Event Management 18(3) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 207–230
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765600
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of Large-Scale Sporting Events in Host Community Education for Sustainable Development: An Exploratory Case Study of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

Rob Harris

Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

This study explores the relationship between large-scale sporting events (LSSEs) and education for sustainable development (EfSD) from the perspective of the host communities in which they take place. Over the past decade there has been an increasing acknowledgement by both the owners of these types of events and their hosting communities that they offer meaningful opportunities to engage in practices linked to EfSD. This acknowledgement, however, has not been accompanied by any discernible interest by researchers. This exploratory study goes some way towards redressing this situation and in so doing provides a platform upon which future research in this area can be built. Additionally, its findings are intended to be of value to communities who are bidding for, or hosting, LSSEs. A case study-based explorative research approach was employed in this inquiry utilizing the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (SOG). This event was chosen in part because its practices in the sustainability area are generally well documented, but more importantly because it represents a watershed event in terms of the engagement of a LSSE with a sustainable development agenda. The conceptual framework used to guide this study drew upon stakeholder theory and the limited literature associated with sustainable development and LSSEs. Secondary data in the form of reports, studies, audio visual, and other material, along with personal interviews, were used to explore the elements of this proposed framework and their relationship to one another. The study found the process of EfSD in the context of the SOG to be: dominated by the government sector; involve a diverse range of programs and initiatives; largely of an informal educational nature; and to have impacted organizations, groups, and individuals (to varying degrees) across the community. The EfSD process was also found to have been influenced by a number of factors, with some serving to strengthen the process, while others acted as constraints upon it. Additionally, the study identified a number of host community EfSD legacies, along with the potential for such legacies to extend to non-hosting communities.

Key words: Sustainable development; Education for sustainable development (EfSD); Legacy; Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (SOG)

Address correspondence to Dr. Rob Harris, Director, Australian Centre for Event Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 222, Lindfield, 2070, Sydney, Australia. Tel: +61-(0) 409409637; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 231–245
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765646
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Support for Sport Events and the Economy of Appearances: A Case Study of the 2011 World Rally Championship in Australia

Arianne Reis* and Sandro Sperandei†

*School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia
†Institute of Scientific and Technological Communication & Information in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

This article proposes an alternative way of analyzing the support commonly given by different members of host communities to staging large-scale sport events. It includes the contextualization of this phenomenon within the concept of the “society of the spectacle” and its derivate economy of appearances. Drawing from Debord we argue that the desire to be on the “world-stage,” be labeled as “international,” and win a competition with local neighbors may overrule the tangible losses often incurred by staging such large-scale events. We present data from a survey of 226 local business managers from the relatively small community of Coffs Coast in New South Wales, Australia, as well as analysis of local newspaper articles that support the premise of the economy of appearances. This theoretical position has hence proven useful in understanding some “hidden” players in this game and can be a useful tool for further developing research in this field.

Key words: Mega-events; Sport events; Spectacle; Economy of appearances; Australia; Impacts

Address correspondence to Arianne Reis, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, Hogbin Drive, Coffs Harbour NSW 2450, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6659 3696; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 247–263
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765682
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Guanxi and the Organization of Chinese New Year Festivals in England

Yi Fu,* Philip Long,† and Rhodri Thomas‡

*Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University (Xixi Campus), Hangzhou, China
†School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
‡International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK

This article explores how Chinese diaspora communities use guanxi, a unique Chinese interpretation of personal relationships, in the organization of Chinese New Year (CNY) festivals in England. A case-study approach that incorporated mixed qualitative methods was used to investigate the interactions and interrelationships between the ethnic Chinese communities involved in the organization of CNY festivals in five English cities. The article argues that Chinese diaspora communities use their guanxi to establish collaboration at CNY festivals. However, the process of organizing CNY festivals has also exposed divisions among Chinese communities. The article proposes that guanxi has important implications for the relationships among Chinese diaspora communities in the context of CNY festivals. Although it facilitates collaboration and promotes solidarity among Chinese communities, it may also intensify competition for power. Diaspora festivals in general are a neglected area of research and this article is the first to study the organization of Chinese New Year festivals in detail.

