Technology & Innovation 16(1) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 3-17
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823190
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Innovation at Rural Enterprises: Results From a Survey of German Organic and Conventional Farmers

İlkay Unay Gailhard* and Miroslava Bavorova†

*Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), Halle (Saale), Germany
†Institute of Agriculture and Nutrition Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of interpersonal networks and other information sources on the innovativeness of farmers. This understanding can be useful for organizations that are involved in extension work that aims to increase the farmers’ innovativeness and for farmers who aim to be more innovative. The study focuses on two types of farmers’ network ties: friendship ties (ties to other farmers) and affiliation ties (ties to associations). Additionally, the importance of information gathered by farmers from interpersonal sources and from media is compared. We collected data within the European Union (EU)-funded Food Industry Dynamics and Methodological Advances (FOODIMA) Project using face-to-face interviews. Our sample, which consists of 72 farmers (organic and conventional) in Germany, was used to map farmers’ innovativeness (number of innovations adopted). We analyzed the data to determine if the structure and strength of network ties can be used as predictors of innovativeness for organic and conventional farmers. When considering both the friendship and affiliation ties, the main results show that organic farmers who communicate more frequently with other farmers are more likely to be highly innovative. The large network size indicates low innovativeness on the part of organic farmers. Membership in at least one association is positively interconnected with high innovativeness of conventional farmers. Regarding information sources, the results indicate that the highly innovative farmers appreciate information from research institutes more and information from agricultural organization less than the less innovative farmers.

Key words: Innovativeness; Social network ties; Communication frequency; Information sources; Organic and conventional farmers

Accepted February 8, 2014.
Address correspondence to İlkay Unay Gailhard, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), Theodor-Lieser-Str.2, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany. Tel: +490345 2928 322; E-mail: unaygailhard@iamo


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 19-26
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823235
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

TruServe: Using Information Technology to Demonstrate the Impact of Rural Health Care Organizations

Kelly Quigley, Mark Barclay, and Kristine Morin

Center for Rural Health, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Fork, ND, USA

TruServe is a web-based activity tracking system initially developed for the Center for Rural Health (CRH) at the University of North Dakota in order to monitor internal and outreach activities for the purpose of demonstrating the impact of the Center’s efforts on rural health care. Nonprofit organizations depend on federal grants and are particularly vulnerable to the increasingly competitive funding environment. Streamlined but accurate reporting facilitated by the use of TruServe allows these organizations to better demonstrate their work, increasing the likelihood of securing funding. This article describes TruServe’s development through continuing improvement of its system features based on user requirements, particularly tailored to the needs of rural health organizations. Furthermore, the growth of infrastructure within the CRH increased system support, and collaboration with the technology transfer office has enabled licensed use of the technology by third-party organizations. Ongoing adoption of user feedback and incorporation of flexibility for user customization have led to the launch of a new version of TruServe, which can now be utilized to monitor activities by nonprofit organizations outside of rural health.

Key words: Rural; Web-based; Database; Impact; Grant funded; Nonprofit

Accepted February 20, 2014.
Address correspondence to Kelly Quigley, TruServe Coordinator, Center for Rural Health, The University of North Dakota School of Medicine, 501 N. Columbia Road, Stop 9037, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA. Tel: +1-701-777-2094 direct; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 27-35
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823271
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Technological Innovations Bringing Spatial Technology to Precision Agriculture in the Northern Great Plains

Xiaodong Zhang,* Santhosh Seelan,† and John Nowatzki‡

*Department of Earth System Science and Policy, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
†Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
‡Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA

In addition to land, labor, and capital, which have long been agriculture’s traditional assets, technology and information management has become the fourth asset of increasing importance and has come to be known as precision agriculture. Information of both spatial and temporal dimensions is required for precision agriculture. Remote sensing imagery acquired from satellites, aircrafts, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offers tremendous potential in providing information in both dimensions for precision crop management. Of course, spatial data is valuable only to the extent that it is timely delivered and properly interpreted to drive decision making. To help regional producers benefit from recent advancements in spatial technology, we have innovated in multiple frontiers, including sensor technology, Internet data delivery, and knowledge diffusion. Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera and International Space Station Agriculture Camera were developed to provide near real-time high-resolution imagery. Data acquired by the two sensors and those by satellites are delivered to users through Digital Northern Great Plains (DNGP) and a zone-mapping application for precision agriculture (ZoneMAP), the two systems that were designed to allow regional producers access to remote sensing data easily and efficiently. By creating a learning community, we lowered the barrier for end users to understand and learn the technologies effectively from peers as well as professionals. Through continuous innovative efforts, we have been helping the producers utilizing the spatial technology to increase profit while reducing waste for over one decade.

