Technology & Innovation 15(3) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 187–195, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921708
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Vitamin D Science, WARF, and University of Wisconsin-Madison

Hector F. DeLuca, NAI Charter Fellow

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

The vitamin D system has been an incredible well for new information and for inventions that have benefited mankind. There is the promise that there will be new applications and new findings that will make the use of vitamin D-like compounds of great importance in the medical world, beyond rickets and osteomalacia. However, some of the suggested applications of vitamin D compounds will likely not be supported by actual direct examination. The vitamin D story illustrates the importance of basic science research at universities that foster important breakthroughs that either quickly or eventually benefit mankind.

Key words: Vitamin D; Steenbock; WARF; Nutrition

Accepted August 2, 2013
Address correspondence to Hector F. DeLuca, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1544, USA. Tel: +1-608-262-1620; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 197–209, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921744
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Camera-on-a-Chip: Technology Transfer From Saturn to Your Cell Phone

Eric R. Fossum, NAI Charter Fellow

Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA

The invention of the CMOS active pixel image sensor “camera-on-a-chip” at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and its subsequent development and commercialization via the spinoff company Photobit Corporation are discussed. The article traces the arc of the technology from innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurial startup to its use today in nearly all mobile phone cameras, tablet and web cameras, medical and automotive cameras, and many other applications.

Key words: Innovation; Technology transfer; Camera phone; Camera-on-a-chip; CMOS image sensor; Pill camera; Automotive camera; Web camera

Accepted June 5, 2013.
Address correspondence to Eric Fossum, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 211–226, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921780
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Increasing National Space Engineering Productivity and Educational Opportunities via Intrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation

Jeremy Straub

Department of Computer Science, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA

Research and educational efforts related to space engineering or requiring access to space face significant startup costs. The cost of developing a 1-U (10 cm × 10 cm × 11 cm) CubeSat from scratch can be approximately $250,000. Those buying a kit must pay amortized vendor development costs on a per-mission basis, creating a lower per-mission barrier. Kit users are also constrained by being unable to make changes to vendor subsystems without incurring substantial redevelopment costs or vendor charges. The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN) is changing this by providing freely available design documents for a 1-U CubeSat class spacecraft and its component subsystems. The OpenOrbiter spacecraft, currently under development at the University of North Dakota, will serve to demonstrate and validate these designs. The OpenOrbiter program is also demonstrating new techniques in interdisciplinary education and how disciplines that were not traditionally included in small spacecraft development efforts can aid the program through and benefit from involvement. This article provides an overview of OPEN and OpenOrbiter as well as considering its benefits to the national aerospace engineering efforts and its educational benefits.

Key words: Small spacecraft; CubeSat; Aerospace engineering; Project-based learning; Education

Accepted August 2, 2013.
Address correspondence to Jeremy Straub, Department of Computer Science, University of North Dakota, 3950 Campus Road, Stop 9015, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9016, USA. Tel: +1-701-777-4107; Fax: +1-701-777-3330; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 227–236, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921825
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Improving the Reliability of In Vivo Video Wireless Communications

Gabriel E. Arrobo and Richard D. Gitlin, NAI Charter Fellow

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

The MARVEL wireless research platform for advancing minimally invasive surgery requires high bit rates (~100 Mbps) for high-definition transmission. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a widely used technology in fourth-generation wireless networks (4G) that achieves high transmission rates over dispersive channels by transmitting serial information through multiple parallel carriers. Combining diversity coding with OFDM (DC-OFDM) promises high-reliability communications while preserving high transmission rates. Most of the OFDM subchannels transport original information while the remaining (few) carriers transport diversity coded (protection) information. Implementing diversity coding in OFDM-based systems provides reliable communication that is quite tolerant of link failures, since the data and protection lines are transmitted via multiple subchannels. Moreover, only adding one protection line (subcarrier), DC-OFDM provides significant performance improvement. The impact of DC-OFDM can extend far beyond in vivo video medical devices and other special purpose wireless systems and may find significant application in a broad range of ex vivo OFDM-based wireless systems, such as LTE, 802.11, and 802.16.