Key words: Diaspora community festivals; Chinese New Year (CNY); Guanxi

Address correspondence to Yi Fu, Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Floor 5, West Building 4-1, 148 Tianmushan Road, Zhejiang University (Xixi Campus), Hangzhou, China 310028. Tel: +86 (0)571 88273384; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 265–283
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765727
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Papua New Guinea’s Indigenous Cultural Festivals: Cultural Tragedy or Triumph?

Michelle Whitford* and Ashley Dunn†

*Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia
†Centre for Tourism, Leisure and Work, Southern Cross University, Coolangatta, Queensland, Australia

Indigenous cultural festivals are increasingly being recognized for their contribution to the growth and vitality of communities around the globe. Such festivals invigorate the communication and celebration of indigenous culture, tradition, and rituals. Additionally, indigenous cultural festivals are often used as a draw card to attract tourists to a host destination and contribute to the development of the region. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), festivals have long been essential to community life and are fundamental in sharing and sustaining Indigenous culture. More recently, local communities and the PNG Government alike are recognizing that these festivals have the capacity to facilitate development of the country’s embryonic tourism and event industry. The purpose of this qualitative research was to identify and examine cultural festivals in PNG, to develop a footprint of indigenous cultural festivals in PNG, and explore the extent to which tourism influences the cultural commodification of indigenous cultural festivals in PNG. Weaver and Lawton’s cultural commodification model provided theoretical scaffolding for the development of the PNG Indigenous Festival Cultural Commodification Framework, which revealed that overall, cultural festivals in PNG are a relatively unspoiled resource. To date, tourism has had little influence on the festivals, which celebrate, among other things, PNG culture and traditions. However as tourism in PNG gains momentum, arguably a key issue will be the extent to which tourism development adopts the principles of sustainability and, concomitantly, avoids turning a triumph into a tragedy as a result of over commodification of PNG indigenous cultural festivals.

Key words: Indigenous cultural festivals; Commodification; Commercialization; Event tourism; Netnography; Papua New Guinea (PNG)

Address correspondence to Dr. Michelle Whitford, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia. Tel: +61 7 373 54893; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 285–301
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765763
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Controlling the Delivering of Projects in Mega-Events: An Application on EXPO 2015

Giorgio Locatelli* and Mauro Mancini†

*School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK
†Department of Management, Economics & Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

The preparation of mega-events like Olympic Games, music festivals, or world expositions requires the successful and timely delivering of many correlated projects: buildings, ICT infrastructure, marketing projects, etc. The international market is increasingly characterized by large and mega-events. The size of these events escalates the complexity of management, often causing budget overruns and scope reduction. As a consequence it is fundamental to effectively monitor the progress of the entire program to react in case the progress does not follow the expected baseline. Project-controlling methodologies are well analyzed in the literature with respect to individual projects. For that which concerns the overall delivery of correlated projects (i.e., a program) the literature provides strategic and operational guidelines; however, far too little attention has been paid to developing quantitative methodology to control their execution phase. The purpose of this article is to review recent research into event planning and program management to propose a quantitative approach, based on the Petri nets and dynamic systems, to obtain the project envelope, a fundamental tool to assess and manage the progress of a program. The methodology is implemented on a real case study: EXPO 2015.

Key words: Mega-events; Universal EXPOsitions; Program; Controlling; Project envelope; Petri nets; Megaproject

Address correspondence to Giorgio Locatelli, School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK. Tel: +441522837946; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 303–324
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765808
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Athletes’ Experiences at the Youth Olympic Games: Perceptions, Stressors, and Discourse Paradox

Milena M. Parent,*† Elsa Kristiansen,† and Eric W. MacIntosh*

*School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
†Department of Cultural and Social Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway

The purpose of this article was to understand young athletes’ experiences at a youth sport festival, specifically the Youth Olympic Games (YOG). A mixed methods approach was used, comprising of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires with athletes from Canada and Norway, and observations during the 2012 Winter YOG in Innsbruck, Austria. In general, the young athletes had a positive experience, including the village environment, sport venues, travel, security, ceremonies, and medical services. They especially enjoyed the informal, international, sociocultural experiences. Food quality, accommodations, outdoor venue conditions, travel, security, and communications formed the main stressors according to the young athletes. Findings highlight the effect of the athletes’ young age, country of origin, and Games inexperience on their experiences, perceptions, and stressors, as well as paradoxes surrounding the International Olympic Committee’s YOG discourse and decisions.