Key words: Remote sensing; Precision agriculture; Digital Northern Great Plains; Decision support; Learning community; AEROCam

Accepted December 11, 2013.
Address correspondence to Xiaodong Zhang, Department of Earth System Science and Policy, University of North Dakota, 4149 University Avenue Stop 9011, Clifford Hall Room 326, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9011, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 37-43
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823316
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Community Information Services: A Unique Tool to Enhance E-Governance in Tribal and Remote Rural Areas of Northeast India Using Modern Information Technology

Bhaskar Mazumder,* Vijay Swami,† Ista Pulu,† and Yashwant V. Pathak‡

*Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, India
†Research Institute of World’s Ancient Traditions, Cultures, and Heritage (RIWATCH), Roing, India
‡College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Northeast (NE) India is one of the most diverse geographical areas with about 3,000 dialects of tribal people and mostly inaccessible by any means of transportation from the rest of India. Integrating people with extreme diversity in terms of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, urbanization, level of education, and technological sophistication is a big challenge. NE India represents all these factors together. To resolve challenges and provide updated facilities using modern technology, the Government of India in collaboration with state authorities has established Community Information Services (CIS) in NE India. The gap between rich and poor nations based on digital divide has been narrowing, and the access to web-based information is enriching people. The development of CIS is an attempt to use this web-based technology to improve the health and socioeconomic status of people from NE India. Owing to an explosion of communication tools, such as cell phones in the remote and inaccessible areas, even people who have never seen a landline telephone now have access to wireless cell phone technology with access to web-based knowledge systems. CIS are a boon to NE India providing interface between the government and the citizens. Presently the government has set up 30 CIS in pilot projects, and they are planning to set up an additional 457 CIS totaling 487 by the end of 2015. CIS will play a vital role in changing the lives of the tribal people for the better. This review article will cover the services and facilities provided by CIS and its impact on various spheres of tribal life in NE India such as education, agriculture, health care, employment, and public and policy information that enrich the knowledge base as well as access to important information for these people.

Key words: Community Information Services (CIS); Remote rural areas; Web-based technology; India

Accepted February 15, 2014.
Address correspondence to Yashwant Pathak, Professor and Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida Health, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 30, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-1026; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 45-53
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823352
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Jon as Kamlet Patents Dealing With Food and Food Additives

Dean F. Martin and Barbara B. Martin

Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

We examined food-related patents of Dr. Jonas Kamlet, who was cofounder with his wife of Kamlet Laboratories, a pioneering consulting firm that was open from 1940 to 1979. The food patents comprise a patent subset of some 18 of 81 US patents that he obtained during his life. The patents cover a range of materials, including chemicals used as additives in food, preservatives of ice cream, coloring agents, and sources of inexpensive materials for additives for ruminants’ foods. Typically, the patents were assigned to various chemical firms, the method by which the Kamlets generated a significant income and that led to the growth of their operation. The availability of the Kamlet Laboratories Records in the University of South Florida Tampa Campus Library has permitted an insight into operating practices as well as an appreciation of how shrewd he was in writing contracts and generating compensation for his ideas and innovation. Also, one can obtain an insight into how the inventions can be marketed.

Key words: Innovation; Compensation; Food

Accepted May 7, 2013.
Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Ph.D., Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, CHE 205, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-2374; Fax: +1-813-974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 55-62
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823398
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Quantitative Morphological and Molecular Pathology of the Human Thymus Correlate With Infant Cause of Death

Mark C. Lloyd,* Nancy Burke,* Fatemeh Kalantarpour,† Melissa I. Niesen,‡ Aaron Hall,§ Keith Pennypacker,§ Bruce Citron,‡¶ Chaim G. Pick,# Vernard Adams,**†† Mahasweta Das,‡‡ Shyam Mohapatra,‡‡ Hernani Cualing,††§§ and George Blanck†‡

*Analytic Microscopy Core, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA
†Department of Oncological Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA
‡Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
§Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
¶Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Bay Pines VA Healthcare System, Bay Pines, FL, USA
#Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
**Medical Examiner Department, Hillsborough County Government, Tampa, FL, USA
††Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
‡‡Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
§§IHCFLOW, Inc., Lutz, FL, USA