Key words: In vivo communications; Diversity coding (DC); Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

Accepted June 4, 2013.
Address correspondence to Gabriel E. Arrobo, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 237–242, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921861
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Accurately Evaluating Spinal Motion in Three Dimensions

Kerri Killen and Samantha Music

Versor, Inc., Cranford, NJ, USA

Back pain affects about 80% of Americans at some point in their lives. Surgical treatment is inevitable for patients who have scoliosis, kyphosis, degenerated disk, and spondylolysis. In such cases where a patient has undergone an extensive surgery for the spinal deformity, there are limited options for monitoring postoperative progress. The gold standard for monitoring rehabilitation and recovery is to obtain radiographs, which places risk due to the amount of radiation involved. In our senior design class at Stevens Institute of Technology, we developed and patented a noninvasive device that utilizes battery-powered sensors to ultimately reduce these pre- and postoperative evaluation costs by $5.04 billion per year nationwide. Each potentiometer measures rotations in the three orthogonal axes encompassing flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation. The device is easy to use, requires minimal training, and encompasses patient comfort yet provides immediate results in an office setting. The goniometric method presents an accurate and innovative system for measuring range of motion of the spine. This device can assist spinal surgeons as well as physical therapists while monitoring progression of a patient’s motion following surgery. Ultimately, this device could be used toward other orthopedic specialties to further reduce patient costs and radiation exposure. We have established a company to further develop the device and are currently transitioning from students to entrepreneurs.

Key words: Electrogoniometer; Spinal measurement; Noninvasive; Three dimensions

Accepted June 4, 2013.
Address correspondence to Kerri Killen, 4 Denman Place, Cranford, NJ 07016, USA. Tel: +1-908-337-4798; Fax: +1-908-272-5813; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 243–251, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921906
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Usefulness of Wireless Technology in Medical Applications

Anagha Jamthe, Suryadip Chakraborty, Saibal K. Ghosh, and Dharma P. Agrawal, NAI Charter Fellow

Center for Distributed and Mobile Computing, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

An increasing demand of using the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for healthcare, well-being, real-time monitoring, and working in extreme environments has long roots in the computing sector as well as in the medicine and biology community. With immense advancements in technology, recent efforts in promoting these concepts is moving sensor connectivity concept to adopt a system-level approach that could address issues related to biosensor design, interfacing as well as ultralow power processing/communication, power scavenging, autonomic sensing, data mining, and integrated wireless sensor microsystems. Due to such architectural requirements, WSNs and body area sensor networks (BASNs) are being widely accepted for ambulatory and ubiquitous monitoring systems. The BASN is a network of wearable computing devices including few medical body sensors, which capture and wirelessly transmit different physiological data to a monitoring base station like a laptop, so as to provide real-time health information of a person in a noninvasive way. This is in contrast to implanting miniaturized sensor units inside the body in an invasive way. Recent research trend is to build a system that continuously monitors the changes of vital physiological signs and symptoms early in the course of an emergency response in order to prevent or mitigate adverse physical and psychological outcomes and ensure the location of the patients to be able to track and instantly alert medical personnel based on rapidly changing health conditions. This avoids any sort of potential health injuries during the course of their regular life, responding quickly to unforeseen circumstances as they arise.

Key words: Athletes; Biomedical applications; Continuous monitoring; Firefighters; Human body; Parkinson’s patients; Physiological monitoring; Wireless sensor network (WSN)

Accepted June 4, 2013.
Address correspondence to Anagha Jamthe, 6711 Pondfield Lane, Mason, OH 45040, USA. Tel: +1-(318)-542-9128; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 253–258, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921942
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Innovation , Disruption, and Teleaudiology

Gregg D. Givens,* Jianchu Jason Yao,† and Daoyuan Yao†

*Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Allied Health Sciences, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
†Department of Engineering, College of Technology and Computer Sciences, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

Innovation, although sometimes disruptive, may expose a new population of consumers to a product or service that they previously could not access. This can occur in business, manufacturing, and even health care. The innovation projects developed in the Teleaudiology and Engineering laboratory at East Carolina University have the potential to bring hearing health care remotely to populations of individuals with little to no access. However, the new system has interrupted many aspects of the traditional healthcare practice in the audiology field, including technology, reimbursement, and regulation/licensure. The authors outline steps toward alleviating these disruptions. Other innovators can take similar strategies to minimize disruptive impacts that their inventions bring to the society.

