Tourism Analysis 18(5) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 485–501
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307632
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social Worlds as a Framework for Event and Travel Careers

Donald Getz and Ian Patterson

School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, Queensland, Australia

Social world theory provides a framework to examine the event and travel-related careers of special-interest tourists. Social worlds can be examined across four dimensions, namely, actors, events, practices, and formal organizations with potential links to travel behavior. Event-travel careers are hypothesized as consisting of evolving motivations, preferences, and patterns of travel—including event and destination choices. To inform this approach, qualitative analysis was undertaken by passive netnography consisting of a systematic analysis of material posted on blogs by food lovers and people engaged in amateur distance running, mountain biking, and ballroom dancing. Observed differences between social worlds are analyzed with reference to competitive versus noncompetitive emphases, solo versus group activity, skill levels, divisibility of the pursuit into subpursuits, the existence of portfolios of related activities that engage participants, and the degree to which commercialization occurs. The article concludes with a set of propositions for guiding future research and theory development.

Key words: Social worlds; Special interests; Leisure involvement; Events; Travel careers

Address correspondence to Ian Patterson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, 4072 Queensland, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 503–517
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307678
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Destination Competitiveness: Internal and External Comparisons of Malta and Cyprus

Ernest Azzopardi* and Robert Nash†

*Department of Economics, University of Malta, Malta
†Department of Hotel and Resort Management, Faculty of Business, Bond University, QLD, Australia

This article provides an objective statistical study of tourism destination competitiveness (TDC) on the two Mediterranean Islands of Malta and Cyprus. Both islands have been in the business of tourism for over 50 years and share many similarities and also provide very reliable, comparable tourism data. The study is based on an analysis of the publications of National Statistics Office (NSO) bulletins, annuals, official references, and special reports from both countries. Malta’s competitiveness is evaluated through statistical interpretation of performance measures. This analysis provides a means of evaluating competitiveness based on internal assessment, but an external evaluation is also provided by comparing the performance of Malta to that of Cyprus. Finally, the competitiveness of both Malta and Cyprus is evaluated within a global and Mediterranean context.

Key words: Tourism; Destination; Competitiveness

Address correspondence to Dr. Robert Nash, Department of Hotel and Resort Management, Faculty of Business, Bond University, QLD 4229, Australia. Tel.: +61 7 5595 1169; Fax: +61 7 5595 1160; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 519–531
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307713
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Innovation and Collaboration: The Role of the National Government in Norway

Xiang Ying Mei,* Charles Arcodia,† and Lisa Ruhanen‡

*Eastern Norway Research Institute, Lillehammer, Norway
†Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
‡School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

In recent years, innovation in tourism has become increasingly in focus as a strategy to gain competitive advantage. More studies in this area are still necessary as the role of the national government in such a process is still not well understood. This study focuses on the national government’s role in stimulating networks and collaboration in order to encourage tourism innovation and its related activities. Based on the data gathered in Norway, the results of this study suggest that effective collaboration in terms of communication and networks is considered crucial in regard to tourism innovation at the national level. Four areas in which collaboration takes place were identified: collaboration within the government, public–private collaboration, collaboration among industry operators, and collaboration with other industries. Although its national government is keen to initiate such networks and collaboration, the results suggest that success is not solely determined by the national government. Public–private collaboration and encouraging collaboration among industry tourism operators have caught more government attention than the remaining two. Furthermore, the effectiveness of networks and collaboration as innovative processes to support tourism operators and contribute to destination development still needs to be further explored.

Key words: Norway; Innovation; Collaboration

Address correspondence to Dr. Xiang Ying Mei, Eastern Norway Research Institute, PO Box 223, 2601 Lillehammer, Norway. Tel: +47 90505085; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 533–542
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307759
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sex Tourism in Kenya: An Analytical Review

Kempe Ronald Hope, Sr.