Key words: Sport event management; Youth Olympic Games (YOG); Young athletes; Organizational stressors

Address correspondence to Milena M. Parent, University of Ottawa, 125 University St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 325–336
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765844
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Full-Time Student, Part-Time Employee: Capturing the Effects of Socialization Influences on Affective Commitment for Student Employees

Michael A. Odio,* Janelle Wells,†1 and Shannon Kerwin‡

*Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Department of Sport Management, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
‡Department of Sport Management, Brock University, St. Catherines, ON, Canada

Student employees are a valuable human resource for university sports venues, recreation, and athletic departments. This study examines sources of socialization influence (i.e., orientation, coworkers, student supervisors, and administration) and their role in fostering the affective organizational commitment of part-time student employees of a university-operated sports and entertainment venue. The student employees’ organizational identity is used as a mediator to explain how socialization affects commitment. Results show that student supervisors and administrators as agents of socialization are significant predictors of affective commitment and that organizational identity fully mediates the relationship between student supervisors and affective commitment and partially mediates the relationship between administrators and affective commitment. This finding is conceptually relevant given the part-time and transient nature of student employees, and leaders in this context typically represent stable figures that can help facilitate identity formation.

Key words: Student employees; Socialization; Social identity theory; Relative tenure; Part-time employees

1Current address: Sport and Entertainment Management, College of Business, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.
Address correspondence to Michael A. Odio at his current address: University of Cincinnati, 6310A CRC, P.O. Box 210068, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 337–356
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765880
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Nature of Perceived Organizational Support for Sport Event Volunteers

Laura Aisbett and Russell Hoye

Centre for Sport and Social Impact, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia

This article presents the findings of a study that explored the nature of perceived organizational support (POS) of volunteers at Bicycle Victoria’s 2010 Around the Bay in a Day cycling event. It presents evidence of the antecedents that exist for volunteers at a sport event, based on a series of focus groups and individual interviews with both general and team leader volunteers. The results suggest that sport event volunteers’ POS largely comprises the support of their immediate supervisor, and the volunteers’ ability to make decisions regarding their role, rather than other drivers that are evident within paid employment settings.

Key words: Sport event; Volunteers; Perceived organizational support (POS); Supervisor support

Address correspondence to Russell Hoye, Ph.D., Centre for Sport and Social Impact, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086, Australia. Tel: +613 9479 1345; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 357–367
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765925
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Events as Strategic Marketing Tools in Shopping Centers

Laura Chapman and Debbie Sadd

School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK

This article aims to investigate how UK shopping centers can strategically use event spaces as marketing tools, through identifying the needs of their key stakeholders. The study uses a large shopping center outside of London as its case study as it reputably has the largest dedicated events space of its kind in the UK. Both primary and secondary research was conducted. Secondary research was undertaken in order to establish how and why marketing is used in shopping centers through the types of entertainment used, and how these are accessed by different typologies of shoppers. Stakeholder theory was also explored in relation to tensions that may exist within the different stakeholders involved. Primary research was then conducted in order to establish if such tensions exist, within the strategic use of the event space. This was in the form of semistructured interviews, with eight store managers and three of the leadership team from the shopping center. This is therefore a property-led approach as opposed to a customer led focus. The conclusions drawn showed the necessity for regular stakeholder analyses, as situations change and new events are introduced. This research is only based on one shopping center based in UK so may not be representative of all UK shopping centers. However, implications can impact any form of shopping center or mall. No direct contribution in this study is to customers/shopping center visitors although the management team has undertaken customer surveys to support the framework. The framework of strategic shopping center/mall event management was formulated to support retailtainment objectives. This was deemed crucial in the growing market for entertainment through events in shopping centers and malls.

