Tourism Analysis 19(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 401–412
1083-5423/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817030955
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Who Controls Tourism Innovation Policy? The Case of Rural Tourism

Anne-Mette Hjalager

Danish Centre for Rural Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

Over the past decades, rural tourism has developed rapidly and has gradually amplified its scope, scale, and attractiveness. This study addresses local action groups (LAGs) that fulfill their obligation of stimulating innovation by implementing the Europe Union’s rural development policy under the LEADER program. The LAGs represent the radical decentralization controlling and implementing rural tourism innovation policy. An overview of supported Danish projects demonstrates a constructive leveraging of local resources and an alignment with cultures and lifestyles in an incremental upgrading of rural tourism facilities, although the innovation performance tends to be low. The independence of LAGs hollows out national authorities’ potential roles in coordination and strategy. This study concludes that stimulating fundamental rural tourism innovation and aligning local tourism development with other important welfare and environmental agendas are hardly possible when national capacities are outmuscled.

Key words: Innovation; Policy; LEADER program; Rural tourism

Address correspondence to Anne-Mette Hjalager, Professor, Head of Centre, Danish Centre for Rural Research, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 413–424
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817030991
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Internal Benchmarking for Regional Tourism Organizations: A Case Example

Andreas H. Zins

Department of Tourism and Service Management, MODUL University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

During the past 20 years destination management has changed substantially towards more professionalism and goal orientation. Organizations such as the OECD and WTO as well as academia contributed with developing frameworks for assessing competitiveness and applying benchmarking processes at national and regional levels. However, continuous and systematic benchmarking for destination management has not been applied on a wider scale. This article reports on the development of an internal monitoring and benchmarking tool for a European destination at NUTS-III level that aims at overcoming prevailing weaknesses of existing instruments (e.g., lack of data, bias towards overnight tourism, limited involvement of appropriate stakeholders). The current system, called Tourism Sensor®, was set up in 2010 and repeated 2 years later. Results show, as expected, changes particularly where strategy implementation steps have been taken. Ratios also highlight sensitive areas where internal tourism management activities should be channeled in the near future.

Key words: Balanced scorecard; Managerial judgments; Destination marketing/management organization (DMO); Strategy congruence

Address correspondence to Dr. Andreas H. Zins, Professor of Tourism Management, Department of Tourism and Service Management, MODUL University Vienna, Am Kahlenberg 1, A-1190 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43-1-3203555-800; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 425–440
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031035
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Destination Competitiveness From a Demand Point of View: An Empirical Analysis for Andalusia

Lidia Andrades-Caldito,* Marcelino Sanchez-Rivero,† and Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernandez‡

*Department of Business Management and Sociology, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
†Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain
‡Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Jaen, Jaen, Spain

The purpose of this article is to analyze tourism destination competitiveness (TDC) from a demand point of view, evaluating the relevance of different TDC determinants and trying to provide an explanation about how these determinants affect tourists’ choices. Specifically, this article proposes a structural equation model for TDC, based on theoretical TDC models. Secondly, the model is tested using a sample of tourists who visited the Spanish region of Andalucia in 2010. After fitting the model, an alternative model is proposed, offering a superior explanation about how destination attributes influence TDC in terms of tourists’ duration of the stay, expenditure at the destination level, or the degree to which the destination matches their prior expectations. The main contribution of this article is that the determinants of TDC are evaluated from a demand point of view (tourists’ perceptions of the attributes that define the tourism destination value proposition) instead of a supply point of view (destination managers’ opinions or experts’ judgments). Consequently, some light is shed about how the main factors determining TDC are modulated by tourist perceptions. The relevance of this approach rests on the fact that tourists have the last word when choosing their holiday destination; therefore, it exposes a destination’s ability to attract tourists and to provide satisfactory experiences to assure its own competitiveness. Paradoxically, despite the relevance of tourism demand as a factor to explain TDC, very few studies have analyzed TDC from a tourist or demand perspective. Finally, existing theoretical models explaining TDC do not establish causal relationships between its determinants. This article, however, identifies connections between TDC determinants, as well as the influence of these relationships and determinants over TDC.

Key words: Destination competitiveness; Tourist perceptions; Structural equation model (SEM)

Address correspondence to Lidia Andrades-Caldito, Department of Business Management and Sociology, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain. Tel: 0034 667 849 514 or 0034 924 289 300, ext. 86533; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 441–460
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031071
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determining Indicators of Mountain Destination Development

