Tourism Analysis 18(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 355–370
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372325830
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants and Perceived Outcomes of Tourism Research Collaboration

Anita Zehrer* and Pierre Benckendorff†

*MCI Tourism, Management Center Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
†School of Tourism,The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Brisbane, Australia

Research collaboration has become increasingly common in the tourism field. Although there have been a number of studies on research collaboration, relatively little attention has been given to conceptualizing or measuring the determinants and outcomes of collaboration at an individual level. The purpose of this study is to propose a research collaboration model (structural equation modeling) that describes the drivers and perceived outcomes of collaboration. The article is based on a review of the relevant literature and an empirical Internet-based survey conducted with tourism researchers. Results show that collaboration is mainly driven by personal factors such as the need to increase one’s efficiency to make progress more rapidly, to reduce isolation, and to gain travel opportunities. In terms of outcomes, there is a perception among tourism researchers that research collaboration improves quality, overall productivity, and esteem and visibility within the academic community. The study represents an initial attempt to conceptualize and measure research collaboration. Our interest is to offer a foundation for further research and encourage refinement and retesting of the model presented here.

Key words: Tourism research collaboration; Drivers; Motives; Outcomes; Productivity

Address correspondence to Dr. Anita Zehrer, MCI Tourism, Management Center Innsbruck, Weiherburggasse 8, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Tel: +43 512 2070 3332; Fax +43 512 2070 3399; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 371–384
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372325876
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Competitiveness of Asia Pacific Destinations

Xi Yu Leung* and Seyhmus Baloglu†

*Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, The University of Mississippi, University, MS, USA
†William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Destination competitiveness is a critical concept for countries/destinations to gain a favorable position in the changing world tourism market. Using the data from The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011, the study employed both multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis methods to evaluate the destination competitiveness of 16 Asia Pacific destinations (countries). A three-dimensional perceptual map was generated to show the tourism competitive positioning of each destination. Cluster analysis was conducted to help identify groupings on perceptual maps. Seven destination groups were identified by cluster analysis. On the basis of perceptual maps, the competitive advantages and weaknesses of the seven destination groups in Asia Pacific were discussed. The study not only proposed a new methodology of combining multidimensional scaling with cluster analysis in interpreting perceptual maps but also revealed implications of this method in enhancing or sustaining competitiveness of destinations within the ever-changing tourism market.

Key words: Asia Pacific destinations; Cluster analysis; Multidimensional scaling; Perceptual map; Tourism competitiveness; Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI)

Address correspondence to Dr. Xi Yu Leung, Department of Nutrition and Hospitality Management, The University of Mississippi, 216 Lenoir Hall, P.O. Box 1848, University, MS 38677-1848, USA. Tel: +1-662-915-7372; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 385–398
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372325911
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Do They All Speak the Same Language? A Motivation–Benefit Model Toward Cultural Experiences for English-Speaking Tourists

Pandora Kay* and Denny Meyer†

*School of Management & Marketing, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
†Faculty of Life and Social Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Understanding tourism behavior is fundamental to tourism marketing, and cross-cultural influences are particularly relevant. Therefore, in understanding of tourist motivation toward cultural experiences, this study offers an integrated motivational process model adapted from the leisure literature to extend the theoretical and empirical evidence of relevant constructs and relationships between them. From the tourism literature, a new motivation–benefit model of four psychological dispositions relevant to cultural experiences is proposed and tested: attitudes, motives, benefits sought, and benefits gained. Using four English-speaking tourist market samples from the psychically close Anglo cluster, the research model investigates relationships between the four constructs, applying a structural equation modeling approach. Cross-cultural differences are then tested for the geographic tourist markets as influences on the motivational process model. In the study context, these tourist markets take on an additional significance with one group of domestic tourists and three groups of international tourists. By applying a data set for tourists from the Anglo cluster using a repeat-measurement method, their previously identified psychic closeness is tested as well as further differences that could be expected between the domestic and the international tourists. The model is supported for these tourists, but with significantly weaker attitudes and motives for New Zealand tourists.