Key words: Shopping centers; Retail event space; Stakeholder tensions; Marketing strategies

Address correspondence to Dr. Debbie Sadd, School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, BH12 5BB, Dorset, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 369–376
1525-9951/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X13989500765961
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

It Is Time? Ending a Long-Term Event

Tim Otteman* and Patty Janes†

*Department of Recreation, Parks & Leisure Services Administration, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA
†Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, USA

This case study identifies strategies for ending long-term, cause-related events and provides techniques to manage loss of legacy and emotional attachment for participants. Participants from a 15-year charity golf event were studied before and after the final offering of the event. Questions included understanding why current and past participants decided to participate, the level of emotional attachment participants experienced with the event, and feelings regarding the termination of the event. Participants took part in the event because of the cause, to support the family organizing the tournament, and because of the event’s quality. Golfers were emotionally connected to the event and over half were not emotionally ready for the event to end. They experienced feelings of sadness, relief for the event organizers, and were pleased the event ended while still strong. Participants indicated that event organizers managed the termination process effectively and that there was appropriate time for the event to conclude. Event organizers must determine the best time to end a long-term, annual event, and, when doing so, should take into careful consideration the emotional attachment participants may have to the event. Event organizers need to remember and reinforce the personal connections people have with events and the need for an outlet to express their feelings. This exploratory case study, with a small-scale, cause-related sports event, can begin a dialogue regarding community-based legacy events and the management of ending long-term, annual events.

Key words: Legacy event; Golf fundraiser; Emotional attachment; Cause-related event; Ending an event

Address correspondence to Dr. Tim Otteman, Ed.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation, Parks & Leisure Services Administration, Central Michigan University, Finch Fieldhouse 105, 1275 S. Franklin St, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA. Tel: (989) 774-7312; Fax: (989) 774-6121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 377–386
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X14038805493392
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Subject Areas and Future Research Agendas in Exhibition Research: Visitors’ and Organizers’ Perspectives

Myong Jae Lee* and Sanggun Lee†

*The Collins College of Hospitality Management, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Pomona, CA, USA
†Department of Tourism Event Management, Paichai University, Daejeon, South Korea

This thematic review of exhibition literature highlights major research themes in current exhibition research and directions for future exhibition research. A total of 55 exhibition studies published in academic journals and conference proceedings were contents analyzed for the review. A number of exhibition studies have targeted exhibition visitors and organizers. This thematic review presents four major research themes: (1) motives for exhibition visit, (2) the role of visitors in the buying center, (3) exhibition service marketing, and (4) exhibition site selection. Research agendas for future exhibition research are discussed.

Key words: Thematic review; Exhibitions; Visitors; Organizers

Address correspondence to Sanggun Lee, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Tourism Event Management, Paichai University, Daejeon, South Korea. Tel: +82-10-9407-4882; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 18, pp. 387–403
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599514X14038805493437
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Principles to Practice: Indicators for Measuring Event Governance Performance

Michelle Whitford,* Giang Thi Phi,* and Dianne Dredge†

*Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
†Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark

Governments are increasingly involved in public–private partnerships to attract, support, and/or stage events. This involvement often leads to governments becoming embroiled in highly politicized battles that focus on issues including community benefit, mitigation of impacts, transparency in decision making, and lack of consultation before, during, and after the event. To date, minimal attention has been paid to the public–private governance arrangements underpinning events. This article seeks to address this gap by presenting a set of indicators that can be operationalized to improve event governance. The article proposes an indicators framework for event governance designed to reflect the event policy-making process. It contributes to the literature by facilitating greater understanding of the significance and influence of event governance indicators. Future application of the framework in research and practice will provide governments with a new management tool, which will enhance democratic decision making and facilitate competitive advantage in a globalized marketplace.

Key words: Events; Governance; Indicators; Decision making

Address correspondence to Michelle Whitford, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Glyn Davis Building (N72), 0.34, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Qld, 4111, Australia. Tel: +61 7 373 54893; Fax: +61 7 373 56743; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it