Kir Kuščer

Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

This article identifies the important indicators of mountain destination development and groups them into factors. Based on an extensive review of literature, a comprehensive list of indicators of mountain destination development was formed. To gain real world insight, a survey was sent to an international sample of all stakeholders in mountain destinations and tourism researchers. Together this sample identified statistically significantly important indicators. An exploratory factor analysis was then made on these important indicators in order to find coherent factors that represent underlying dimensions of indicators of mountain destination development. A four-factor solution was produced and the factors were labeled based on the indicators that constituted them. The factors of mountain destination development that were discovered are “socioeconomic prosperity” and “preservation of natural environment,” which correspond to the sustainability dimensions of the indicators of mountain destination development. The other two factors that were found are “tourist traffic and expenditure” and “visitor satisfaction,” which provide a more classical view on how to measure mountain destination development. The results are useful for researchers in the field of mountain tourism and destination management, since there is a lack of literature regarding the sustainable development of destinations. Multiple authors also call for more research on indicators of sustainable development. Mountain destinations need to be able to respond quickly and properly to the challenges posed by the rapidly changing environment. The identified factors and their corresponding indicators of mountain destination development can prove useful for mountain destination managers and other stakeholders in mountain destinations, since they can help destinations to identify areas in which they excel and areas they need to improve in order to achieve sustainable destination development.

Key words: Indicators; Mountain destinations; Destination development; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Kir Kuščer, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Kardeljeva Ploščad 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 461–475
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031116
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Environmental Impacts of Tourism on a French Urban Coastal Destination: Perceptions of German and British Visitors

Girish Prayag* and Anna Brittnacher†

*Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
†Meininger Holding GmbH, Germany

This study presents an evaluation of the environmental impacts of tourism on the city of Nice using two well-established marketing methods, importance–performance analysis (IPA) and the gap method. Environmental impacts are evaluated by visitors from the two main generating markets of the destination: UK and Germany. The analysis of 211 visitor surveys identified that most of the environmental attributes of the destination required management action. Using the gap method, marginal differences were found on visitors’ importance and performance scores of environmental impacts. IPA revealed that most of the environmental impacts measured needed attention, irrespective of visitor nationality. The results suggest that IPA may be a more valuable destination performance assessment tool than using the gap method alone. Eleven importance and only five performance scores were evaluated significantly differently by German and British visitors. Implications for the use of IPA as a destination performance assessment tool and some environmental management strategies are suggested for Nice. Suggestions are also offered on communication strategies for the British and German markets to improve perceptions of the environmental quality of Nice.

Key words: Environmental impacts; Tourist nationality; Importance–performance analysis (IPA); Gap method; German, British, Nice

Address correspondence to Girish Prayag, Department of Management, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 477–489
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031152
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Recreational Needs and Service Performance Expectations

Juergen Gnoth* and Brett Martin†

*Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
†Department of Marketing, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

The theoretical contribution of this study lies with its focus on subjective experiencing, that is, the emotional convergence between feeling states, and perceptions of servicescapes and holiday activities. An empirical study models the impact of recreational needs on the perceived importance of destination attributes and intentions to participate in activities. A sample of prospective tourists was asked to indicate how important they considered servicescape elements to be in their general holiday planning. They were also asked to report on their emotional state (orientation) as a proxy for their needs for recreation, and to state their intention and likely involvement with holiday activities. Results suggest that those with high recreational needs (self-reflexive and inward-looking) regard elements of tourism servicescapes as significantly more important than those without (who are outward-looking and energetic), as well as show significant variations in their inclinations to be active and explorative at destinations. Rather, those with higher recreational needs as measured by combinations of lack of energy, self-confidence, and physiological well-being look for creature comfort, coziness, and familiarity, in other words, for things they already know and have experienced before. Subjective experiencing and service performance evaluations are thereby suggested to be influenced by emotional states. These states may also impact tourists’ recognition of destination uniqueness as a major component of a destination’s competitive advantage that cannot easily be copied. As a consequence, it may be worth reconsidering the role of recreation in tourism service design. Turning an inward-looking focus bent on recreation to an outward-looking one interested in discovery would enable more tourists to more fully experience the destination before they leave.

Key words: Experience; Recreation; Orientation; Service expectations; Authenticity

Address correspondence to Juergen Gnoth, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 491–503
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031198
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Mobile Ethnography: A Pioneering Research Approach for Customer-Centered Destination Management

Marc Stickdorn, Birgit Frischhut, and Josef S. Schmid

Department of Tourism, MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

Since customers increasingly base purchase decisions on online reviews, tourism has to constantly manage and evaluate the whole service chain from the guests’ perspective. Service design as a contemporary approach provides methods to analyze and visualize service chains in a holistic and user-centered manner. A customer journey map visualizes a sequence of direct and indirect touchpoints. Touchpoints are moments in which customers encounter a certain brand or destination from their first online search, their evaluation through social media, and the booking process, as well as the travel and stay itself and writing subsequent online reviews. The intentional design of service systems through the eyes of customers is becoming fundamental to compete for customer’s satisfaction. Service design builds on ethnographic research of real-life customers. However, quantitative and classic ethnographic research methods tend to fail when applied on the spacial scope and temporal extension of customer journeys in the field of tourism. In consequence, the innovative approach of mobile ethnography was developed to overcome this problem through integrating tourists as active investigators using smartphones. Mobile ethnography contrasts with other quantitative and qualitative research methods through its open approach. It is the guests who decide what is a touchpoint during their individual customer journey. This article reports on an EU-funded pilot study applying mobile ethnography in seven European tourism destinations. The findings of the study in St. Anton, Austria demonstrate the research design of mobile ethnographic research for tourism destinations and indicate its potential to iteratively improve the customer experience in a destination.

