Event Management 18(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 89–100
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947266
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Local Festival Quality and the Application of a Revised Importance–Performance Analysis: The Case of the Jirisan Cheon-Wang Festival

Namhyun Kim,* Young-Joo Ahn,† and Bruce E. Wicks‡

*Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Dongguk University, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea
†Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
‡Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA

The purposes of this research are twofold: (1) to empirically identify which attributes of festival quality affect attendees’ satisfaction; and (2) to utilize a new method, a revised Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) technique to monitor festival quality and to assess festival performance. The findings suggest that three festival quality attributes affected the overall satisfaction of the festival: festival program content, program operation/organization, and festival advertising/PR. Discovering quality attributes is the utmost task among practitioners in order to differentiate products and achieve competitive advantage. This study also extends the research on local festival/event quality and the impacts on satisfaction using the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction. It also provides empirical evidence that demonstrates the necessity of implicit importance derived from performance instead of self-rated importance in traditional IPA models.

Key words: Revised Importance–Performance Analysis; Festival quality; Local festival evaluation; Three-factor theory

Address correspondence to Young-joo Ahn, Ph.D., Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, 128 McGinty Court, 263 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. Tel: +1-217-722-1844; Fax: +1-864-656-2226; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 101–110
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947301
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Repeat Visitation and Visitor Spending at Events: Hogs and Muscle Cars

Erick T. Byrd,* Jennifer Beedle,† and David A. Cardenas‡

*Department of Marketing, Entrepreneurship, Hospitality, and Tourism, Bryan School of Business and Economics, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
†North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
‡Center of Economic Excellence (CoEE) in Tourism and Economic Development, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Special events and festivals can have a significant impact on local economies. A common assumption is that repeat visitors are more desirable than first-time visitors. However, research has shown that this assumption is not necessarily reality. There is a need for more research investigating these two visitor segments in relation to specific types of tourism such as events. The purpose of this study is to discuss the direct spending of visitors at two events in a rural setting and to investigate if repeat visitation had an influence on the visitors’ spending during the events. The results of this study indicate that for these two events first-time visitors spent more in all categories, except two, and in total spending. Contributing to this fact, first-time visitors stayed longer in the area and stayed in more expensive lodging optionsthan repeat visitors.

Key words: Events; Limited information; Economic impact; Repeat visitation; Visitor expenditures

Address correspondence to Erick T. Byrd, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Entrepreneurship, Hospitality, and Tourism, Bryan School of Business and Economics, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, PO Box 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170, USA. Tel: 336-334-3041; Fax: 336-334-3238; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 111–126
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947347
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Image Impacts of Planned Special Events: Literature Review and Research Agenda

Kun Lai* and Yiping Li†

*School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
†Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

In the era of globalization, planned special events of various kinds have been playing increasingly important roles in (re)shaping projected and perceived images of the hosts and other stakeholders involved. This article aims to review previous studies on such roles historically, analytically, and synthetically. The historical review reveals the general growing pattern of the existing studies; the analytical review captures their salient structural components; and the synthetic review assesses their progress made and identifies some important problems yet to be further solved. This article is useful to promote future research on the topic and facilitate strategic image management via hosting sport, sociocultural, political, and business events.

Key words: Event marketing; Special events; Projected/perceived image; Impact studies; Review

Address correspondence to Kun Lai, School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 135, Xingang Road West, Guangzhou, 510275 China. Tel: +86-20-84114584; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 127–140
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947383
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Designing Events for Social Interaction

Anders Nordvall,* Robert Pettersson,* Bo Svensson,* and Steve Brown†

*European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR), Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden
†Department of Tourism, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

Socialization motivates people to visit events and social interactions between event visitors influence their experience of the event. Consumer-to-consumer interactions in service settings and leisure activities have received increased attention in research; however, very few studies have focused on and analyzed the impact of other visitors on an individual’s event experience. The purpose of this study is to explore how interaction between event visitors influences the individual’s total event experience and how events can be designed in respect to such social interactions. The conclusions are based on a literature review and empirical data collected at a Swedish music festival. The research found that social interactions between event visitors are an important part of the event experience and the level of satisfaction for the individual attending an event. Social interactions consist of three main types: known-group socialization; external socialization; audience socialization. Every part of the event (theme and program, setting, consumables, service) can be designed to facilitate positive experiences and to constrain negative experiences related to such interactions.

Key words: Event experience; Social interaction; Consumer-to-consumer interaction (CCI); Event design; Music festival

Address correspondence to Anders Nordvall, European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR), Mid Sweden University SE-83125, Östersund, Sweden. Tel: +46 63 195814; Fax: +46 63 195810; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 141–151
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947428
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Applying and Expanding the Theoretical Framework of Emotional Solidarity in a Festival Context

Kyle M. Woosnam,* Kayode D. Aleshinloye,* Christine M. Van Winkle,† and Wei Qian*

*Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
†Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Festivals provide some of the best unscripted encounters between residents and visitors in a destination. Within this article, the theoretical framework of emotional solidarity is applied and expanded in an effort to explain the complex relationship that exists between community residents of and festival visitors to Caldwell, Texas. Results confirm the factor structure of the emotional solidarity scale (ESS), exhibiting sound psychometric properties in the way of numerous reliability and validity measures. Length of residence and number of years attending the festival were considered in explaining the variance in the three factors (i.e., welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding) of the ESS. Three of the six regression models were significant. Implications, limitations, and future research opportunities are discussed.

