Tourism Analysis 19(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 129–137
1083-5423/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455487
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Forecasting Recreational Visitation at US National Parks

Neil A. Wilmot and Christopher R. McIntosh

Department of Economics, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA

This study evaluates forecasting accuracy among several competing methodologies, including time series and econometric methods, on visitation to 255 US National Park Service (NPS) sites. The performance of these models is contrasted with the model currently in use by the NPS. One-year-ahead, 2-year-ahead, and combined (1- and 2-year-ahead) forecasting performance at the individual park level is examined utilizing several measures of forecasting accuracy, including root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results indicate incorporating economic variables can significantly improve forecasts, particularly for large and small parks. For medium size parks the naive forecast errors were typically lowest. Furthermore, the naive model performed well, often producing the best forecast, followed by the econometric model. Regionally, the naive and econometric models preform best, with the Pacificwest region being the exception. Utilizing the most accurate model for each park leads to a 24% improvement over current forecasts (1-year horizon) and suggests that a mixed model approach is optimal.

Key words: National park visitation; Tourism forecasting

Address correspondence to Neil A. Wilmot, Department of Economics, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1318 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN 55812, USA. Tel: (218) 726-7439; Fax: (218) 726-7516; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 139–150
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455522
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Interpersonal Trust, Organizational Culture, and Turnover Intention in Hotels: A Cross-Level Perspective

Ahmet Bulent Ozturk,* Murat Hancer,† and Yao-Chin Wang†

*Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

The aim of the present study was to understand the influence of interpersonal trust and organizational culture on employees’ turnover intention. The data of the study were collected from 252 hotel employees in Turkey. Study results showed that both affective trust and cognitive trust were negatively related to hotel employees’ turnover intention. Furthermore, clan organizational culture, adhocracy organizational culture, and market organizational culture were also negatively related to turnover intention of hotel employees. However, the results indicate that hierarchy organizational culture does not have a significant impact on hotel employees’ turnover intention. The findings provide valuable theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research.

Key words: Interpersonal trust; Organizational culture; Hotel employee; Turnover intention

Address correspondence to Ahmet Bulent Ozturk, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8215; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 151–159
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455568
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Examination of Philosophical Paradigms and a Rationale for Adopting A Mixed Methods Approach

Ernest Azzopardi* and Robert Nash†

*Department of Economics, University of Malta, Qrendi, Malta
†Department of Hotel & Tourism Management, Bond University, Robina Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

This article examines the ontological, epistemological, and methodological assumptions of some alternative philosophical paradigms that can inform the study on tourism. It presents logical and gradually developing arguments for the choice of the methodological stance, and the selection of analytical methods of inquiry.

Key words: Tourism; Positivism; Postpositivism; Constructivist; Advocacy/participatory; Pragmatism

Address correspondence to Robert Nash, Department of Hotel & Tourism Management, Bond University, Robina Gold Coast Queensland 4229, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 161–171
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455603
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Impact of Leverage on Stock Returns in the Hospitality Sector: Evidence From the UK

Yaz Gűlnur Muradoğlu* and Sheeja Sivaprasad†

*School of Business and Management, Queen Mary University, London, UK
†Department of Accounting, Finance and Governance, University of Westminster, London, UK

This article examines the relation between capital structure and abnormal returns for the UK hospitality sector by using an investment strategy based on hospitality firms’ capital structure. We find that abnormal returns are higher, 0.53% per annum, for medium leverage hospitality firms, and it can be increased up to 0.91% by investing in medium leverage and low price-to-book value firms. The findings raise an important issue for the hospitality sector as the firms in this sector are continually aiming to raise external finance to fund expansion. This is a unique situation when compared to other sectors in the economy whereby investors earn higher abnormal returns when investing in low levered firms.

Key words: Leverage; Capital structure; Abnormal returns; Hospitality sector

Address correspondence to Sheeja Sivaprasad, Department of Accounting, Finance and Governance, University of Westminster, 35 Marylebone Road, London, NW1 5LS, UK. Tel: +44 20 7911 5000, ext. 66508; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 173–184
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455649
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Comparison of Expenditures Between New Orleans Volunteer and Leisure Tourists: Implications for Sustainability

Ksenia Kirillova,* Bridget M. Bordelon,† and David M. Pearlman†

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
†The Lester E. Kabacoff School of Hotel, Restaurant & Tourism Administration, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA

While economic implications of volunteer tourism to the host economy have been acknowledged in previous tourism research, no empirical study to assess this influence has been published to date. This expenditure study begins to fill the gap in academic and practical knowledge. The purpose of this research was to compare and contrast the expenditure patterns of volunteer tourists with those of leisure tourists in New Orleans. Survey research methods were used to obtain a sample of volunteer tourists that was compared to a leisure tourist sample obtained from secondary data. Visitors’ expenditures across six types of spending (local transportation, lodging, food/beverages, gambling, retail shopping, and tours/admission fees), demographics, and travel information were collected. Data analysis included t tests revealing that volunteer tourists’ spending was lower in five out of six categories, total daily expenditures, and total trip spending. Volunteer tourists spent more on local transportation, but preferred cheaper accommodations and dining, seldom gambled, shopped little at the destination, and rarely visited tourist attractions. Examining differences in expenditure patterns can help a destination develop sustainable tourism policy and maximize economic benefits of volunteer tourism. In conclusion, this article proposes strategies to promote economically and culturally sustainable volunteer tourism.

Key words: Volunteer tourism; Leisure tourism; Direct expenditures; New Orleans; Sustainability; Voluntourism

Address correspondence to Ksenia Kirillova, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, Room 206F, Marriott Hall, 900 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Tel: (504)430-6111; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 185–197
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455685
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Assessment of Visitors’ Behavioral Intentions in the Taiwan Tourist Night Market Using a Multilevel and Hierarchical Approach

Hung-Che Wu,* Ching-Chan Cheng,† and Fu-Sung Hsu†

*Department of Economics and Business Management, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou City, China
†Department of Food & Beverage Management, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan

This study examines the interrelationships among the behavioral intentions and constructs related to behavioral intentions and identifies the dimensions of service quality in the Taiwan tourist night market. The dimensions of service quality are built on a basis of formative indicators, and a multilevel and hierarchical model is used as a framework to synthesize the effects of the constructs related to behavioral intentions in the Taiwan tourist night market. The findings are based on structural equation modeling of a convenience sample of 489 respondents. The findings reveal that there are four primary dimensions and 11 subdimensions of service quality in the Taiwan tourist night market.

Key words: Service quality dimensions; Behavioral intentions; Visitor satisfaction; Multilevel and hierarchical model

Address correspondence to Fu-Sung Hsu, Ph.D. Candidate, Assistant Professor, Department of Food & Beverage Management, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan. Tel: (886) 2-28102292, ext. 5112; Fax: (886) 2-2810-6688; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 199–212
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455720
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Influencing Taiwanese Backpackers’ Learning Travel: The Role of Personality Traits and Wellness Lifestyles

Kaung-Hwa Chen,* Ping Yu,† Feng-Hsiang Chang,‡ and Chin-Ling Hsieh*

*Department of Tourism Management, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
†Graduate Institute of Adult Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
‡Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan

Modern leisure and tourism forms that focus on learning activities have become mainstream. This study investigates the influence that Taiwanese backpackers’ personality traits and wellness lifestyles have on learning travels. For this study, we established a wellness lifestyle scale and learning travel themes and patterns. A total of 361 valid questionnaires were obtained. We performed factor analysis and structural equation modeling using SPSS statistical software and LISREL8.2 software for empirical analysis and study. The results of this study indicate that personality traits significantly influence wellness lifestyles and learning travels. Wellness lifestyles also significantly influence learning travels. In addition, we found that personality traits influence learning travels through wellness lifestyles. Additionally, the lifestyle scale and learning travel themes and patterns developed in this study can provide future researchers with a reference for their study targets and topics.

Key words: Educational tourism; Motivation; Backpacking market; Wellness

Address correspondence to Feng-Hsiang Chang, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, No. 367, Sanmin Road, Nanjhou Hsian, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Tel: +886 8 8647367, ext. 324; Fax: +886 8 8647123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 213–225
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455766
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Darker Side of Dark Tourism: An Authenticity Perspective

Katie Heuermann* and Deepak Chhabra†

*Department of Sociology, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
†School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This study examines content of dark tourism websites in the US. The purpose is to position the dark tourism sites on Stone’s spectrum and identify the type of authenticity promoted by different dark tourism suppliers. Also, the intention is to discuss ramifications of the authenticity stance pursued by dark sites in the context of deviant leisure. The results of this study make an important contribution to existing literature by examining the dark tourism spectrum from an authenticity perspective. They also offer important implications to dark tourism site managers. In knowing where their site falls on the dark tourism spectrum and the type of authenticity it communicates, they can have a better understanding of how to market themselves in an ethical manner.

