Tourism Analysis 19(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 261–272
1083-5423/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968321
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Importance of Satisfaction in Relation to Gastronomic Tourism Development

Jose M. Prat Forga and Gemma Canoves Valiente

TUDISTAR Research Group–Geography Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

This work investigates the interrelationships between the development of gastronomic tourism and the satisfaction of this tourist on having consumed this product. The factors analyzed in order to evaluate satisfaction with the visit are the quality of the product, the marketing, and the accessibility. The factors analyzed in order to evaluate the development level of gastronomic tourism are the interest of the tourist in the local gastronomy, the possibility of realizing new culinary experiences, and the economic level of the tourist. A total of 263 respondents completed a personal survey conducted at Emporda, a very important touristic region in northern Catalonia (Spain). The data were analyzed using a structural equation modeling technique, and the results reveal that the impacts of the six factors have significant effects on gastronomic tourism development and satisfaction of this type of tourist, and both—gastronomic tourism development and gastronomic tourist satisfaction—have a very strong interrelationship.

Key words: Gastronomic tourism; Tourism development; Structural equation modeling; Serviscape; Segmentation

Address correspondence to Jose M. Prat Forga, TUDISTAR Research Group–Geography Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Campus de la UAB–edificio B, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 273–286
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968367
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Loyalty as a Consequence of Satisfaction and Switching Barriers

Vo Van Can*†

*Tromso University Business School, Tromso University, Tromso, Norway
†Accounting-Finance Faculty, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam

The purpose of this article is to investigate how satisfaction and switching barriers influence destination loyalty. A survey was conducted as the research instrument. A structural equation model was applied to test the causal relationship among the constructs. The findings show that both satisfaction and switching barriers have significant effects on destination loyalty. Of the multicomponents of switching barriers, interpersonal relationship and switching costs have positive impacts whereas lack of attractiveness of other destinations has a negative effect on destination loyalty. Furthermore, all three dimensions of tourist satisfaction and overall satisfaction have positive effects on destination loyalty. From a managerial aspect, tourism managers should concentrate not only on how to improve tourists’ satisfaction but also on how to develop switching hindrances for tourists in order to enhance tourist destination loyalty.

Key words: Destination; Loyalty; Satisfaction; Switching barriers; Tourists

Address correspondence to Van Vo Can, Accounting-Finance Faculty, Nha Trang University, 02-Nguyen Dinh Chieu, Nha Trang Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. Tel: +84.913426858; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 287–300
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968402
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Visitor Satisfaction and Place Attachment in National Parks

Haywantee Ramkissoon,*† Liam David Graham Smith,* and Sarah Kneebone*

*Behaviourworks Australia, Monash Sustainability Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
†Australia & International Tourism Research Unit, Faculty of Arts, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia

This study examines the relationships between visitor satisfaction and place attachment. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test competing models of visitor satisfaction and place attachment represented as a (i) unidimensional, (ii) first-order, and (iii) second-order factor. Data were collected from a sample of 525 visitors at the Bruce Peninsula National Park, in the state of Ontario, Canada. Results indicate visitor satisfaction is a better predictor of place attachment as a second-order construct. Findings are discussed with respect to their applied and theoretical relevance. Practical applications of the study include strategies aimed at achieving optimum visitor satisfaction and promoting place attachment in national parks.

Key words: Visitor satisfaction; Place attachment; National parks; Unidimensional; First- and second-order factor

Address correspondence to Haywantee Ramkissoon, Ph.D., Monash Sustainability Institute, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Tel: +61 449534097; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 301–310
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968448
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Conjoint Approach in Estimating the Importance of Urban Forests Versus Other Major Tourism Attractions in Urban Tourism Destinations: Insights From Washington, DC

Rogelio T. Andrada Ii, Jinyang Deng, Chad Pierskalla, and John Brooks

Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA

The study used a conjoint approach to assess the relative importance of urban forests compared to the major attractions of Washington, DC, a top city destination in the US. Survey data collected through self-administered questionnaires were analyzed using conjoint analysis. Results showed that the attributes of the city that people regarded as important to tourism include timing of visit, physical attractions, events, and urban forests. Respondents expressed that timing of visit is the most important attribute with a relative importance value of 39.55%, followed by events, physical attractions, and urban forests. Despite the fact that Washington, DC is currently being marketed as a business and cultural destination, respondents showed a significant level of awareness that the city’s urban forests are integral to its tourism appeal. Gardens were observed to be the preferred form of urban forests. The study also highlighted the need to refocus marketing of Washington, DC’s tourism products to emphasize other attractions. These resources can be tapped to expand the city’s tourism market and improve its tourism products. Furthermore, the study supports that Washington, DC’s urban forests add to its appeal and that tourism managers should consider new strategies to incorporate this resource into the mainstream attractions.

