Technology and Innovation 16(2) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 93-97
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476749
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Editorial: Patents for Humanity: How Universities and Government Are Reaching the Next Billion People

Edward Elliott

United States Patent and Trademark Office, Alexandria, VA, USA

The great challenge of the 21st century is extending the benefits of modern technology to the less fortunate around the world. Universities occupy a central role in the innovation system: they not only develop new technologies, but help commercialize the results through technology transfer. Universities can wield this influence as a force for socially conscious actions that benefit humanity without sacrificing commercial markets. The USPTO’s Patents for Humanity program showcases successful examples of such action by universities and others using patented technology to improve lives across the globe. The current issue of Technology and Innovation features articles from select Patents for Humanity winners, articles addressing the social impact of patents, and a number of other topics.

Key words: Patents; Humanitarian; Intellectual property; Global development; USPTO

Accepted May 5, 2014.
Address correspondence to Edward Elliott, Attorney Advisor, Office of Policy and International Affairs, United States Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany St., Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 99-105
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476785
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Collaborative Innovation to Advance Global Health Solutions

Carol Mimura

Office of Intellectual Property and Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA), University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

Effective models for translating academic research into technological solutions harness collaborative efforts across sectors. Pernicious gaps between the discovery, development, and deployment phases in product development can be traversed through partnerships that preserve incentives and rewards for all participants. The semisynthetic artemisinin project to produce low-cost treatments for malaria in developing country populations was implemented through a multiparty partnership that never lost sight of the overarching goal of an affordable cure. The partnership harnessed the respective strengths and investments of academia, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and philanthropy to achieve its global health goals. All participants derived benefits from the partnership at different times and in different ways. Each partner contributed its unique resources and strengths to the project, focusing its efforts on its respective role while engaging in cross-sector exchanges to accelerate progress.

Key words: Global health; Innovation; Collaboration; Networks; Public–private partnerships; Product development partnerships; Intellectual property (IP) strategies; IP rights management; Humanitarian contract clauses; Socially responsible licensing; New business models; Euclidean innovation; Access and affordability; Creative capitalism

Accepted June 6, 2014.
Address correspondence to Carol Mimura, Ph.D., RTTP, Asst. Vice Chancellor, Office of Intellectual Property and Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA), University of California, Berkeley, 2150 Shattuck Ave., Suite 510, Berkeley, CA 94704-1347, USA. Tel: +1-510-642-4548; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 107-113
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476820
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Patent for a Humanitarian Cause: Sign Fracture Care International

Lewis G. Zirkle

SIGN Fracture Care International, Richland, WA, USA

There is an emerging epidemic of road traffic accidents (RTAs) around the world. This increasing number of fractures is due to urbanization and the availability of inexpensive imported motorcycles. The Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) (the legal name of the organization is now SIGN Fracture Care International) patent includes a technique for placing an intramedullary (IM) nail through the bone canal to stabilize fractures of the leg and arm. Screws are placed through slots in the nail on both sides of the fracture for stabilization. In first-world hospitals, placement of these screws requires instant imaging and a consistent supply of electricity, which is lacking in developing countries. This patent describes a technique to place the nail and screws without using imaging or electricity. The system is currently used in 273 hospitals in 53 of the poorest countries in the world. Surgeons committed to the SIGN technique are supplied with implants at little or no cost for use in treating the poor. The SIGN technique has expanded to include the development of implants to treat hip fractures and children’s femur fractures. Five thousand doctors have been trained in the SIGN surgical technique. They report patient outcomes, including X-rays, to the SIGN surgical database, the largest database of fracture treatment in the world. About 112,000 patients have received the SIGN IM nail with results equivalent to surgery done anywhere in the world.

