Event Management 17(4) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 323–336
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13708863378114
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Marketing Strategy to Increase Exhibition Attendance Through Controlling and Eliminating Leisure Constraints

Daehui Peter Lee* and Radesh Palakurthi†

*Department of Tourism Management, Soonchunhyang University, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
†The Wilson School of Hospitality and Resort Management, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA

The purpose of this study is to discover marketing strategies to increase exhibition attendance through controlling and eliminating leisure constraints that prevent customers from attending exhibitions. In this study, statistical methods such as reliability analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, independent samples t tests, paired samples t tests, and analysis of variance were utilized to analyze the data. The results showed that there were significant relationships between demographic characteristics of exhibition attendees and the leisure constraints (i.e., intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, and structural constraints) perceived by them. The findings of this study give exhibition planners, organizers, managers, and researchers useful information for discovering marketing strategies in order to control and eliminate specific constraints that prevent customers from attending exhibitions.

Key words: Exhibition; Leisure constraints theory; Marketing strategy

Address correspondence to Daehui Peter Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Soonchunhyang University, 646, Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myeon, Asan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. Tel: +82-41-530-3011; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 337–348
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13728763846492
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Considering Cultural Influences in Volunteer Satisfaction and Commitment

Sheranne Fairley,* Younghan Lee,† B. Christine Green,‡ and Mi Lyang Kim§

*School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD, Australia
†Mark H. McCormack Department of Sport Management, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
‡Department of Kinesiology & Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
§Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea

Volunteers are crucial to the delivery of sport events worldwide. This research examines the efficacy of Western models of volunteering for Korean volunteers. Specifically, this research examines the relationship between benefits, sense of community, satisfaction, and commitment in a Korean context. A survey of 218 volunteers at the 2011 Formula One Grand Prix in Seoul, Korea was conducted. The results indicate that the structure of benefits obtained was less differentiated than previous research that has been conducted in Western cultures where volunteering is more prevalent. Further, the results show that the two benefits that Korean volunteers believed they obtained, excitement and professional development, do not impact satisfaction or commitment. Instead, sense of community was found to directly impact satisfaction and commitment, which is congruent with the collectivist values of Korean society.

Key words: Volunteerism; Cultural differences; Collectivism; Sport event; Volunteer retention

Address correspondence to Dr. Sheranne Fairley, School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 349–359
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444828
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Visitors’ Motivations in Attending an Ethnic Minority Cultural Festival: A Case Study of the Feŝta Croatian Food and Wine Festival, South Australia

Sangkyun Kim, Ana Savinovic , and Steve Brown

Department of Tourism, School of Humanities, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

This study investigates visitors’ motivations for attending an ethnic minority cultural festival in Australia. As an empirical study, an on-site survey was conducted at the 2009 Feŝta Croatian Food and Wine Festival in Adelaide, South Australia. The results of the study identified eight main motivational dimensions for ethnic minority cultural festival attendance: “community support,” “escape,” “knowledge/education,” “food, wine, and entertainment,” “family togetherness,” “marketing,” and “socialization.” The results also suggested that no statistically significant differences were found between Croatian-born and non-Croatian-born visitors in terms of all eight motivational factors. These findings offer important implications for public or private festival and event organizations, state governments, and local communities that have an interest in developing and organizing ethnic minority cultural festivals.

Key words: Ethnic minority; Cultural festival; Visitor motivation; South Australia; MANOVA

Address correspondence to Dr. Sangkyun Kim, Senior Lecturer in Tourism, Department of Tourism, School of Humanities, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 (0) 8 8201 3039; Fax: +61 (0) 8 8201 3635; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 361–376
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444585
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Study of Psychological Support From Local Residents for Hosting Mega-Sporting Events: A Case of the 2012 Indianapolis Super Bowl XLVI

Soonhwan Lee and Brian D. Krohn

IU School of Physical Education and Tourism Management, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA

The purpose of the current study was to assess local residents’ psychological support prior to hosting a mega-sporting event and to report preliminary results as to which factors of support affect local residents’ attitudes toward hosting future mega-sporting events, using the case of the 2012 Super Bowl in Indianapolis. This study provides a theoretical model to examine local residents’ psychological support factors using structural equation modeling, which helps the understanding of local residents in the process of supporting the hosting of mega-sporting events in the future. The results of this study indicate that the perceptions of positive outcomes from the event have the strongest relationship to feelings toward hosting future events. Therefore, governing bodies of the host community and the event should rely most heavily on the positive outcomes. While the negative factors were not as strongly related, they were still significant indicators of feelings toward future events. The part of the plans pertaining to growing community support should include ways that the negative impacts might be mitigated.

Key words: Psychological impacts; Community support; Positive externalities; Negative externalities; Mega-sporting even

Address correspondence to Brian D. Krohn, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism, Conventions and Event Management, School of Physical Education and Tourism Management, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), 901 West New York Street, Office 258A, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Tel: +1-317-274-7615; Fax: +1-317-278-2041; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 377–389
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444620
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents’ Perceptions of the Inaugural Youth Olympic Games 2010: A Cluster Analysis

Michael Chiam and Elaine Cheng

School of Business and Accountancy, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore

The inaugural Youth Olympic Games 2010 was one of the major sporting events held in Singapore. It brought together 3,600 young athletes from 295 countries to compete in 26 sport events. Conducted during the Games, this study sought to evaluate the impact of the Games on local residents by using a total of 34 impact statement items. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to categorize the impact statements under a smaller number of meaningful factors. Specifically, the impact statement items related to the positive impact were categorized under the following three factors: Long-Term Social Benefits to Singapore, Tourism Benefits, and Economic Benefits. The impact statements pertaining to the negative impact were placed under the following three factors: Quality of Life, Social Behavior, and Preparation for the Games. A cluster analysis was also performed: there were three clusters of residents—Enthusiasts, Enthusiasts With Reservations, and Skeptics. In general, residents were supportive of the Games and perceived the Games to have a positive impact on the country. But there are negative perceptions of the Games too, such as its negative impact on the environment, the inconveniences created, and the disruptiveness to their lives.