Key words: Dark tourism; Authenticity; Negotiated experiences; Website marketing; Deviant leisure

Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020 411, N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Fax: 1-602-496-0853; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 227–232
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455801
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Chinese Immigrants’ Psychological Well-Being and Homeland Visit

Man-U Io* and Takashi Oguchi†

*Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
†College of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan

Given the limited research in immigrants’ psychological well-being with respect to homeland tourism, this study explored the Chinese immigrants’ psychological well-being and the relationship with their homeland visit. A survey was conducted for a sample of 500 immigrants. The CES-D was used to measure respondents’ psychological well-being. The results revealed that respondents’ psychological well-being not only significantly varied across different demographic variables, but also significantly correlated with their homeland visit. The results suggest that even though respondents may have adapted well to the new living environment of Macao due to a high degree of cultural similarities, they still tend to keep a connection with their homeland through homeland visit as it could benefit their psychological well-being. Through homeland visit, respondents could regain or affirm their connection with and emotional social support through the old social circle in their homeland. The study contributes to the understanding of the positive relationship between homeland tourism and immigrants’ psychological well-being and reveals the need for further research in homeland tourism.

Key words: Chinese immigrant; Homeland tourism; Psychological well-being; Acculturation; Macao

Address correspondence to Dr. Man-U Io, Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao SAR, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 233–240
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455847
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Popularity and Risks of Electronic Gaming Machines (EGMs) for Gamblers: The Case of Australia

Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee* and Hwa-Kyung Kim

*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan
†Department of Hotel Management, Semyung University, Checheon, South Korea

This article provides a brief history of electronic gaming machines (EGM) in Australia and examines why they are so popular in that country. The components and antecedents that have allowed EGMs to become so popular are highlighted. The risks of this form of gaming to individuals, families, the community and government are evaluated, specifically the costs of problem gambling and the role EGMs have in this addictive behavior. Recommendations are provided that focus on assisting problem gamblers and consider EGM distribution, decreasing EGM revenue, altering payout ratios and implementing harm minimization strategies with investigation of the current legislation. The study contributes to reducing the negative impacts of EGM and strengthening the benefits they can provide to the gaming industry in Australia and beyond.

Key words: Electronic gaming machines (EGM); Addiction; Risks; Australia

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 241–247
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455883
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Does Shopping Matter? A Research Note Discussing China’s Revised Tariff Policy and Resultant Outbound Shopping Behaviors

Randall S. Upchurch* and Danqing Liu†

*Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Florida International University, North Miami, FL, USA
†Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China

It was originally thought that the newly revised tariff policy that was enacted in China would greatly reduce shopping-oriented tours and impact on tourists’ choices of purchasing and spending behavior. The findings of this study indicate that this is not necessarily the case. It was discovered that for this group of Chinese outbound tourists the act of retail shopping was an integral part of their travel activities. This group of outbound travelers shopped for themselves, family, relatives, friends, and coworkers; sought to experience mutually rewarding shopping occasions; desired to build and maintain harmonious relationships; were driven by a strong desire to enhance social status (e.g., mianzi); sought to improve enjoyment of travel experiences; and displayed strong interests in destination cultural activities that entailed immersion in cultural events and local-centric shopping. The implications of this focused study are twofold: first, outbound travel patterns resulting from China’s revised tariff policy are discussed from the perspective of destination marketers; and second, attractors and benefits of outbound travel are discussed from the resident and governmental perspectives.

Key words: Shopping behaviors; China; Tariff policy; Outbound tourists

Address correspondence to Randall S. Upchurch, Associate Dean of Academics, Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Florida International University, 3000 N.E. 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 249–253
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X13963557455928
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Understanding Perceived Physical Risk: The Case of Japan

Hayato Nagai and Aaron Tkaczynski

Tourism, School of Business, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Perceived risk is identified in the tourism literature as a major deterrent to a potential tourist’s likelihood of visiting a destination. Although the physical-related problems that a tourist may encounter while traveling are discussed, research exploring tourist’s perceptions of physical perceived risk is limited. As a tourist’s prime concern is to experience a destination’s offerings with limited or no threats to their safety and well-being, it is essential to identify what represents perceived physical risk for tourism development and planning purposes. To address this research gap, respondents studying in Australia with an interest in traveling to Japan were surveyed. Three factors that represented perceived physical risk were identified. Furthermore, this study determined that personal characteristics differentiated the students based on their perceived physical risk factors. Theoretical and practical implications from this research are outlined and opportunities for future research are provided.

Key words: Disorder; Hygiene; Japan; Impairment; Perceived physical risk

Address correspondence to Hayato Nagai, Ph.D. candidate, Tourism, School of Business, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it