Gene Expression 16(1) Abstracts

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Gene Expression, Vol. 16, pp. 1–13, 2013
1052-2166/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221613X13776146743262
E-ISSN 1555-3884
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

MicroRNAs Synergistically Regulate Milk Fat Synthesis in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats

Xianzi Lin, Jun Luo, Liping Zhang, and Jiangjiang Zhu

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China

Synergistic regulation among microRNAs (miRNAs) is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the complex molecular regulatory networks in goats. Goat milk fat synthesis is driven by a gene network that involves many biological processes in the mammary gland. These biological processes are affected by several miRNAs rather than a single miRNA. Therefore, identifying synergistic miRNAs is necessary to further understand the functions of miRNAs and the metabolism of goat milk fat synthesis. Using qRT-PCR, we assessed the expression of 11 miRNAs that have the potential to regulate milk fat synthesis in the goat mammary gland. Six of these miRNAs exhibited expression during the lactation cycle. Additionally, we also found that prolactin, the key hormone that regulates lactation, promotes the expression of four miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-103, and miR-200a). Further functional analysis showed that overexpression of all four miRNAs by using recombinant adenovirus in goat mammary gland epithelial cells can affect gene mRNA expression associated with milk fat synthesis. Specifically, elevated miR-200a expression suppressed the mRNA expression of genes involved in fat droplet formation. To analyze the synergistic regulation among these four miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-27b, miR-103, and miR-200a), we used the Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the correlation between their expression levels in 30 lactating goats. As a result, we found a strong correlation and mutual regulation between three miRNA pairs (miR-23a and miR-27b, miR-103 and miR-200a, miR-27b and miR-200a). This study provides the first experimental evidence that miRNA expression is synergistically regulated in the goat mammary gland and has identified the potential biological role of miRNAs in goat milk fat synthesis. The identification of synergistic miRNAs is a crucial step for further understanding the molecular network of milk fat synthesis at a system-wide level.

Key words: Synergistic miRNAs; Metabolism of milk fat synthesis; Dairy goat

Address correspondence to Jun Luo, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Tel/Fax: +86-029-87080055; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Gene Expression, Vol. 16, pp. 15–24, 2013
1052-2166/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221613X13776146743307
E-ISSN 1555-3884
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Differential Expression of Distinct Surface Markers in Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

Shu-Meng Cheng,* Shing-Jyh Chang,† Tsung-Neng Tsai,* Chun-Hsien Wu,* Wei-Shing Lin,* Wen-Yu Lin,* and Cheng-Chung Cheng*

*Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
†Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan

Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a fundamental role in postnatal angiogenesis. Currently, EPCs are defined as early and late EPCs based on their biological properties and their time of appearance during in vitro culture. Reports have shown that early EPCs share common properties and surface markers with adherent blood cells, especially CD14+ monocytes. Distinguishing early EPCs from circulating monocytes or monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) is therefore crucial to obtaining pure endothelial populations before they can be applied as part of clinical therapies. We compared the gene expression profiles of early EPCs, blood cells (including peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, and MDMs), and various endothelial lineage cells (including mature endothelial cells, late EPCs, and CD133+ stem cells). We found that early EPCs expressed an mRNA profile that showed the greatest similarity to MDMs than any other cell type tested. The functional significance of this molecular profiling data was explored by Gene Ontology database search. Novel plasma membrane genes that might potentially be novel isolation biomarkers were also pinpointed. Specifically, expression of CLEC5A was high in MDMs, whereas early EPCs expressed abundant SIGLEC8 and KCNE1. These detailed mRNA expression profiles and the identified functional modules will help to develop novel cell isolation approaches that will allow EPCs to be purified; these can then be used to target cardiovascular disease, tumor angiogenesis, and various ischemia-related diseases.

Key words: Early endothelial progenitor cell (EPCs); Monocyte; Macrophage; Gene expression profile; Surface marker

Address correspondence to Dr. Cheng-Chung Cheng, No. 325, Sec 2, Chenggong Road, Neihu District, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Tel: +886-2-87923311; Fax: +886-2-87927292; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Gene Expression, Vol. 16, pp. 25–30, 2013
1052-2166/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221613X13776146743343
E-ISSN 1555-3884
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Tcea3 Regulates the Vascular Differentiation Potential of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

Young Cha,*† Sun-Hee Heo,* Hee-Jin Ahn,* Seong Kyu Yang,* Ji-Hwan Song,* Wonhee Suh,‡1 and Kyung-Soon Park*1

*Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seoul, Korea
†Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA
‡College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea

Tcea3 is present in high concentrations in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and functions to activate Lefty1, a negative regulator of Nodal signaling. The Nodal pathway has numerous biological activities, including mesoderm induction and patterning in early embryogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of Tcea3 in mESCs shifts the cells from pluripotency into enhanced mesoderm development. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and VEGFC, major transcription factors that regulate vasculogenesis, are activated in Tcea3 knocked down (Tcea3 KD) mESCs. Moreover, differentiating Tcea3 KD mESCs have perturbed gene expression profiles with suppressed ectoderm and activated mesoderm lineage markers. Most early differentiating Tcea3 KD cells expressed Brachyury-T, a mesoderm marker, whereas control cells did not express the gene. Finally, development of chimeric embryos that included Tcea3 KD mESCs was perturbed.