Development Practice International (DPI), Oakville, Ontario, Canada

Although the Kenyan tourism sector has been beneficial to the country’s economy, it has not been cost free. There are also a variety of negative aspects of tourism development in Kenya, and one of its least desirable characteristics and most visible negative aspect is the impact on indigenous cultures and values. Kenya’s beach tourism has spawned prostitution, crime, and corruption along the coast. Inland, tourists visit cultural villages semidressed, kiss and caress, and offend traditional sensibilities because they are given no code of conduct. But perhaps the most significant negative impact of the travel and tourism activities in Kenya is sex tourism. This article analytically discusses and reviews the increasingly popular phenomenon of sex tourism in Kenya.

Key words: Kenya; Tourism; Sex; Prostitution

Address correspondence to Kempe Ronald Hope, Sr., Developmental Practice International (DPI), PO Box 30002, Oakville, Ontario L6H 7L8, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 543–557
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307795
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Mediating Role of Sensation Seeking on the Relationship Between Risk Perceptions and Travel Behavior

Mona Sharifpour, Gabrielle Walters, and Brent W. Ritchie

School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Previous tourism research recognizes the positive role that risk may play in arousing individuals’ interests to engage in certain activities or to visit destinations assumed to be risky. However, limited research has been devoted to expand our understanding of the nature of the relationship between sensation seeking and tourist risk perceptions. This research aimed to investigate the mediating role of sensation seeking that indirectly influences the relationships between individuals’ risk perception and their decision behavior. The results suggest that individuals’ sensation-seeking propensity may play a significant role in tolerating some risk types, particularly those associated with physical harm, and accordingly it can increase their willingness to travel to regions perceived to be risky. This research makes an original contribution to the field through the application of an empirical confirmatory approach while suggesting implications for practitioners.

Key words: Risk perception; Sensation seeking; Travel behavior

Address correspondence to Dr. Mona Sharifpour, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 559–573
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307830
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mapping Spatial Tourism and Hospitality Employment Clusters: An Application of Spatial Autocorrelation

A. Chhetri,* C. Arrowsmith,* P. Chhetri,† and J. Corcoran‡

*School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
†School of Business IT and Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
‡School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

This article analyzes the characteristics and spatial clustering of tourism and hospitality employment clusters in Victoria, Australia. Using cluster theory as the theoretical base, three interrelated research questions are specifically addressed: What industries constitute the tourism and hospitality sector? What broader “groupings” does the sector exhibit? Are these tourism and hospitality industries clustered around strategic areas of economic and resource advantage? Using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (at the four-digit level), industries explicitly related to tourism and hospitality were first identified and total numbers of individuals working within these industries were aggregated at a level of Statistical Local Area (similar to a suburb or a neighborhood). Results show that in 2006 employment in tourism and hospitality equate to 7.74% of total employment in Australia. “Cafés and restaurants” (22%) is the single largest tourism and hospitality-related employer, followed by “takeaway food services” (20%) and “accommodation” (16%). Using factor analysis, four broader functions were extracted to characterize the underlying structure and functional interdependency among tourism and hospitality industries. These functions include: tourism operational services, hospitality services, entertainment services, and infrastructure operational facilities services. Spatial autocorrelation measures have identified five established tourism and hospitality spatial clusters in Victoria, which we argue hold the potential to act as tourism growth foci to create business synergy and generate spill-over effects through regional collaboration, competition, and sharing of pooled resources between firms.

Key words: Tourism and hospitality sector; Cluster theory; Geographical information system (GIS); Spatial autocorrelation

Address correspondence to A. Chhetri, School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Tel: 03 9925 3277; Fax: 03 9663 2517; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 575–586
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307876
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Political Violence and Volatility in International Tourist Arrivals: The Case of Sri Lanka

Sriyantha Fernando, Jayatilleke S. Bandara, Susantha Liyanaarachch, Ruwan Jayathilaka, and Christine Smith

Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Nathan Campus Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia

In recent years, a growing body of literature has emerged exploring the link between dramatic fluctuations in tourist arrivals to particular destinations and events such as political violence and financial shocks. Sri Lanka is one such destination that provides a fascinating case study of this link. That is, international tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka have experienced notable fluctuations during the nearly three decades of civil war, particularly between 1983 and 2009. For the first time, an attempt is made in this study to model the conditional mean and conditional variance of the logarithm of monthly tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka. The results reveal a significant seasonal effect in tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka. First, the study demonstrates the existence of a large volatility in monthly tourist arrivals into Sri Lanka from 1978, stemming from the negative publicity in the print and electronic media and the travel warnings issued by Western countries relating to in-country conflict. Furthermore, the results suggest that major war-related incidents are strong enough to reduce the tourist arrival numbers by 5.2% per month compared to a period when peace is restored in the country.