Key words: Service design; Mobile ethnography; Service innovation; Destination management; Customer experience

Address correspondence to Marc Stickdorn, Department of Tourism, MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Weiherburggasse 8, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 505–516
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031233
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Measuring Event Planners’ Perceptions of Place Image Attributes: The Case of Greek Convention Destinations

Nicolas Papadopoulos,* Statia Elliot,† and Leslie Szamosi‡

*Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
‡CITY College, International Faculty of the University of Sheffield, Thessaloniki, Greece

Meetings, convention, and exhibition tourism is a growing and relatively high value segment of the industry. As a result, it is often put forth as a strategic focus to enhance overall tourism revenues, particularly in the tourism off-season. Professional meeting planners play a major role in this sector, given their critical intermediary position and function which enable them to influence, and often determine, location choice. Therefore, knowing their views of various competitive destinations and the dimensions on which they base their evaluation can be important information for marketers engaged in destination branding and promotion. This study evaluates the perceptions of professional meeting planners concerning the relative importance of destination choice attributes and the images of selected convention destinations in Greece. Research instruments from earlier tourism studies are used and enhanced by scales from the related literature on product–country image effects on product choice, where place image is also important. The findings support those of earlier studies but also point to factors related to places and their people, which may be more effective differentiators for convention destinations than traditional tourism factors. Implications for research and practice and potentially interesting areas for future studies are discussed.

Key words: Tourism destination image (TDI); Business tourism; Convention tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Statia Elliot, Associate Professor, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Management and Economics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada, N1G 2W1. Tel: (519) 824-4120, ext. 53971; Fax: (519) 823-5512; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 517–523
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031279
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Simultaneous Effect of Emotional and Rational Response on Tourists’ Intended Behavior

Milos Bigovic

Faculty of Economics, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro

In order to examine the simultaneous effect of emotional and rational reaction on tourists’ intended behavior, this article investigates the relationships between satisfaction, perceived benefits and behavioral intentions. A study was conducted at three tourist destinations in Montenegro. In all, 357 tourists completed the questionnaire. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, the research results reveal that both satisfaction, as an emotional reaction, and perceived benefits, as a rational reaction, significantly affect tourists’ behavioral intentions, whereby perceived benefits exert the stronger impact (0.482 > 0.427). These research findings imply that the elements of the long-term rational reaction have a stronger influence on tourists’ postconsumption intended behavior than their momentary emotional reaction.

Key words: Emotional and rational reaction; Tourists’ intended behavior; Structural equation modeling (SEM)

Address correspondence to Milos Bigovic, Faculty of Economics, University of Montenegro, Jovana Tomasevica 37, Podgorica 81000, Montenegro. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 525–530
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031314
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Disputes on Nature-Based Tourism Development in Northern Peninsular Malaysia

Azizan Marzuki,* Matthew Rofe,† and Nor Arbaayah Mohd Hashim*

*School of Housing Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
†School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia

Nature-based tourism is an increasingly significant economic resource for developing countries. However, in such countries the development and management of nature-based tourism destinations are bedeviled by structural and operational limitations in local planning processes. The Malaysian experience provides a salient case in point. This article outlines the problems and constraints facing local and national decision makers during the development and promotion of nature-based tourism in the State of Perlis. Three key governance issues constraining the effective development of natural tourism opportunities are discussed. These issues are identified as (1) weaknesses of government policies, (2) disorganized administration systems, and (3) limited operational budget. The article proposes that in order for the State of Perlis to pursue and develop a sustainable nature-based tourism industry these issues must be urgently addressed.

Key words: Nature-based tourism; Governance; Tourism; Malaysia; Perlis

Address correspondence to Azizan Marzuki, School of Housing Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 531–539
1083-5423/14 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X14090817031350
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Travel Distance and Response to Destination Advertising

Yeongbae Choe,* Jason L. Stienmetz,† and Daniel R. Fesenmaier*

*National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Fox School of Business, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Distance has been recognized as one of the most important factors affecting travel behavior. However, advertising effectiveness research has largely ignored how distance differentiates travelers’ responses to destination advertising. As such, this study examines the relationship between travel distance, traveler and trip characteristics, and advertising response. The findings of this study clarify these relationships and provide important implications for the improvement of destination advertising response models and, in turn, the design of destination marketing programs.

Key words: Destination advertising; Advertising effectiveness; Conversion studies; Evaluation

Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Professor and Director, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, 300 Florida Gym, PO Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it