Key words: Urban tourism; Visitor preferences; Conjoint analysis

Address correspondence to Rogelio T. Andrada II, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, 322 Percival Hall, PO Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506-6125, USA. Tel: +1 304 293 0048; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 311–321
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968484
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

External Shocks and Tourist Arrivals to Cambodia

A. S. M. Sohel Azad,* Vannarith Chheang,† and Amirul Ahsan*

*School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia
†Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

This article investigates how external shocks affect tourist arrivals to Cambodia. The study relies on the random walk approach to test whether the shocks to tourist arrivals are temporary or persistent in nature. To facilitate the empirical investigation, the study applies and compares the results from different unit root tests and variance-ratio tests to the monthly tourists’ arrival data from 1994 to December 2012. Both tests provide evidence of random walk hypothesis, implying that shocks to tourists’ arrival to Cambodia have a persistent effect requiring short- to medium-term policies to combat the vulnerability due to those shocks. Public–private coordinated policies could reduce the impact, as we found that once the crisis (external shocks) is minimized, the magnitude of the shocks decays slowly.

Key words: External shocks; Random walk hypothesis; Unit root tests; Variance ratio tests; Simulation; Tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. A. S. M. Sohel Azad, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 323–338
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968529
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Conceptualization and Measurement of Dimensionality of Place Attachment

Ning (Chris) Chen,*† Larry Dwyer,†‡ and Tracey Firth§

*Lincoln Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, UK
†School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia
‡School of Management, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia
§School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia

To extend the discussion and application of place attachment to tourism-relevant contexts, this article proposes two neglected dimensions: place memory and place expectation. Combining these dimensions, a six-dimension construct of place attachment is tested using confirmatory factor analysis and found to be a good fit for data collected from two places: Sydney, Australia and Shanghai, China. The new dimensionality includes an individual’s past experience and future expectations of his/her attachment to a place, and thus has a potential to interpret one’s attachment to a place based on a shorter term stay. The implications of the study for researchers and destination managers are discussed.

Key words: Place attachment; Tourism destination; Place memory; Place expectation; Cross-culture; Confirmatory factor analysis

Address correspondence to Dr. Ning (Chris) Chen, Lincoln Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Wharf East, Lincoln, LN5 7AT, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1522 835542; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 339–349
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968565
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Forecasting the City Hotel Market

Egon Smeral

Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Vienna, Austria
Modul-University, Vienna, Austria

City tourism is rapidly gaining in importance. With its fast pace of growth, the city tourism industry needs reliable forecasting models to get useful information on future development trends. But so far we have only a handful of studies that look into forecasting issues related to city tourism. We need to consider that dynamic demand for overnight stays impacts on occupancy rates and room prices and that these variables in turn influence investment in increasing bed capacities. To fill this gap in research, an econometric model of the hotel bed supply and the demand for overnight stays on a monthly basis has been developed for Vienna, Austria. Forecasts for 2013 and 2014 were carried out for overnight stays, bed supply, average daily rates, and, implicitly, also for occupancy rates. A scenario involving a level shift in tourism demand shows the sensitivity of the model.

Key words: Forecasting; City hotel market; Bed supply; Econometric modeling; Occupancy rates; Average daily rate

Address correspondence to Egon Smeral, Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Arsenal, Obkekt 20, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 351–359
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968600
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Prior Experience and Destination Advertising Response

Yeongbae Choe,* Jason L. Stienmetz,† and Daniel R. Fesenmaier*

*National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Fox School of Business, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Prior experience has been recognized as one of the most important factors affecting travelers’ decision making and travel behavior. However, advertising effectiveness research has largely ignored how prior experience differentiates travelers’ responses to destination advertising. As such, this study examines the relationship between traveler’s experience at the destination, traveler and trip characteristics, and advertising response. The findings of this study clarify these relationships and provide important implications for the improvement of destination advertising response models and, in turn, the design of destination marketing programs.