Key words: Social impact; Olympic Games; Resident perceptions; Social exchange theory

Address correspondence to Michael Chiam, Senior Lecturer, School of Business and Accountancy, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, Singapore 599489. Tel: +65 6460 6043; Fax: +65 6467 3473; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 391–407
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444666
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmentation of Cycling Event Participants: A Two-Step Cluster Method Utilizing Recreation Specialization

Matthew Lamont and John Jenkins

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

Recreation specialization is a widely applied concept for segmenting recreation participants according to their levels of skill and expertise in particular activities; however, few studies have employed this concept as a segmentation variable in event management research. A segmentation method incorporating two-step cluster analysis, underpinned by recreation specialization, is proposed and tested for segmenting attendees at a participatory sporting event. The research used data collected through a survey conducted at the 2010 Audax Alpine Classic, a participatory cycling event held each February (Summer) in Australia’s Victorian Alpine region. Participants in this event exhibited high levels of recreation specialization in relation to cycling and could be segmented into two distinct clusters: Intermediate cyclists and Expert cyclists. The two clusters demonstrated statistically significant differences in terms of the distance they chose to ride, their motivations for participating in the event, and their opinions regarding a variety of operational aspects to do with the event. Data indicated that the event catered to a specialized, yet nuanced, participant base. The advantages of employing exploratory segmentation methods through application of the concept of recreation specialization in event management research are discussed.

Keywords: Recreation specialization; Cycling; Segmentation; Sport events; Amateur athletes

Address correspondence to Matthew Lamont, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: +61 (02) 6626 9428; Fax: +61 (02) 6626 9155; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 409–423
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444701
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Motivation-Based Segments of the Sulkava Rowing Race Event Visitors

Maria Karvonen and Raija Komppula

Department of Business, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland

Since several authors argue that tourism motivations are a decisive part of tourism behavior, the purpose of this study is to identify sport event visitor segments based on motivations at the Sulkava Rowing Race event. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to identify the profile of each segment. Differences between segments with respect to sociodemographic, event attendance and expenditure variables were examined. Five segments were identified: Event enthusiasts, Hangarounds, Novelty seekers, Nature lovers, and Rowing enthusiasts. Statistically significant differences between the segments were found. A review of the literature on event tourism and the findings of this study indicate that people attending different types of events (cultural events, sport events, religious events, etc.) do indeed share similar motivations to some extent and similar segments may appear across events. Nevertheless, the Hangarounds segment identified in this study has not so far been reported as such in the segmentation literature.

Keywords: Segmentation; Motivation; Event tourism; Sport event

Address correspondence to Raija Komppula, Department of Business, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, P.O. Box 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland. Tel. +358 50 438 7475; Fax +358 13 251 4299; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 425–438
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444747
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Large Sporting Events and Economic Growth: Evidence From Economic Consequences of Event Infrastructure and Venues

ShiNa Li

International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK

One of the most important reasons to hold a large sporting event is the large potential of an economic windfall. Findings of many studies show that holding large sporting events can bring large positive economic benefits. However, most existing literature assessing the economic impacts of mega-events neither properly considers the impact of costs of building event facilities nor captures physical legacies. This research designs a framework to measure both benefits and costs brought by event infrastructure and venues. Then this framework is applied to estimate the economic impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympics using CGE modeling.

Key words: Large sporting events; Economic growth; Event infrastructure and venues; Physical legacies

Address correspondence to Dr. ShiNa Li, Senior Lecturer in Events Management, International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, 109 Cavendish Hall, Headingley Campus, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK, LS6 3QW. Tel: +44(0)113 812 3483; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 17, pp. 439–452
1525-9951/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599513X13769392444783
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Using Scenarios to Investigate Stakeholders’ Views on the Future of a Sporting Event

Miguel Moital , Caroline Jackson, and Jenna Le Couillard

School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK

The aim of this research was to identify if the continuation of a sporting event was supported by its stakeholders and what their objectives were for its future. Using a methodology adapted from scenario planning, the research investigated if the stakeholders desired the event to grow, and if so, in which areas and to what level. The finding was that the stakeholders supported its growth. They viewed the sporting event as being a small-scale to medium-scale event and saw it growing to become a medium- to large-scale event. A key finding was that the stakeholders had conflicting views about its future features, and this was due to their varying backgrounds and objectives set for the event. The results of this research emphasize the need for both researchers and practitioners to be more fully aware of the similarities and differences in stakeholder objectives in a dynamic, rather than static, environment.

Key words: Stakeholder; Growth; Scenarios; Community events; Sporting events

Address correspondence to Miguel Moital, Senior Lecturer in Events Management, School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +441202966674; Fax: +441202515707; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it