Key words: Tourist arrivals; Peace; Volatility; Autorregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH); Sri Lanka

Address correspondence to Jayatilleke S. Bandara, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Nathan Campus Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. Tel: +63 (07) 37357759; Fax: +63 (07) 37353719; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 587–599
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307911
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Do Political Instability, Terrorism, and Corruption Have Deterring Effects on Tourism Development Even in the Presence of UNESCO Heritage? A Cross-Country Panel Estimate

Ghialy Yap and Shrabani Saha

School of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Faculty of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia

This article evaluates the effects of political instability, terrorism, and corruption on tourism development, particularly UNESCO-listed heritage destinations. Using a fixed-effects panel data analysis for 139 countries over the period 1999–2009, the result reveals that a one-unit increase in political instability decreases tourist arrivals and tourism revenue between 24% and 31% and 30% and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, in the presence of heritage, terrorism has negative effects on tourism demand even though its effect is lower than that of political instability. However, the study shows that an increase in corruption index would not have an adverse influence on tourist arrival numbers, particularly for those countries that have historical and natural heritage. Perhaps, many experienced travelers have expectations that they would require paying bribes to corrupt authorities for travel visa or permits to some tourist destinations in order to make things accessible. Moderation effect results indicate that political instability reduces tourism demand even in UNESCO-listed heritage destinations.

Key words: Political instability; Corruption; Tourism; Panel data analysis

Address correspondence to Ghialy Yap, School of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Faculty of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 601–605
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307957
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Predictive Validity of SUSTAS

Ercan Sirakaya-Turk* and Dogan Gursoy†

*Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA

The goal of this research note is to establish further support for a more rigorous form of validity of the SUSTAS scale by predicting behavioral intentions of residents toward pro-sustainable behavior using structural equation modeling (SEM). The data were collected from a stratified random sample of 2,000 households in Charleston County, South Carolina, USA. SUSTAS has reasonable predictive validity when behavioral intentions are measured by the two pro-sustainability factors.

Key words: Pro-sustainable travel; SUSTAS; Sustainable tourism attitudes; Validity

Address correspondence to Ercan Sirakaya-Turk, Ph.D., Professor of Tourism and the Associate Dean for Research, Grants and Graduate Programs, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Carolina Coliseum 109-A, Columbia, SC 29210, USA. Tel: +1 803 777-3327; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 607–613
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13782245307993
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Flower Power? Activity Preferences of Residents and Tourists to an Australian Flower Festival

Aaron Tkaczynski

School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Festivals act as attractions with drawing power that are strategically utilized as part of a destination’s marketing campaign. Although it is argued that festivals can be employed to strengthen, enhance, or change a destination’s image, it is essential to first identify a profile of attendees that can then be used to inform future marketing campaigns. This research aimed to segment attendees on the basis of their residency and activity preferences to the Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers, a major regional festival held in Queensland, Australia. An on-site self-administered questionnaire was utilized and 511 valid surveys were analyzed. Key findings from this research were that the number of residents and tourists were relatively equal and that the difference between the event-related activities for these two segments was insignificant. It was also concluded that whereas daily expenditure is higher for tourists, a large percentage travel from locations in proximity to the region and stay with friends and relatives. Several theoretical and practical implications are provided and opportunities for future research are outlined.

Key words: Activity preferences; Geographic segmentation; Resident; Tourist; Toowoomba Carnival of Flowers

Address correspondence to Aaron Tkaczynski, School of Tourism, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it