Tourism Review International 18(1-2) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 9-22
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684400
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mountain Bike Tourism and Community Development in British Columbia: Critical Success Factors for the Future

Ray Freeman* and Eugene Thomlinson†

*School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Royal Roads University, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
†School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Mountain bike tourism may provide significant benefit to communities, as shown by economic impacts of $38 (CDN) million realized in the Sea-to-Sky Corridor region of British Columbia, Canada in 2006. This achievement was realized due to regional stakeholder collaboration and community mountain bike trail planning dating back to the early 1990s. Despite the value and recent growth in mountain bike tourism, formal research into community mountain bike tourism development is still in its infancy. To explore the critical success factors necessary to build sustainable tourism capacity for the development of mountain bike tourism, a modified Delphi method was utilized to query industry experts in this empirical study. A literature review, followed by online surveys of selected experts, led to the creation of a framework for community-based mountain bike tourism development to support sustainable community mountain bike tourism strategies. This framework may be beneficial to clusters of tourism stakeholders for mapping-out long-term objectives and to achieve planning and operational efficacy. Utilization of the framework may also assist stakeholders to more effectively execute a successful community-based mountain bike tourism development strategy while assisting future researchers to delve further into an analysis of the role of critical success factors.

Key words: Mountain bike tourism; Critical success factors; Tourism development; Sustainable tourism; Planning framework

Address correspondence to Ray Freeman, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Royal Roads University, 2005 Sooke Road, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, V9B-5Y2. Tel: +001-250-391-2600, ext. 4829; Fax: +011-250-391-2546; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 23-36
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684446
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Pedaling Through the Past: Sport Heritage, Tourism Development, and the Tour of Flanders

Gregory Ramshaw* and Tim Bottelberghe†

*Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
†Marketing Department, Toerisme Oost-Vlaanderen, Ghent, Belgium

Sport and heritage, individually, are widely viewed as important catalysts in tourism development. However, the potential role that combining sport and heritage could have in tourism development initiatives is little understood. This article considers the tourism development potential of sport heritage via the Tour of Flanders—a nearly century-old 1-day cycling race held each spring in the Flanders region of Belgium—by discussing the role of heritage in cycling tourism, the background of the race, current local tourism challenges surrounding the race, and potential avenues for developing heritage sport tourism year round in the region. It is argued that the Tour of Flanders case suggests that sport heritage could be a potentially important avenue for tourism development, although it may need to be combined with other forms of local non-sport heritage to reach a broader, international audience. Furthermore, it is speculated that developing a sport heritage emphasis may also positively contribute to addressing other tourism challenges, such as place promotion. The article concludes that further testing and evaluation is required to demonstrate the link between sport heritage and tourism development, particularly as demonstrated through the Tour of Flanders.

Key words: Cycling; Heritage; Tourism; Development; Sport; Belgium

Address correspondence to Gregory Ramshaw, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 37-55
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684482
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of the Potential Local Economic Impact of Tourism and Leisure Cycling and the Development of an Evidence-Based Market Segmentation

Mike Weed,* Chris Bull,* Mat Brown,* Suzanne Dowse,* Jane Lovell,* Louise Mansfield,† and Ian Wellard*

*Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research (SPEAR), Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK
†School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK

Through a systematic review and meta-analyses of worldwide evidence, this article provides estimates for spend per person per day of overnight (£43.33), non-overnight (£7.95), and all (£13.38) tourism and leisure cyclists. A further meta-analysis to inform local policy, provision, and local economic impact strategies provides evidence for seven tourism and leisure cycling market segments (Near Residents, Far Residents, Near Day Trippers, Far Day Trippers, Near Holidayers, Far Holidayers, Cycle Tourers), and their associated behaviors and spending patterns. Over three quarters of economic activity attributable to tourism and leisure cycling (77%) is shown to be derived from cycling tourism, thus representing additional local economic impact. In conclusion, the use of market segmentation to derive local economic impact estimates is discussed. The importance of considering how far cycling tourism affects trip decisions, rather than whether cycling tourism is the prime trip purpose, is highlighted in deriving robust economic impact estimates. Finally, because the Cycle Tourers market segment contributes less than 2% of market volume and value, future research might usefully focus on less dedicated but more prevalent casual recreationalist cyclists, who are interested in shorter trips, with more stops for refreshments and socializing, and who often travel in family groups.

Key words: Cycling tourism; Sports tourism; Systematic review; Meta-analysis; Economic impact

Address correspondence to Mike Weed, Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research (SPEAR), Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Campus, Canterbury, Kent CT5 3AH, UK. Tel: +44 1227 782743; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 57-69
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684527
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Linking Tourism Products to Enhance Cycle Tourism: The Case of the Taieri Gorge Railway and the Otago Central Rail Trail, New Zealand

Arianne C. Reis,* Brent Lovelock,† and Carla Jellum†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia
†Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

This study, undertaken in rural New Zealand, discusses issues involved in enhancing linkages between an existing rail tourism product and a cycle tourism product. The article assesses demand for such a development and gauges current and potential future connectivity between the two products. The article draws on a survey of train passengers and rail trail visitors, along with interviews undertaken with key tourism and community stakeholders in relation to the rail trail. The data highlight problems around product development and integration. While participants agree that an enhanced link between the railway and the rail trail will be of benefit for all those involved with tourism in the region, stakeholders who currently benefit from the current (unenhanced) links between the two tourism products are hesitant about improved connectivity because of concerns centered around community growth management. Conversely, other stakeholders support enhanced rail/trail connections, lending weight to social exchange premises which infer that attitudes towards a particular issue are influenced by evaluations of the real and expected outcomes for individuals or their communities. The article highlights the complexities around the multistakeholder nature of managing such linear routes, especially in rural communities where the benefits and drawbacks of tourism developments are strongly felt.