Key words: Motives; Attitudes; Benefits; Cultural moderating effects; Anglo nationality cluster

Address correspondence to Pandora Kay, Ph.D., Lecturer in Marketing, School of Management & Marketing, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9244 6591; Fax: +61 3 9251 7083; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 399–414
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372325957
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Wine Tourism Experience Effects of the Tasting Room on Consumer Brand Loyalty

Johan Bruwer,* Michael Coode,† Anthony Saliba,‡ and Frikkie Herbst§

*School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
†School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
‡School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia
§Graduate School of Business, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

This study’s overall purpose was to contribute to the wine tourism knowledge base regarding the impact of the winery tasting room experience on consumer wine brand loyalty. A total of 108 surveys were conducted at wineries in the Barossa Wine Region in South Australia in an exploratory study. The study’s main contribution is the development of three scales to operationalize the research, namely, Wine Brand Loyalty, Winery Tasting Room Initial Perception, and Winery Tasting Room Actual Experience Scales, and to determine what influence initial perceptions combined with the actual tasting room experiences have on brand attitudes and eventually on brand loyalty. The brand loyalty scale returned a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. It was confirmed that wine quality has a significant impact on brand attitudes. A higher level of perceived wine value increased brand attitudes, whereas positive brand attitudes increase the likelihood of future purchase intentions. The overall tasting room experience is significantly correlated to brand attitudes. There is a strong correlation between the winery tasting room experience and brand loyalty, proving that consumers who have an enjoyable and memorable experience are more likely to buy the wine again and/or promote the wine brand to others.

Key words: Brand loyalty; Tasting room; Wine tourist; Consumer behavior; Tourism experience; Wine

Address correspondence to Professor Johan Bruwer, School of Marketing, University of South Australia, City West Campus, P.O. Box 364, Highgate, SA 5063, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8339 7903; Fax: +61 8 8339 7903; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 415–428
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372325993
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Impact of the Destination’s Online Initiatives on Word of Mouth

Cristian Morosan

Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel & Restaurant Management, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA

An already complex destination marketing advertising landscape became even more complex as new social media were added in recent years. Within this context, it is increasingly difficult for destinations to ascertain which combination of advertising media channels generates the highest impact on destinations by persuading potential travelers to visit the destination. Using data from a medium-sized destination from Midwestern US, this study found that travelers’ intentions to visit a destination’s website and its social media pages influence their intentions to visit the destination. In turn, travelers’ intentions to visit the destination influence their intentions to develop positive word of mouth and intentions to share their experiences online.

Key words: Destination e-marketing; Technology adoption model; Social media; e-Word of mouth

Address correspondence to Cristian Morosan, Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel & Restaurant Management, University of Houston, Calhoun St., Houston, TX 77204, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 429–442
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372326037
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Field Study of Factors and Variables Regarding Tour Destination Loyalty of Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh

Md Enayet Hossain,* Mohammed Quaddus,†‡ and Tekle Shanka§

*Department of Marketing, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
†Curtin Graduate School of Business, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
‡International Institute of Agri-Food Security, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia
§School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia

It is a generally held belief that a tourism destination gets maximum benefit from loyal visitors compared to nonloyal visitors. Although literature on loyalty covers different issues, it lacks a comprehensive study of factors and variables that influence destination loyalty. Therefore, this article aims to investigate the main factors affecting destination loyalty in adopting and applying it to the world’s longest beach, Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh. Initially a conceptual destination loyalty framework was developed based on the literature. An exploratory field study utilizing a deductive methodological approach was undertaken by conducting field interviews with 10 experienced visitors from multiple disciplines. Then, we utilized a content analysis based on transcription of the interviews to extract the factors and variables and further developed a loyalty framework. The outcomes of the field interviews identify three new factors (Religious Belief, Seasonal Variation, and Level of Income) that play important roles in destination loyalty judgment. In addition, nine variables (natural beauty, longest beach, reputed place, adjacent attractions, nontraditional items, time, rational price of tourism products, recommendable place, and visit again) are also found to be common and of utmost importance. The article concludes by highlighting the methodological, theoretical, managerial implications, and future research directions.