Key words: Emotional solidarity scale (ESS); Residents and festival visitors; Length of residence; Number of years attending festival

Address correspondence to Kyle M. Woosnam, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: 979-845-9781; Fax: 979-845-0446; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 153–168
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947464
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Participant Motivations to Take Part in an Elite, Multinational, Sport-for-Development Event

Jon Welty Peachey,* George Cunningham,* Alexis Lyras,† Adam Cohen,‡ and Jennifer Bruening§

*Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
†Department of Government, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
‡Department of Health Exercise and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
§Department of Educational Leadership, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

One neglected area of research in sport event management has been to examine the motivations of individuals to take part in large, multinational sport-for-development (SFD) events. The importance of examining such motivations is highlighted by SFD’s frequent struggle with attracting individuals to the programs, despite well-meaning intentions and agendas. Hence, we undertook this study to examine participant motivations for attending the World Scholar-Athlete Games and World Youth Peace Summit, a combined, multinational SFD event with a peace agenda set in the US. We conducted two studies—one quantitatively focused and the other through personal interviews and focus groups. Results from both studies revealed that individuals were motivated to participate in order to engage in world learning, for skill development, and for the opportunity to travel, with world learning being the most prominent factor. International participants had higher mean scores on all factors than domestic participants, and sport participants were more motivated by skill development than fine arts participants. These findings imply that sport events with a peace focus should highlight socialization opportunities and the mission of the organization to attract participants, while still providing an environment of healthy competition and skill development.

Key words: Athlete motivation; Sport event participant motivation; Sport-for-development (SFD); Sport events; Multinational sport events; International sport events

Address correspondence to Jon Welty Peachey, Ph.D., Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, MC-584, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: 217-244-2956; Fax: 217-244-1935; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 169–183
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947509
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Predicting Volunteers’ Intention to Return: An Examination of Brand Personality, Prestige, and Identification of Sporting Events

Hyejin Bang,* Soonhwan Lee,† and Kamilla Swart‡

*Department of Leadership and Professional Studies, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
†Department of Physical Education, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA
‡Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among four variables: brand personality traits, prestige of a sporting event, brand identification, and individuals’ intention to return to volunteer for future sporting events. Five personality traits were included in the study: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness. A proposed conceptual model was developed and tested with a sample of volunteers at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. Two hundred twenty-four individuals participated in a self-administered questionnaire during the event. Results from structural equation model analysis showed that three brand personality dimensions—sincerity, competence, and sophistication—were associated with individuals’ prestige of the sporting event. Furthermore, event prestige positively influenced brand identification, which had a positive impact on volunteers’ intention to return for volunteering.

Key words: Brand personality; Prestige; Brand identification; Intention to return; Sporting events

Address correspondence to Hyejin Bang, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Leadership and Professional Studies, Florida International University, University Park, ZEB 339A, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Tel: 305-348-1411; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 185–194
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947545
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Subject Areas and Future Research Agendas in Exhibition Research: Exhibitors’ Perspectives

Myong Jae Lee* and Yong Soo Kang†

*The Collins College of Hospitality Management, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, Pomona, CA, USA
†Department of Distribution Management, Ulsan College, Ulsan, South Korea

Over the last two decades, exhibitions have drawn serious attention from researchers in tourism and general trade and management. This article identifies main research trends in current exhibition research and sets directions for future exhibition research through the content analysis of extant exhibition literatures. A total of 55 exhibition articles published in academic journals during the last two decades were collected for this thematic review. Thorough review of these publications highlighted several research themes in exhibition research. The research themes discussed in this article focus on exhibitors: (1) the role of exhibitions, (2) motives for exhibition participation, (3) exhibition participation process, and (4) exhibition service marketing. Based on the results of the thematic review, we make recommendations for future exhibition research.

Key words: Exhibition; Exhibitors; Participation motives; Thematic review

Address correspondence to Yong Soo Kang, Ph.D., Professor, Department Head, Department of Distribution Management, Ulsan College, Hwajeongdong 101, Bongsuro, Dong-gu, Ulsan, South Korea, 682-715. Tel: 052-230-0500; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 195–205
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13947236947581
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Attributes Influencing Meeting Planners’ Destination Selection: A Case of Orlando, Florida

Adi Hayat, Kimberly Severt, Deborah Breiter, Khaldoon Nusair, and Fevzi Okumus

Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

The current study used Orlando, Florida as a case study, and investigated whether there are differences between the three meeting planner types (association, corporate, third party) in regard to destination selection attributes. The study further identified attributes that affect future bookings to Orlando. Data were collected from a nationwide survey of meeting planners with a usable sample of 2,388 completed phone surveys and 118 completed online questionnaires. One significant difference was found between the three meeting planner types. This research was performed in the midst of the recent recession and explored the impact the recession has had on planning meetings. Some effects of the economic downturn on the events industry are decreased attendance and more conservative budgets. Most association meeting planners did not cancel or postponed their events, although all planners agree that attendance to their meetings decreased. Third-party planners seemed to be the most sensitive to budget allocations.

Key words: Destination selection; Meeting planners; Associations; Bookings; Convention and Visitors Bureau; Orlando

Address correspondence to Kimberly Severt, Ph.D., at her present address: Department of Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management, College of Human Environmental Sciences, University of Alabama, 420 Russell Hall, Box 870311, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it