Key words: Rail trail; Cycle tourism; Community; Social exchange; Stakeholder; Sustainable tourism

Address correspondence to Arianne C. Reis, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Hogbin Drive, Coffs Harbour NSW 2450, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6659 3696; Fax: +61 2 66593144; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 71-85
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684563
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cycling Into Sensoria: Embodiment, Leisure, and Tourism

Karen M. Fox,* Barbara Humberstone,† and Michael Dubnewick*

*Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
†Department of Sports Management, Bucks New University, Buckinghamshire, UK

A self-supported long-distance bicycle tour in Hawai’i is the context for theoretical musings about the role of the sensuous in leisure and tourism scholarship. Autoethnography and narrative inquiry was chosen to underscore the experiences and critical insights from self-supported long-distance bicycle touring leisure research for three leisure scholars. Sensuous scholarship complements Lefebvre’s spacetime that placed the human body and everyday life at the center of his theorizing. Kānaka ‘Ōiwi’s scholarship and critique of Eurocentric leisure supports the value of sensuous scholarship as enhancing Eurocentric leisure practices as well as supporting decolonizing processes relevant to leisure/tourism research. Taking the body–mind–spirit and “body-on-a-cycle motion” seriously highlights the power of sensuous scholarship, interrogates dominant narratives of leisure, and demonstrates the power of paying attention to the everyday features and the production of leisure spacetimes.

Key words: Long-distance bicycle touring; Leisure spacetimes; Sensoria; Autoethnography

Address correspondence to Karen M. Fox, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, P-408 Van Vliet Complex, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H9. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 87-98
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684608
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cycling Charity Challenge Events: Can They Contribute to the Lifestyle Medicine Movement?

Alexandra Coghlan

Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus Southport, QLD, Australia

Many developed countries, including Australia, are experiencing an increase in lifestyle-related disease such as obesity, heart disease, and mental distress. A new model of health care known as lifestyle medicine encourages individuals to be active partners in their health care and take responsibility for their long-term health, as well as address causes of lifestyle-related disease and concentrate on prevention. Focusing on a cycling-based charity challenge event designed to raise funds to support cardio health, the Yellow Pages Cardiac Challenge, this article considers the role of charity challenge events, and more broadly cycle tourism, within lifestyle medicine. Using survey-based primary and secondary data, the study addresses two questions: To what extent do the socio-demographic profiles of charity challenge participants and lifestyle disease “at-risk” groups overlap and what is the cycling involvement and experience of charity challenge participants? The results suggest that charity challenge events can play a role in introducing individuals to the physical health benefits of cycling, and encourage mental health and well-being through the creation of new social relationships, development of a sense of achievement, and experiencing positive emotions. Whereas a number of questions remain to be answered, this study’s results contribute to existing health policy debates by exploring the role of sports tourism in supporting lifestyle medicine initiatives.

Key words: Charity challenge events; Lifestyle movements; Health; Lifestyle medicine

Address correspondence to Alexandra Coghlan, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport QLD 4222, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 99-103
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684644
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

RESEARCH NOTE

The Relationship Between Cycle Tourism and Sustainable Transport in the UK

Mike Weed,* Chris Bull,* Mat Brown,* Suzanne Dowse,* Jane Lovell,* Louise Mansfield,† and Ian Wellard*

*Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research (SPEAR), Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, UK
†School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UK

The use of both sustainable transport outcomes and tourism impacts as a mixed justification for investment in cycling infrastructure has led to the two often being seen as synonymous. The environmentally friendly credentials of cycle tourism are predicated on a conceptualization of cycle tourism in which cycling as a form of transport supplants other energy-consuming and -polluting forms of transport within the tourism trip. However, using a recent meta-analysis of UK data, this research note shows that even when the environmental costs of major cycling events are excluded, in absolute terms recreational cycle tourism across its full range of forms in the UK still generates considerable motorized transport use. But, the use of counterfactual models shows that in relative terms, on average across all its forms, recreational cycle tourism in the UK reduces the use of motorized transport to get to and from destinations by 12.2% and reduces motorized transport use at destinations by 7.6%. Consequently, recreational cycle tourism in the UK does have a positive sustainable transport outcome, but this is far smaller than is often visualized.

Key words: Cycling; Cycle tourism; Sustainable transport; Environment; Meta-analysis

Address correspondence to Mike Weed, Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research (SPEAR), Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Campus, Canterbury, Kent CT5 3AH, UK. Tel: +44 1227 782743; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp. 105-113
1544-2721/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427214X13990420684680
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

RESEARCH NOTE

Assessing Usage of Rural Cycle Ways—Problems and Issues: A Case Study of the Hauraki Cycle Trail, North Island New Zealand

Chris Ryan,* Thu Thi Trinh,† Minghui Sun,‡ and Ping Li§

*Waikato Management School, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
†Danang College of Planning and Economics, Danang, Vietnam
‡New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
§Zhejiang Yuexiu University of Foreign Languages, Zheijiang, China

This research note discusses measurement issues involved in an assessment of economic impacts of a cycle trail based on counts of users with reference to the Hauraki Cycle Trail located in North Island, New Zealand. It illustrates the problems of correctly counting cyclists to arrive at a gross estimate of expenditure. Double counting can occur because cyclists may trigger counts at more than one location due to the distance they cycle, or because they undertake a return trip on the same day, thereby being counted twice. Another practical issue is sensitivity of the counters, and the mix of users on a trail that can include walkers and animals.

Key words: Cycling; New Zealand; Cycle trails; Counting usage

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Waikato Management School, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton,  New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it