Key words: Audiology; Telepractice; Teleaudiology; Disruptive innovation; Internet

Accepted August 1, 2013.
Address correspondence to Gregg D. Givens, Professor and Chair, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Mail Stop 668, College of Allied Health Sciences, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. Tel: +1-252-744-6080; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 259–264, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020921988
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

NewVenturist Roadmap to Success: A Commercialization Guide for Academic Inventors

Babs Carryer1

Academic inventors wish to see their technology make it to customers—to save lives, help solve a problem, create a better environment, or advance humanity to a better place. For this to occur, an academic invention needs to be brought to the marketplace in a process commonly known as technology transfer. This process translates an invention to an innovation that finds traction in the marketplace and then moves to full commercialization. The academic inventor must champion their technology through this process. The inventor thus becomes an academic entrepreneur. Although all of entrepreneurship is fraught with risk, academic entrepreneurship has its own unique challenges. Faculty researchers are experts in their fields, but most have little experience with startups. University technology transfer offices are experts at patenting and licensing, but they may not have the expertise or resources to assist an academic entrepreneur as he/she travels the path to commercialization. Based on my years of experience with academic entrepreneurship and working with university researchers to commercialize their breakthrough technologies, I have developed a process—a commercialization guide—which is designed to walk an academic inventor through the process to successfully commercialize their invention. I call this guide the “NewVenturist Roadmap to Success” and describe it in this article.

Key words: Inventor; Invention; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Academic entrepreneurship; Startup; New venture; Technology transfer; NewVenturist

Accepted August 16, 2013.
1The author developed the process (NewVenturist Roadmap) described in this article and is author of the NewVenturist Blog (http://newventurist.com). She also is Adjunct Professor, Entrepreneurship, Carnegie Mellon University and University of Pittsburgh.
Address correspondence to Babs Carryer, 1339 N. Sheridan Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA. Tel: +1 412 310-3502; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 265–267, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020922022
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

A Short Primer on the Affordable Care Act

Haskell Adler

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been called one of the most sweeping and costly changes in the US healthcare marketplace with an estimated cost of approximately $1 trillion according to the Congressional Budget Office. The ACA is supposed to be financed by cuts in Medicare spending and new taxes. The legislation was designed to add 20 million new people to Medicaid and another 16 million through Affordable Insurance Exchanges in the 50 states. This is a summary of a talk about how some specific aspects of the ACA would likely affect technology transfer of new biomedical inventions.

Key words: Affordable Care Act (ACA); Biosimilar; Technology transfer; Commercialization

Accepted September 3, 2013.
Address correspondence to Haskell T. Adler, Ph.D., M.B.A., Senior Licensing Manager, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Tel: +1-813-745-6596; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 269–280, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020922068
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Understanding the High Cost of Success in University Research

Karen A. Holbrook and Paul R. Sanberg

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

In light of new transparency in budgeting and expenditures expected of central research administration and reductions in the amount of indirect cost revenues distributed to colleges, departments, and faculty, universities must present a more accurate perspective on the “real costs” of research, costs that extend well beyond support for the central research office. The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significant gap between the real costs of research within universities and the funding that is available to support them.

Key words: Indirect costs; University research; Facilities & Administrative (F&A); Research funding

Accepted September 3, 2013.
Address correspondence to Paul R. Sanberg, USF Research & Innovation, University of South Florida, 3702 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 165, Tampa, FL 33612-9445, USA. Tel: +1-813-971-5570; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 15, pp. 281–283, 2013
1929-8241/13 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982413X13790020922103
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary: Hacking for Change at the USPTO

Alexander Camarota

Office of Innovation Development, US Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC, USA

On June 1–2, 2013, the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) participated in the National Day of Civic Hacking, a nationwide coordinated hackathon to promote information sharing and collaboration between citizens and federal, state, and local governments. The USPTO provided a data set of registered trademark information, which was then used by teams of civic hackers to create search tools and methods with greater parameters than those already available on the USPTO website. The resulting projects have broad implications for future tools that make vast quantities of registered US trademarks and trademark applications data more navigable.

Key words: Trademarks; Patents; Civic hacking; Hacker; Information; USPTO; Hack for change

Accepted September 9, 2013.
Address correspondence to Alexander Camarota, Office of Innovation Development, US Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it