Key words: Orthopedics; Fracture care; Stabilization; Surgery; Outcomes; Developing world; Poor; Road traffic accidents; Surgeons; Doctors; Patients

Accepted March 1, 2014.
Address correspondence to Dr. Lewis G. Zirkle, M.D., Founder and President of SIGN Fracture Care International, 451 Hills Street, Suite B, Richland, WA 99354, USA. Tel: +1-509-371-1107; Fax: +1-509-371-1316; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 115-123
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476866
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The World’s Only Solar Light Bulb : Patented by Nokero to Protect a Design That Uses Light to Fight Energy Poverty

Katie Steinharter

Nokero International, Ltd., Denver, CO, USA

Worldwide, 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and spend $38 billion dollars per year on kerosene costs in an attempt to light their homes with dangerous fuels such as kerosene. Through impact inventing, Nokero reduces kerosene consumption and positively impacts lives around the world by providing safe, affordable, solar lights certified by design and utility patents to ensure innovative and quality products. One million of Nokero’s trademarked “World’s Only Solar Light Bulbs” have been sold in 127 countries around the world to resellers and dealers, international NGOs and aid organizations, and online retail consumers. This article will discuss the problem of energy poverty and kerosene’s effects, the solutions that solar can present, and Nokero’s approach to illuminating the world with high-quality, patented products.

Key words: Solar; Energy poverty; Kerosene; Light bulb; Nokero

Accepted April 7, 2014.
Address correspondence to Katie Steinharter, Nokero International, Ltd., 1031 33rd Street, Suite 231, Denver, CO 80205, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 125-135
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476901
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Persistence, a Working Innovation System, and Patent Protection: Characteristics of the Successful Commercialization of Two Recognized Inventions With High Societal and Economic Impact

Alfred Radauer

Technopolis Group Austria, Vienna, Austria

Every year, the EPO awards the “European Inventor Award” for inventions with high economic/societal value. In this article, we discuss economic and societal impacts for two nominations from 2012: The troponin-T assay invented by Katus/Hallermayer helps diagnose heart attacks. Its use has helped save some additional 17,000 lives each year in the US alone, compared to earlier diagnostic tools. The second invention by van Loosdrecht et al. relates to a novel wastewater treatment system, which has been recently successfully commercialized on an industrial scale. We first compare both innovations in terms of their success factors and challenges encountered from invention to market introduction. Second, we contrast these findings to theoretical models for innovation (mainly innovation system theory) described in the literature. Third, we assess the economic and societal impacts. We conclude that apart from technological issues, many challenges had to be addressed. Success was contingent on patience and persistence on the side of the inventors, as well as on the ability to attract and collaborate with different types of partners at different stages of the development/commercialization process. Patents played a major role to earn trust, to obtain funding, or for providing an incentive for the inventors to pursue their inventions further. The article is based on interviews with the inventors, technical field experts, patent analysis, and market data obtained for an assignment commissioned to Technopolis by the EPO, complemented by literature research on theoretical and empirical factors behind successful innovations.

Key words: Patent; Innovation system; Innovation process; Economic impact

Accepted May 27, 2014.
Address correspondence to Alfred Radauer, Technopolis Group Austria, Rudolfsplatz 12/11, A-1010 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 664 8843 1346; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 137-143
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476947
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Kamlet Laboratories Client Companies: Lessons Learned for Trying Times

Dean F. Martin and Barbara B. Martin

Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

The authors reviewed examples of “client companies” of Kamlet Laboratories, that is, those companies for which a relationship of some duration was established. The information that emerged provides useful insights into how the consulting firm operated as well as guidelines that may be applicable to a current situation in which government funding sources become curtailed (limited). Some 10 lessons that we think may be learned from a review of the documents, mostly from one client company, are considered in this report together with examples.

