Tourism Culture & Communication 13(3) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 13, pp. 147–159
1098-304X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X13911221027407
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Social Identities of Japanese Backpackers

Huong T. Bui,* Hugh C. Wilkins,† and Young-Sook Lee‡

*College of Asia Pacific Studies, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu-shi, Oita-ken, Japan
†School of Business, Faculty of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
Department of Tourism & Northern Studies, Faculty of Finnmark, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway

This research adopted a qualitative approach with data collected through in-depth interviews, informal conversations, and participant observation to identify the social identities of Japanese young travelers in relation to their group dynamic. The findings indicate that the diversity of out-group interactions with travelers from different countries enhances cross-cultural understanding and language learning, while in-group interactions with other Japanese offer a pseudohome while traveling. The issue of identity ambivalence is important as the spheres of familiarity and diversity in travel group interactions are dynamic and complementary. The current research furthers our understanding of the interrelation between culture, communication, and the action of travel among independent travelers.

Key words: Japanese; Backpacker; Social interactions; In-group; Out-group; Identity

Address correspondence to Hugh C. Wilkins, School of Business, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia. Tel: +61 8 63045428; Fax: +61 8 63045840; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 13, pp. 161–174
1098-304X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X13911221027443
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Singles and Solo Travel: Gender and Type of Holiday

Bente Heimtun* and Birgit Abelsen†

*UiT–The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway
†National Centre of Rural Medicine, UiT–The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway

This quantitative research contributes to our understanding of the solo tourist experience by mapping young single students’ (Norwegians aged 18–29) willingness to become solo travelers (11 different types of holidays). The major result is that these students are reluctant to travel solo, regardless of type of holiday. This suggests that they prefer to travel with family and friends, and that bonding is an important part of their tourist experiences. They are, in particular, unwilling to visit beach resorts alone. This supports a notion that such homogenous tourism spaces are imbued with singlism, negatively affecting the solo tourist experience. If alone on holiday, the young single students are most willing to backpack, a sociable type of holiday that is popular among young solo tourists. They are also the most willing to travel solo to a familiar place such as the family second home. Moreover, they could also visit cities alone. In such heterogeneous tourism spaces it is easier to remain anonymous and there is often a variety of experiences to choose from. This study also examines the influences of gender on the solo tourist experience. One main finding is that the young single male students are more willing than the females to go on sport- and party-related holidays alone. Furthermore, as opposed to male respondents, the majority of female respondents perceive solo holidays as frightening. This suggests that solo holidays are permeated by gender power relations such as the geography of women’s travel fears. Despite the singles’ reluctant perceptions of solo travel, the market for such holidays is increasing and the tourism industry is advised on how to approach young, single, solo tourists, for instance, by being more creative in developing and promoting socially including holiday activities.

Key words: The solo tourist experience; Feminism; Student travel market; Tourism spaces

Address correspondence to Bente Heimtun, UiT–The Arctic University of Norway, 9509 Alta, Norway. Tel: +41 78 45 05 00; Fax: +47 78 43 44 38; E-mail. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 13, pp. 175–189
1098-304X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X13911221027489
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Building Muslim Women’s Resistance Through Tourism Employment

Lubna Al Mazro’ei* and Susan M. Shaw†

*Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
†Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

This article explores the meanings and experiences of tourism employment for Muslim women and the role that tourism employment plays in challenging or reinforcing traditional views of Muslim women. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine local Muslim women working in the Oman tourism industry. The theoretical paradigm that guided this study was social constructionism, and a constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to interpret and analyze the collected data into themes. The findings indicate that tourism employment could be seen as a site for women’s resistance, particularly for Muslim women seeking to change societal attitudes towards women. Thus, the idea of tourism employment as a site for women’s resistance can be seen as a new way of understanding the potential role of tourism employment for women in Muslim societies.

Key words: Tourism employment; Muslim women; Oman; Resistance; Social change

Address correspondence to Lubna Al Mazro’ei, Strathclyde Business School, University of Strathclyde, 199 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, UK, G4 0QU. Tel: +44 141 552 4400; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 13, pp. 191–202
1098-304X/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X13935097526596
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Islamic Past in Contemporary Spanish and Portuguese Tourism Narratives

Katherine A. Bueno (O’Dowd),* Carla Almeida Santos,† Sebnem Ozkan,‡ and Javier Irigoyen-García§

*Independent Researcher
†Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
‡The European Union Center, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
§Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA

The current study investigates the representation of the Islamic past in contemporary Spanish and Portuguese tourism by examining tourism websites for two comparable national monuments: the Alhambra in Granada, Spain and Silves Castle in Silves, Portugal. The examined representations privilege a particular historical narrative and perspective of the Moorish expulsion, as well as a separation from the Islamic past during the creation of both nation states. In particular, both nation states’ Islamic past is largely reinvented in such a way that it appears to have had little impact on the nations themselves. The implications of such narratives for the contemporary advancement of an inclusive European identity are discussed.

Key words: Tourism discourse; Spain; Portugal; European Union; Islam

Address correspondence to Carla Almeida Santos, Associate Professor, Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois, 104 Huff Hall, 1206 South Fourth St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it