Tourism Analysis 18(6) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 621–634
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188505
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Festival Populations: An Application of Organizational Ecology

Tommy D. Andersson,*† Don Getz,*‡ and Reidar J. Mykletun*

*Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway
†School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
‡School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia

This article addresses the sustainability of festival populations from the perspective of organizational ecology theory, and in particular age and density dependence. Data from whole populations of festivals in three Norwegian counties are examined. Analyses of festival start-ups demonstrate that the number of events in each county had risen faster than population growth before plateauing, and changes were correlated significantly with trends in the Norwegian gross domestic product. Data on festival age, theme, and other variables were also considered in the light of whole population dynamics. It is concluded that the fundamental tenets of density dependence theory were empirically demonstrated insofar as rapid growth in the festival populations was not sustainable when resources diminished, but no data were available on festival failures. It appears that the hypothetical legitimation of festivals helps to explain rapid growth, as festivals have become popular instruments of public policy. Implications are drawn for future whole population studies and for policy makers who would seek to manage portfolios or whole populations of festivals.

Key words: Festival populations; Organizational ecology; Density dependence; Legitimation; Limits to growth; Norway

Address correspondence to Tommy D. Andersson, School of Business, Economics, and Law, University of Gothenburg, Vasagatan 1, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. Tel: +46 (0) 31 786 1526; Fax: +46 (0)31 786 4652;

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 635–649
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188541
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Measurement of Emotions Elicited Within Festival Contexts: A Psychometric Test of a Festival Consumption Emotions (FCE) Scale

Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee* and Gerard T. Kyle†

*School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
†Department of Park, Recreation, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Despite the growing number of studies on emotions conducted in tourism contexts, the scales measuring the phenomena have performed poorly, displaying questionable reliability and validity. Building from past work, we developed a Festival Consumption Emotions (FCE) scale capturing festival goers’ emotional experiences in situ. Employing on-site and follow-up mixed mode survey procedures, data were collected from visitors to three community-based agricultural-themed festivals. We tested the psychometric properties of the FCE scale using confirmatory factor analysis and explored variation in scale performance among men and women through invariance testing. The study results demonstrated that emotions elicited during respondents’ festival experience had four basic elements: love, joy, surprise, and negative. Although no differences were observed in the factorial structure of emotions by gender, the intensity of emotion expressed by men and women differed. Women scored higher than men on measures of positive emotions related to delight and lower on measures of negative emotions (i.e., unhappy and discontented). Based on these findings, we provide some insight on theory related to emotions and guidance for practice.

Key words: Festivals; Consumption emotions; Construct validity; Invariance testing

Address correspondence to Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee, School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: 61-2-9385-2696; Fax: 61-2-9663-1985; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 651–661
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188622
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Revelation of Nature-Minded Travelers: A Study of the Swedish

Joseph S. Chen,* Nina K. Prebensen,† Ya-Ling Chen,* and Hyangmi Kim*

*Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, Indiana University at Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA
†Tromso University Business School, Tromso, Norway

This research delineates the underlying markets of Swedish travelers visiting nature-based destinations in Norway. A total of 2,034 respondents are partitioned into mutually exclusive groups, based on the following four nature-related travel motivations: (1) to experience Norwegian nature, (2) to be active in nature, (3) to travel in a country that takes the environment seriously, and (4) to get close to nature. Consequently, the study reveals three distinct groups: (1) the Hardcore Explorer, (2) the Typical Participant, and (3) the Casual Seeker. All groups noted their most important motivation in this travel is “to experience the beautiful Norwegian nature.” While the Casual Seeker, which represents the smallest cluster, does not regard nature as the main attractor to Norway, the other two clusters are more likely to be motivated by their interest in nature. Relevant discussions and suggestions for future studies are provided in the conclusion.

Key words: Nature-based tourism; Motivation; Swedish; Norway

Address correspondence to Ya-Ling Chen, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, Indiana University at Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 663–676
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188668
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

International Sustainability Agreements: Are They Politically Influential for Tourism Governance Innovations?