Key words: Kamlet; Consulting; Client; Lessons; Creativity; Patents; Tenure

Accepted August 6, 2014.
Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Department of Chemistry–CHE 205, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-2374; Fax: +1-813-974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 145-154
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821476983
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Priority, Piracy, and Printed Directions: James Yearsley’s Patenting of the Artificial Tympanum

Jaipreet Virdi-Dhesi

Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

UK Patent No. 2737 is one of the earliest patents applied to a hearing aid device and sought by aural surgeon James Yearsley (1805–1869) for his “Artificial Tympanums for the Ear.” Although Yearsley never filed for Letters Patent, the provisional patent specifications cover both his device—a pellet of cotton wool affixed with a fine thread—as well as his method for applying the device into a patient’s ear, which Yearsley argued was pivotal for ensuring the device’s success. Yearsley first introduced his artificial tympanum in 1848 but did not file for a patent until 1856, at the height of his priority debates with Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866). Toynbee had introduced his version of an artificial tympanum in 1853, without acknowledging Yearsley’s prior creation. This article examines the motives behind Yearsley’s patent filing, arguing that Yearsley believed patenting the artificial tympanum would not only claim his priority and end piracy, but also preserve the integrity of his surgical method.

Key words: Provisional patents; Aural surgery; Deafness; Credibility; Professional rivalry; Priority dispute; Credit

Accepted May 24, 2014.
Address correspondence to Jaipreet Virdi-Dhesi, University of Toronto, Institute for History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, 91 Charles St., Victoria College Rm. 316, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1K7, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 155-165
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821477027
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Innovation in Regulatory Science: Evolution of a New Scientific Discipline

A. Alan Moghissi,*† Sorin R. Straja,† Betty R. Love,† Dennis K. Bride,*† and Roger R. Stough*

*International Center for Regulatory Science, George Mason University, Arlington, VA, USA
†Institute for Regulatory Science, Alexandria, VA, USA

Regulatory science is increasingly recognized as an evolving science serving regulatory and other policy decisions. This article reviews the evolution of regulatory science and how various authors and organizations have defined it. The article identifies various tools, including Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science information, peer review, risk assessment, scientific assessment, and economics. Subsequently, the article describes three phases of regulatory science consisting of the initial phase when decisions were made using inadequate scientific information, the exploratory phase when various tools were developed, and the standard operating phase when tools are used to reevaluate decisions made during the initial phase. The article concludes by indicating the need for transparency in regulatory science by identifying assumptions, judgments, and related processes during the regulatory science process.

Key words: Best available science; Regulatory science metrics; Definition of regulatory science; History of regulatory science; Regulatory science tools

Accepted May 19, 2014.
Address correspondence to A. Alan Moghissi, Ph.D., President, Institute for Regulatory Science, P. O. Box 7166, Alexandria, VA 22307, USA. Tel: +1-703-765-3546; Fax: +1-703-765-3143; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 167-170
1929-8241/14 $90.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14096821477063
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Developing New Pathways for Clinical Research Through the Changing Environment of 21st Century Healthcare

Harry W. Severance

Erlanger Institute for Clinical Research, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Chattanooga, TN, USA

The increasingly high costs of performing clinical research through the established “university-academic” model have become increasingly recognized. Most specifically, in the area of federal and other foundation-sponsored “granted” trials, the gap between the “real costs” of research and the actual dollars “granted” to perform such trials are becoming increasingly disparate. Therefore, the ability of research centers, especially newer centers, to significantly enter and compete in the research arena is becoming more and more difficult. Even longstanding university-academic centers are finding it harder and harder to cover the full costs of financing such research under this system. The evolving model of industry-sponsored, pay-for-performance clinical trials can offer potential solutions for entry into and support of clinical research structures without the extensive overhead and indirect costs usually associated with “granted” trials. This model also allows nonacademic hospitals an opportunity to enter into the clinical research marketplace and may additionally serve, in an era of increasingly RVU-driven clinical practice environments, as an alternative recruitment and entry point for the expansion and encouragement of a cadre of new “physician-scientists with a medical degree,” a group that the NIH has defined as an “endangered species.”

Key words: Clinical research; Industry-sponsored trials; Pay-for-performance

Accepted June 16, 2014.
Address correspondence to Harry W. Severance, M.D., FACEP, Erlanger Institute for Clinical Research, 979 East 3rd Street, Suite B-1203 POB,Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA. Tel: +1-423-778-3923; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it