Key words: Destination advertising response; Advertising effectiveness; Conversion

Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Professor and Director, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, 300 Florida Gym, PO Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 361–368
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968646
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Issues and Impacts of Internet Gambling: The Case of Australia

Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee* and Woo-Hee Byun†

*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan
†Department of Tourism Management, Gyeongju University, Gyeongju, Korea

Internet gambling has become of interest in recent years as studies on this craze have shown that it is has the potential to become extremely problematic. This article presents the benefits and disadvantages of Internet gambling to the community, to gaming operators, and to consumers in Australia. The article also demonstrates how other factors such as laws and regulations can affect the community and gaming operators. Research suggests that many of the advantages and disadvantages overlap, and what may be an advantage in one area can be a disadvantage in another. This article contributes to the understanding of the impact of one of the fastest developing gaming and leisure activities worldwide.

Key words: Internet gambling; Local community; Gaming operators; Australia

Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 369–376
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968682
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Measuring Wellness-Related Lifestyles for Local Tourists in Taiwan

Kaung-Hwa Chen,* Feng-Hsiang Chang,† and Ke-Xin Tung*

*Department of Tourism Management, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
†Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan

This study involved establishing a lifestyle scale that addresses wellness tourism. Seventy-five items were collected and scored by experts; subsequently, 50 items were incorporated in the question bank for composing a questionnaire. The surveyed tourists returned 1,506 valid questionnaires. Finally, by using factor analyses, 26 items and 7 factors were extracted to design a wellness lifestyle scale; the conceptual framework for a wellness lifestyle was then constructed for local tourists in Taiwan. Future researchers of market segmentation in wellness tourism can conduct validation based on the proposed scale, screening potential customers in the wellness tourism market.

Key words: Health; Wellness tourism; Lifestyle; Segmentation

Address correspondence to Feng-Hsiang Chang, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Management, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, No. 367, Sanmin Road, Nanjhou Hsian, Pingtung 926, Taiwan. Tel: +886 8 8647367, ext. 324; Fax: + 886 8 8647123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 377–382
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968727
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Affective–Psychological Process of Festival Visitor Loyalty Formation

Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee* and Gerard T. Kyle†

*School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
†Department of Park, Recreation, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

The present study investigates the causal relationships among emotions, satisfaction, psychological commitment, and loyalty in festival contexts based on the theoretical and empirical evidence underlying customer loyalty development. Using on-site and follow-up survey procedures, data were collected from 228 visitors to the three community-based festivals. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that positive emotions were strong predictors of visitors’ overall evaluations of their experience at the festivals. Satisfaction with their overall festival experience was in turn found to strongly influence psychological commitment and loyalty to those festivals. In accordance with the study findings, we provided theoretical implications to advancing our understanding of the loyalty development process by integrating the affective element into the conventional cognitive model. Our findings also provide useful practical insights on the formulation of effective marketing strategies to draw and maintain loyal visitors.

Key words: Consumption emotions; Satisfaction; Psychological commitment; Loyalty; Festivals

Address correspondence to Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee, School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: 61-2-9385-2696; Fax: 61-2-9663-1985; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 383–390
1083-5423/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14029467968763
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Purchasing Leisure Travel Online: An Analysis of Russian Internet Users’ Intentions

Stefanie N. Bock, Katharina G. Skoupy, Varvara Solovyeva, and Roman Egger

Department of Innovation and Management in Tourism, Salzburg University of Applied Science, Puch Urstein, Salzburg, Austria

The purpose of this study was to conduct an empirical piece of research to investigate Russian Internet users’ intentions behind purchasing leisure travel online. The technology acceptance model was taken as a theoretical basis for the study. The findings indicate that the Russian market is very different from the European as well as the US–American market, and therefore needs special consideration. It was therefore not possible to analyze the model fully, but only in part.

Key words: Online travel shopping; Technology acceptance model; Russia; Structural equation modeling

Address correspondence to Dr. Roman Egger, Professor (FH), Department of Innovation and Management in Tourism, University of Applied Sciences, Urstein Sud 1, 5412 Puch bei Salzburg, Austria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it