Valentina Dinica

School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand

Political decision makers have significant roles to play in supporting or undermining the sustainability of tourism development nationally. To investigate their contributions to governance innovations, this article suggests a meta-conceptualization of governance in the form of Societal Hardwares ( institutions/laws/strategies/policies) interacting with Societal Processes (psychological/policy oriented/political/social/economic/organizational). This article addresses a question that has not received so far any scholarly attention, namely whether the international sustainability agreements concluded in Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Johannesburg (2002) have generated meaningful innovations in the governance of national tourism sectors, able to facilitate their sustainable development. Drawing on sociopsychology literature, this article proposes to differentiate among three groups of mechanisms that may influence the decision-making patterns and outcomes of political actors: Persuasion, Constraining, and Enabling Mechanisms. The research question is investigated empirically by means of the case study approach, looking at the political implementation processes by Parliament and Government in the Netherlands. The challenge for governance innovation addressed is that of horizontal policy integration across four policy domains: environmental protection, nature conservation, recreation, and tourism. The international agreements are assessed as having the effect of Persuasion Mechanisms on both political decision makers. Content-wise they were politically influential for Parliament but not for Government, who failed to adopt adequate governance innovations.

Key words: Sustainability; Governance innovations; Political behaviors; International agreements; Persuasion

Address correspondence to Dr. Valentina Dinica, Senior Lecturer in Public Policy, School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Tel: +64 4 463 5711; Fax: +64 4 463 5454; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 677–690
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188703
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Tourist’s Gaze: From the Perspective of a Muslim Woman

Asra Zaliza Bte Asbollah,* Clare Lade,† and Ewen Michael†

*University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
†Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia

This article continues the exploration of factors determining the tourist gaze in differing circumstances. Without intending to engage in a feminist debate, the article focuses on the preferences of women tourists as factors contributing to the development of domestic tourism in Malaysia. It goes further by using their own “tourist gaze” as a tool to explore these perceptions. This approach delivers outcomes that differ substantially from those of previous studies in comparable Western environments. Here, a case study from the resort town of Setiu serves to illustrate the complex array of social forces—a heady compound of nationality, race, culture, religion, and gender—to distinguish the preferences of local tourists and of Malay Muslim women in particular.

Key words: Motivations; Perceptions; Women; Malaysia; Muslim

Address correspondence to Clare Lade, Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 691–705
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188749
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Profiling Tourism SMEs According to Owners’ Support for Community: A Cluster Analysis Approach

Rob Hallak,* Guy Assaker,† and Peter O’Connor‡

*Centre for Tourism & Leisure Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
†School of Business, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
‡ESSEC Business School, Cergy Pontoise, France

This study profiles small and medium tourism enterprises (SMTEs) according to their level of support for local communities in order to investigate the relationship between such support and enterprise performance. Cluster analysis, chi-square, and MANOVA were used to explore data from 298 owners of SMTEs operating in South Australia. Results indicated that SMTEs are best grouped in two segments according to their level of support for community (Reluctants and Community Advocates). Segments can be differentiated by: 1) the number of family members working in the business; 2) the number of years the business has been in existence; 3) whether the owners have family members living in town; and 4) the type of business. Findings also demonstrate significant differences between segments in terms of business performance, with Community Advocates reporting greater levels of performance. As such, the findings have implications for scholars in tourism and entrepreneurial studies, and for tourism policy makers trying to support the sustainable development of regional tourism destinations.

Key words: Cluster analysis; Segmentation; Small and medium tourism enterprises (SMTEs); Support for community

Address correspondence to Rob Hallak, Centre for Tourism & Leisure Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5000, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 707–712
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13673398610853
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of World Heritage Site Image: The Case of Hue

Mingming Cheng,* Ipkin Anthony Wong,* and Matthew Tingchi Liu†

*Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau, China
†Department of Management and Marketing, University of Macau, Macau, China

Tourism image has commonly applied at the destination level, but its application in heritage sites with cross-cultural comparisons remains sparse. The objective of this research note is to explore the image of Hue’s UNESCO world heritage sites and to examine cross-cultural differences between domestic and international tourists on this image. We adopt Echtner and Ritchie’s image definition and apply it to assess the three image continuums—attribute–holistic, functional–psychological, and common–unique—using both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This study provides a timely update of the literature and offers both scholars and practitioners a better understanding of heritage site image and its cross-cultural differences.