Key words: Tcea3; Vasculogenesis; Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)

1These authors provided equal contribution to this work.
Address correspondence to Kyung-Soon Park, Ph.D., Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, #606-16, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-081, Korea. Tel: +82-31-725-8381; Fax: +82-31-725-8350; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or Wonhee Suh, Ph.D., College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Sunwon 443-749, Korea. Tel: +82-31-219-3445; Fax: +82-31-219-3675; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Gene Expression, Vol. 16, pp. 31–38, 2013
1052-2166/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221613X13776146743389
E-ISSN 1555-3884
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Expression of Alcoholism-Relevant Genes in the Liver Are Differently Correlated to Different Parts of the Brain

Lishi Wang,*† Yue Huang,* Yan Jiao,*‡ Hong Chen,§ Yanhong Cao,*¶ Beth Bennett,# Yongjun Wang,** and Weikuan Gu*

*Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery–Campbell Clinic, and Pathology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA
†Department of Basic Medicine, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhhot City, Inner Mongolia, China
‡Mudanjiang Medical College, Mudanjiang, People’s Republic of China
§The First Hospital of Qiqihaer City, Qiqihaer, China
¶Institute of Kaschin-Beck Disease, Center for Endemic Disease Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China
#School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA
**Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in the brains of those with alcoholism are due to the difference in the associations of gene expression between genes in liver and in different parts of the brain.

Key words: Alcoholism; Brain structure; Gene expression; Liver

Address correspondence to Weikuan Gu, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 956 Court Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Tel: +1-901-448-2259; Fax: +1-901-448-6062; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Gene Expression, Vol. 16, pp. 39–47, 2013
1052-2166/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/105221613X13806435102312
E-ISSN 1555-3884
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Determination of Relative Notch1 and γ-Secretase-Related Gene Expression in Puromycin-Treated Microdissected Rat Kidneys

Damir Simic, Frank Simutis, Catherine Euler, Christina Thurby, W. Mike Peden, R. Todd Bunch, Gary Pilcher, Thomas Sanderson, and Terry Van Vleet

Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Drug Safety Evaluation, Mt. Vernon, IN, USA

Notch signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and are highly conserved across species. Notch ligand binding leads to γ-secretase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the Notch receptor releasing the Notch intracellular domain, resulting in its subsequent translocation into the nucleus and gene expression regulation. To investigate the level of expression of Notch signaling pathway components in microanatomic regions following renal injury, kidneys from untreated, vehicle control, and puromycin aminonucleoside (PA, 150 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated. Frozen tissue sections from rats were microdissected using laser capture microdissection (LCM) to obtain glomeruli, cortical (proximal) tubules, and collecting ducts, and relative gene expression levels of Presenilin1, Notch1, and Hes1 were determined. In untreated rats, the Notch1 expression in glomeruli was higher than in the proximal tubules and similar to that in collecting ducts, whereas Presenilin1 and Hes1 expressions were highest in the collecting ducts, followed by cortical tubules and glomeruli. Following PA-induced renal injury, Hes1 gene expression increased significantly in the glomeruli and tubules compared to the collecting ducts where no injury was observed microscopically. Although these data present some evidence of change in Notch signaling related to injury, the expression of Presenilin1, Notch1, and Hes1 in the microanatomic regions of the kidney following PA treatment were not significantly different when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that there are differences in Notch-related gene expression in the different microanatomic regions of the kidneys in rats and suggest a minimal role for Notch in renal injury induced by PA. In addition, this work shows that LCM coupled with the RT-PCR can be used to determine the relative differences in target gene expression within regions of a complex organ.

Key words: Laser capture microdissection LCM; RT-PCR; Puromycin; Kidney; Notch; γ-Secretase

Address correspondence to Damir Simic, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Drug Safety Evaluation, 4601 Highway 62 East, Building 101 (P3), Mt. Vernon, IN 47620, USA. Tel: +1-812-307-2377; Fax: +1-812-307-2199; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it