The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the morphological and molecular changes in the thymus for common causes of human infant death. Thymic architecture and molecular changes apparent in human infant head trauma victims were assessed by microscopy and quantified by image analysis of digital whole slide images. Thymuses from victims of SIDS and suffocated infants displaying normal thymus architecture were used for comparison. Molecular expression of proliferation and serotonin receptor and transporter protein markers was evaluated. Duplicate morphological and molecular studies of rodent thymuses were completed with both mouse and rat models. Quantification of novel parameters of digital images of thymuses from human infants suffering mortal head trauma revealed a disruption of the corticomedullary organization of the thymus, particularly involving dissolution of the corticomedullary border. A similar result was obtained for related mouse and rat models. The human thymuses from head trauma cases also displayed a higher percentage of Ki-67-positive thymocytes. Finally, we determined that thymus expression of the human serotonin receptor, and the serotonin transporter, occur almost exclusively in the thymic medulla. Head trauma leads to a disruption of the thymic, corticomedullary border, and molecular expression patterns in a robust and quantifiable manner.

Key words: Head trauma; Thymus gland; Infant; T-cells; Serotonin; Serotonin receptor; Quantitative pathology

Accepted May 7, 2013.
Address correspondence to George Blanck, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC7, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-9585; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 63-73
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823433
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Nabta Playa in the Development of Science and Technology

Donald T. Haynie

Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

How humans conceptualize time, space, and quantity is of fundamental importance to science, technology development, and innovation. Extant structures at Nabta Playa, near the Egypt–Sudan border, provide evidence of an early systematic approach to marking direction. The site is thought to have begun functioning as a regional ceremonial center around 5500 BC, during an extended period of significantly reduced aridity. A stone circle points north and toward the rising azimuth of the sun on the summer solstice. Aligned megaliths radiate outward from a central complex structure, apparently targeting various bright stars. This article presents a reevaluation of the putative stellar alignment data, an analysis of the structure of the stone circle and hypotheses regarding the organization and location of the ceremonial site as a whole. The inhabitants of Nabta Playa may have played a decisive role in the history of science and technology by advancing ways of marking direction, tracking time, and measuring space.

Key words: Astronomy; Civilization; Alignment; Egypt; History; Megalith

Accepted February 16, 2014.
Address correspondence to Donald T. Haynie, Ph.D., Department of Physics, Interdisciplinary Sciences Building, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: +1 813 974 7793; Fax: +1 813 974 581; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 75-84
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823479
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

More Than Money: The Exponential Impact of Academic Technology Transfer

Valerie Landrio McDevitt,*# Joelle Mendez-Hinds,* David Winwood,† Vinit Nijhawan,‡ Todd Sherer,§ John F. Ritter,¶ and Paul R. Sanberg*,**

*University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
‡Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
§Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
¶Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
#Association of University Technology Managers, Deerfield, IL, USA
**National Academy of Inventors, Tampa, FL, USA

Academic technology transfer in its current form began with the passage of the Bayh–Dole Act in 1980, which allowed universities to retain ownership of federally funded intellectual property. Since that time, a profession has evolved that has transformed how inventions arising in universities are treated, resulting in significant impact to US society. While there have been a number of articles highlighting benefits of technology transfer, now, more than at any other time since the Bayh–Dole Act was passed, the profession and the impacts of this groundbreaking legislation have come under intense scrutiny. This article serves as an examination of the many positive benefits and evolution, both financial and intrinsic, provided by academic invention and technology transfer, summarized in Table 1.

Key words: Technology transfer; Innovation; Bayh–Dole; Commercialization; Start-ups; Technology licensing; Academic innovation

Accepted February 18, 2014.
Address correspondence to Paul R. Sanberg, USF Research and Innovation, University of South Florida, 3702 Spectrum Blvd., Suite 165, Tampa, FL 33612-9445, USA. Tel: +1-813-971-5570; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 85-87
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X13971392823514
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Commentary: Improving the World’s Innovation Infrastructure

Alexander Camarota

Office of Innovation Development, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, VA, USA

Weak intellectual property policy or enforcement in many developing nations can be a barrier to innovation and creativity. Through its Office of Policy and International Affairs, the US Patent and Trademark Office works with intellectual property organizations and foreign governments across the world to help improve the innovation climate for developing nations. The impact of good intellectual property policy is already helping to return value to producers in traditionally rural regions and cultivate the conditions necessary for innovation.

Key words: Trademarks; Patents; Intellectual property; Innovation; Developing world; USPTO

Accepted February 21, 2014.
Address correspondence to Alexander Camarota, Office of Innovation Development, US Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it