299–310
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863378033
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Market Niches and the Perceptual Economic Impacts on a Remote Alpine Village: The BRITS Week in Laax

Ian Jenkins and Ruth Rios-Morales

STAR Research Centre, Les Roches-Gruyere University of Applied Science, Bulle, Switzerland This article explores the perceived economic impact that a single nationality creates at a niche alpine tourist destination: Laax, Switzerland. A number of strategies are used to promote new forms of income during a “shoulder” period in a remote alpine destination. One such strategy is encouraging a niche snow sports event: BRITS Week. Laax has developed a specialized tourism image, focusing upon the sport of snowboarding and freestyle skiing, and encourages specialized events connected with this image. The article explores residents’ perceptions of economic expenditure during BRITS Week. A qualitative methodology was used, involving semistructured interviews with economically active stakeholders from the village of Laax. The data were evaluated and examined using discourse analysis and presented in themed matrix tables. There is evidence to suggest that the BRITS Week in Laax provides an important economic boost at a shoulder period in the year. But local tourism actors are either ambivalent or hostile to this event, noting that little, if any, benefit is directly derived from the event in the surrounding locale. It is asserted that this is due to a local oligarchical business model, resulting in little community involvement.

Key words: Tourism economics; Niche tourism; Qualitative methods; Snowboarding; Alpine

Address correspondence to Dr. Ian Jenkins, Research Department, Les Roches-Gruyere University of Applied Science, CH 1630 Bulle, Switzerland. Tel: +41-26-919-7878; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 311–322
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863378079
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determining Business Event Legacies Beyond the Tourism Spend: An Australian Case Study Approach

Carmel Foley,* Katie Schlenker,* Deborah Edwards,* and Lyn Lewis-Smith†

*UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
†Business Events Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Government and industry are aware that the full value of the business event sector needs to be established. To date, the sector has been evaluated on the economic contribution it makes to host destination tourism. The tourism contributions have been impressive in themselves; however, this narrow focus has failed to account for a more extensive set of contributions to economies and communities. Impacts from business events in areas such as innovation, education, networking, trade, research, and practice are generally considered to outweigh the financial returns of the tourism spend. Although anecdotal evidence of the value of business events beyond the tourism dimension has been evident for some time, empirical research in this area is limited. This article has four objectives: first, to highlight the research need for understanding the broader impacts of business events beyond the tourism spend; second, to identify the range and impact of contributions made by business events to host communities beyond the tourism spend; third, to examine five Australian business events utilizing a grounded theory approach and present a range of identified legacies in the categories of knowledge expansion; networking, relationships, and collaboration; educational outcomes; raising awareness and profiling; and showcasing and destination reputation. Finally, the article discusses the implications of these findings for the business events sector.

Key words: Business events; Legacy; Collaboration; Networking; Knowledge; Relationships

Address correspondence to Carmel Foley, Management, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 222, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070, Australia. Tel: +61-2-9514-5102; Fax: +61-2-9514-5195; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it