Key words: Destination image; Cross-cultural; Heritage; Hue; Gender difference

Address correspondence to IpKin Anthony Wong, Tourism College, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macau, China. Tel: 853-8506-1360; Fax: 853-8506-1283; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 713–722
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188785
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Trip Budget and Destination Advertising Response

Yeongbae Choe, Jason L. Stienmetz, and Daniel R. Fesenmaier

National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Fox School of Business, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Advertising is one of the most important tools for destination marketing organizations. As such, many advertising effectiveness studies have been conducted which focus on the direct consequences of destination advertising. However, little of this research has examined the linkages between responses targeting certain aspects of the trip (e.g., hotel accommodation, attractions visited, etc.) and changes in trip budget as defined by the length of stay and money spent. The results of this study confirm that changes in trip budget and response to the destination advertising are related and they both impact total trip expenditures, but their impacts vary based on the nature of the trip. These relationships provide important implications for the understanding and design of destination advertising programs.

Key words: Destination advertising; Advertising effectiveness; Conversion studies; Trip structure

Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Professor and Director, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 723–729
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188820
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Social Valuation and Repeat Visitation of Grey Nomads in Regional Queensland of Australia

Renuka Mahadevan

School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

This is the first attempt at measuring the social valuation of self-drive elderly tourists based on a case study of those visiting regional Queensland of Australia in their caravans. Using the negative binomial model incorporating travel cost, and data from a pilot survey of 90 respondents, it was found that the grey nomads’ valuation of their visit to the Beaudesert region was A$833 per trip and their demand for travel was price insensitive. This reflects the huge sustainable revenue potential of the grey nomad market for tourism. The study also highlights factors that affect the visit frequency of grey nomads who are often repeat tourists. The findings of this study are an important policy tool for the management and understanding of elderly caravanning tourism.

Key words: Social valuation; Consumer surplus; Repeat visitation; Grey nomads

Address correspondence to Renuka Mahadevan, Associate Professor, School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Tel: 617-3365-6595; Fax: 617-3365-7299; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 731–735
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558188866
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Not So Different After All: Tourism Industry Members’ Opinions Regarding Recent and Future Tourism Issues

Sarah Nicholls

Departments of Community Sustainability and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

The tourism industry is fragmented in nature and this is sometimes manifested in perceived or actual differences in viewpoint between various subsets of the sector. In Michigan, for example, anecdotal evidence suggests such differences based on geographic location (in the Upper or the Lower Peninsula) and on setting (rural or urban). The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in opinion between members of various tourism industry segments regarding their perceptions of recent and future changes in their state’s tourism sector. Based on 132 responses to an online survey, the study found that there was, in fact, virtually no difference in opinion between industry members regarding recent and future changes in the Michigan tourism industry based on their geographic location, geographic setting, or number of years in the industry. The high level of consensus that became apparent as a result of these analyses bodes well for continued unification of the industry, in particular its efforts to raise awareness among elected officials of the importance of tourism to the economic well-being of the state and to garner support for increased Pure Michigan funding.

Key words: Tourism industry opinion; Strategic plan; Michigan

Address correspondence to Sarah Nicholls, Associate Professor, Departments of Community Sustainability and Geography, 480 Wilson Rd., Room 131, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA. Tel: (517) 432 0319; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 18, pp. 739–748
1083-5423/13 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354213X13824558470943
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2013 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Is There a Right to Tourism?

Noreen Breakey* and Hugh Breakey†

*School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
†Institute for Ethics, Governance and Law, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

With international tourist numbers surpassing 1 billion in 2012, the increasing consideration of the ethical issues in the Tourism Studies literature, and the investigation of “rights” in the broader context, it is surprising that the right to tourism has remained a relatively unexamined philosophical question. Indeed, even broader rights, such as the right to leisure, the right to freedom of movement, and the right to the pursuit of happiness, have little philosophical treatment—compared to the well-trammeled ground of rights of property, free speech, and suffrage, for example. While it is not possible (in a short review article) to mount a comprehensive case, in this review article Noreen and Hugh Breakey position their argument in the context of the international law of human rights, and offer a prima facie justification of the right to tourism on a number of ethical grounds, and present what they argue to be the philosophical right to pursue tourism. (Abstract by the Reviews Editor) [Readers of this journal who may wish to respond to these views (emanating from the east coast of Australia) are encouraged to send their short critiques to The Review Editor of Tourism Analysis, viz., to Prof. Keith Hollinshead at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . The editors will be particularly pleased to receive critiques/commentaries/challenges to Is There a Right to Tourism? that are under 1,000 words.]

Key words: Tourism ethics; Human rights; Right to tourism; Right to leisure; Right to freedom of movement; Pursuit of happiness

Address correspondence to Dr. Noreen Breakey, School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane Qld 4072, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3381 1008; Fax +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it