Tourism Review International 17(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 137-150
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418676880
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Growing Tourism in a Hostile Environment: A Case of Iran

Mahmood Bahaee* and Mahmoud Saremi†

*Department of Management, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI, USA
†College of Management and Administration, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

This article is concerned with international tourism performance in Iran. Iran’s share of global tourism receipts and arrivals in the last few decades compared to similar countries in the region has been abysmal despite its wealth of tourism attractions related to its history, culture, and natural environment. Given the current economic hardships in Iran due to imposition of several economic sanctions by the United Nations, the US, and the European Union, it is argued that international tourism has the potential to bring significant economic benefits to the country. We review Iran’s tourism performance with comparative countries in the Middle East region, then discuss the driving forces for the growth of global tourism within the context of Iran, and provide general recommendations for policy makers to more fully exploit the economic benefits of this industry.

Key words: Iran; International tourism; Economic development; Developing economies

Address correspondence to Mahmood Bahaee, Ph.D., Department of Management, Central Michigan University, 200 Smith Hall, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA. Tel: 989-774-3450; Fax: 989-774-1353; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 151-159
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418676925
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Previsitation and Posttour Awareness and Ratings of Tourism Attractions of Yankari and Cross River National Parks

Paulinus Chukwuemeka Ngoka* and Glory Mba-Abasi Ngoka†

*Department of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Nigeria
†Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

Tourism visits to national parks tend to be motivated by certain attractions or expectations, often conceived in a hierarchical order, which inform tourism to the particular destination. Meeting such expectations is critical to visitor satisfaction. Sometimes, however, tourists might experience a shift of interest from the key attractions that informed the tour to new or underrated features in the course of the tour—a situation that might lead to reordering of attractions after the tour. The present study sought to find out the attractions that inform tourism to Yankari National Park (YNP) and Cross River National Park (CRNP) and their ratings before and after visitation by tourists. The populations for the study comprised 720 tourists in YNP and 130 in CRNP. Samples of 90 tourists in YNP and 60 in CRNP were used. Wildlife and rainforest experience, respectively, were the key attractions to the parks. Reordering in ratings of attractions by tourists occurred in YNP after visitation, but was not so pronounced in CRNP. Difficulty in sighting key wildlife that informed travel to YNP was thought to account for this occurrence. Tourists knew of the existence of the upper limit of three attractions in each park prior to visitation, but came to discover an additional 7 out of 10 attractions eventually enjoyed in YNP, and 9 out of 12 in CRNP while touring. Low awareness of the attractions by potential tourists was implied. Publicity of the tourism attractions of the parks was recommended for optimizing tourism use of the destinations.

Key words: Previsitation; Postvisitation; Ratings; Tourism attractions; Yankari National Park (YNP); Cross River National Park (CRNP); Nigeria

Address correspondence to Paulinus Chukwuemeka Ngoka, Department of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267, Umuahia, Nigeria. Tel: +2347060574718 or +2348052209892; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 161-177
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418676961
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Climate Change and Sustainable Tourism: Carbon Mitigation by Environmentally Certified Tourism Enterprises

Heather Zeppel and Narelle Beaumont

Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and Development, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia

Tourism is susceptible to the impacts of climate change on destinations and businesses, but also contributes to the causes of climate change via greenhouse gas emissions from travel. This article reports on carbon mitigation actions by environmentally certified tourism enterprises in Queensland, Australia. The survey results profile attitudes to climate change, emissions auditing, carbon mitigation actions, and motives for emissions reduction. The study revealed that most operators believed climate change was an important issue for tourism and had implemented a range of carbon mitigation actions in energy, water, and waste reduction. The most popular actions were energy efficiency and reducing energy use, while less popular measures were adopting renewable energy and carbon offsetting. Tourism operators preferred lower cost actions that were easy to implement and would provide cost savings. The key motives for tourism operators implementing these carbon actions related to ecological responsibility and business competitiveness via cost savings and differentiating their business as “climate friendly.” These motivations align with general business principles driving the implementation of socially and environmentally responsible practices by companies. The findings suggest that environmentally certified tourism enterprises now consider emissions reduction measures to be an integral part of sustainable tourism development.