Key words: Destination loyalty; Qualitative method; Content analysis

Address correspondence to Md Enayet Hossain, Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh. Tel. +880 72175041 Ext. 4135; Mobile: +880 1746583853; Fax +880 721750064; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 443–455
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372326073
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents’ Attitudes Toward Tourism Development in Macao: A Path Model

Xiangping Li and Yim King Penny Wan

Institute for Tourism Studies, Tourism College, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China

Under the framework of social exchange theory, this study has attempted to examine residents’ perceptions of and attitudes toward tourism development in Macao. More specifically, this study has investigated the structural relationships between residents’ support for and restriction on tourism development and their perceived positive and negative tourism impacts, job dependency, community attachment, and decision involvement. Path analysis is used for data analysis. Findings indicate that residents’ perceptions are influenced by community attachment and decision involvement, and their support for tourism development can be predicted by their perceptions of tourism impacts and decision involvement. The results lend support for social exchange theory in the context of Macao.

Key words: Resident attitudes; Job dependency; Community attachment; Decision involvement; Macao

Address correspondence to Xiangping Li, Institute for Tourism Studies, Tourism College, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China. Tel: +853 8506 1352; Fax: +853 8506 1283; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 457–469
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372326118
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Knowledge Sharing and Social Technology Acceptance Model: Promoting Local Events and Festivals Through Facebook

Woojin Lee* and Cody Morris Paris†‡

*School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†Middlesex University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
‡University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

This study examines Facebook page “events” as a medium for promoting special events to consumers. It proposes a Social Technology Acceptance Model, an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model, to examine the influence of Trust, Strength of Relationships (knowledge-sharing factors), and Perceived Enjoyment in forming consumer attitudes toward Facebook and consumer intentions to attend an event. A total of 155 data were collected through a survey administered on a special event organizer’s Facebook “page.” Findings suggest that users’ Trust, Strength of Relationships, and Perceived Enjoyment significantly affect users’ acceptance of Facebook and their intentions to attend an event. The theoretical impact of the current study of knowledge sharing can be valuable to understanding Facebook usage behavior. Moreover, by integrating concepts of Trust and Strength of Relationships, empirical support illustrates that social media provides event marketers a means to benefit from the strong and weak ties of individual social networks.

Key words: Knowledge-sharing factors; Social capital; Social media; Event marketing; Consumer behavior

Address correspondence to Woojin Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, 411 North Central Avenue, Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0953, USA. Tel: +1-602-496-1228; Fax: +1-602-496-0853; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 471–477
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13736372326154
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Second Life: The Potential of 3D Virtual Worlds in Travel and Tourism Industry

Yu-Chih Huang,* Sheila J. Backman,† Francis A. Mcguire,† Kenneth F. Backman,† and Lan-Lan Chang‡

*Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan
†Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
‡Department of Leisure and Recreation Management, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan

The immersive nature of 3D virtual worlds presents significant opportunities for tourism businesses as an optimal marketing platform to provide travel information and interact with potential tourists as well as a useful management tool to develop brand awareness and gain competitive advantage in the global market. Several travel and tourism organizations have used Second Life as a collaborative and commercial tool for communicating with travelers as well as tourism enterprises (e.g., Tourism Ireland; Philippines Department of Tourism; STA travel agents; Starwood Hotels; Crowne Plaza). Given the growth and potential of technologies within the tourism industry and particularly the rising interest in virtual worlds such as Second Life, this study focuses on the extent to which the virtual world of Second Life has been used in tourism industry. Specifically, this study describes what types of spaces tourism businesses are creating or simulating and the types of tourism activities being conducted in the 3D virtual environment. An overview of the definition of virtual worlds and information about the virtual world of Second Life is provided. The potentials of Second Life in the context of tourism marketing and tourism management are discussed, and the article concludes with potential future research related to the use of 3D virtual worlds.

Key words: 3D Virtual worlds; Second Life; Tourism marketing; Tourism management

Address correspondence to Yu-Chih Huang, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it