Key words: Climate change; Carbon mitigation; Environmental certification; Ecoefficiency actions; Sustainable tourism

Address correspondence to Heather Zeppel, Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and Development, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield 4300, Australia. Tel: +61 73470 4453; Fax: +61 7 3470 4199; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 179-194
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418677005
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Critical Ecotourism Factors Applicable to National Parks: A Visitor Perspective

Leonie De Witt,* Peet Van Der Merwe,† and Melville Saayman†

*Hospitality, Tourism and PR Management, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
†TREES (Tourism Research in Economic, Environs and Society), North West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa

South Africa boasts 21 national parks managed by South African National Parks (SANParks), which is the leading conservation organization and also the largest provider of ecotourism experiences in South Africa. Because SANParks depends heavily on tourist spending, it is important to successfully develop and manage its tourism products and services. A key aspect of the successful development and management of ecotourism products is to have an understanding of how tourists perceive ecotourism. An insight to tourists’ perceptions will assist in developing ecotourism guidelines, which will minimize negative impacts and at the same time add value to the tourist experience. The aim of this article is to determine critical ecotourism factors (CEFs) applicable to national parks from a visitor’s perspective. A web survey was conducted via the SANParks’ website. A factor analysis was performed and six factors were extracted. The factors include product development, local community involvement, environmentally friendly practices, food and activities, ethical behavior, and policies. It was the first time research of this nature had been conducted in South Africa. The results adhere to ecotourism characteristics. Key findings include: the high value respondents place on ethics and the importance of educational programs, staff training, visitor management, and environmentally friendly practices.

Key words: South Africa; Ecotourism; Perceptions; National parks; Factor analysis; SANParks

Address correspondence to Dr. Leonie de Witt, Hospitality, Tourism and PR Management, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa. Tel: +27 82 8576337; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 195-210
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418677041
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Visitor Awareness of Local Issues at Emerging Destinations: Experiences Gleaned From a Study Abroad Course in Ghana

Carol Kline,* Laura Johnson,† and Kofi Boone‡

*Recreation and Leisure Studies, Center for Sustainable Tourism, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
†Department of Geography, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA
‡Landscape Architecture, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

US and international students engaged in study abroad programs are increasingly choosing countries on the continent of Africa as a destination. This article presents research findings on how cross-disciplinary study abroad experiences in Ghana impacted visitor awareness of issues in Ghana and, more broadly, the continent of Africa. The study explored the level and nature of change in the visitors’ awareness of issues in Ghana and, in particular, the types of experiences that contributed to these changes. The activities that received the highest endorsement were those that involved informal discussion or hands-on contact with Ghanaians. Structured course activities received higher ratings in terms of student benefit than structured and unstructured assignments, such as individual work in a journal/sketchbook, specific projects, group work, open-ended study, and available readings. The respondents felt a strong connection with the art, design, craft, and music traditions, followed by connections with food and cooking, family and village life, and religious traditions of Ghana. Moderate connections were felt with gender roles, fashion and hairstyles, and urban life. The study illustrates a number of supporting arguments for study abroad programs highlighted in previous studies, such as the benefits of out-of-class experiences that promote true cultural immersion and learning. Additionally, it adds to the extensive knowledge base of study abroad in terms of its unique focus on students’ understandings of local issues at the host site, and it situates broad generalizations about the advantages of study abroad programs in the specific context of Ghana and the African continent, as well as the impacts of immersion on visitor notions of race, class, poverty, gender, art, and traditional culture.

Key words: Study abroad; Ghana; Cross-disciplinary; Visitor awareness; Local issues

Address correspondence to Carol Kline, Assistant Professor, Recreation and Leisure Studies, Center for Sustainable Tourism, East Carolina University, Mail Stop 133, Rivers Building RW 203, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. Tel: (001) 919.306.1705; Fax: (001) 919.787.9830; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 17, pp. 211-222
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427213X13838418677087
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism to the Battlefield Memorials in Fromelles

Caroline Winter

The Faculty of Business, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia

The Battle of Fromelles, fought in northern France in 1916, was virtually forgotten until recent years, when the activities of a small group of people brought it to light. The discovery of a mass grave of Australian and British soldiers and their subsequent burial in a new Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery in the village of Fromelles has been widely reported in the media. As a result, many people have begun to visit the village and the cemeteries. The village presents an issue that is common in the tourism literature, whereby a very small destination without large-scale visitor facilities is experiencing sudden increases in tourists. This study involved a sample of committed, older, and retired Australian and British tourists who were visiting the village. Differences in the travel patterns of tour-based and free independent travelers, as well as between British and Australians, were identified. Some of these differences were perhaps a result of the time and financial costs involved for Australians to visit the battlefields. The study found support for the war-distorted destination life cycle model, which argues that a major war can provide long-term positive benefits for a destination.

Key words: Fromelles; Battlefields; Visitor management; War-distorted destination life cycle

Address correspondence to Dr. Caroline Winter, Senior Lecturer, The Faculty of Business, Federation University Australia, Mt Helen Campus, PO Box 663, Ballarat, Victoria 3353, Australia. Tel: +61 3 5327 6259; Fax: +61 3 532 79405; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it