Technology & Innovation 16(3-4) Abstracts

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Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 171-173
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301452
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Editorial: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy of Inventors

Nasser Arshadi*, Member of the NAI Board of Directors and Eric R. Fossum†, NAI Charter Fellow and Member of the NAI Board of Directors

*Office of Research Administration, University of Missouri—St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
†Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA

The National Academy of Inventors (NAI) held its third annual conference on March 6–7, 2014 at the headquarters of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) in Alexandria, VA. Approximately 250 inventors and academic leaders attended the conference, which featured presentations and panel discussions by more than 35 distinguished scientists and innovators. This special issue of Technology and Innovation includes select articles stemming from conference presentations, as well as articles on a special section related to pharmacy and one general submission related to nonexistent compounds and the development of innovation.

Key words: Technology; Innovation; Invention; Academia

Accepted October 3, 2014.
Address correspondence to Nasser Arshadi, Member of the NAI Board of Directors, Vice Provost for Research, Office of Research Administration, University of Missouri—St. Louis, 1 University Boulevard, 341 Woods Hall, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA. Tel: +1-314-516-5899; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 175-185
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301498
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

The Lemelson Center’s Places of Invention Project

Arthur P. Molella and Monica M. Smith

Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA

Founded in 1995 at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History, the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation is dedicated to exploring the history of invention and encouraging inventive creativity in young people. Through our presence in the museum, as well as exhibitions, conferences, educational programs, publications, and other research, documentation, and outreach activities, the center aspires to become the nation’s leading resource for the history and understanding of invention and innovation. The Lemelson Center’s newest exhibition, Places of Invention, opens at the National Museum of American History in 2015. The questions it asks are timely: What is it about a place that sparks invention and innovation? Is it simply being at the right place at the right time, or is it more than that? How does “place”—whether physical, social, or cultural—support, constrain, and shape innovation? Why does invention flourish in one spot but struggle in another, even a very similar location? In short: Why there? Why then? This article about Places of Invention frames current and historic conversation on the relationship among place, invention, and creativity, citing extensive scholarship in the area and two decades of Lemelson Center investigation and study. The exhibition’s six case studies are Silicon Valley, CA, 1970s–1980s; Bronx, NY, 1970s; Medical Alley, MN, 1950s; Hartford, CT, late 1800s; Hollywood, CA, 1930s; and Fort Collins, CO, 2010s. Places of Invention’s central thesis is that invention hot spots are fueled by unique combinations of creative people, ready resources, and inspiring surroundings.

Key words: Place; Invention; Innovation; Creativity; Smithsonian; Lemelson Center

Accepted August 15, 2014.
Address correspondence to Monica M. Smith, Exhibition Program Manager, Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution, NMAH Room 1210, MRC 604, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA. Tel: +1-202-633-3449; Fax: +1-202-633-4593; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 185-193
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301533
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Invention: The Invisible Hero

Yolanda Leslie Comedy

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Center for Advancing Science and Engineering Capacity, Washington, DC, USA

Agreeing that innovation is a driver of economic growth and prosperity, it is also important to realize the role that invention plays in improving our quality of life, increasing economic development, and spurring innovation. Yet it often seems that invention is the invisible hero—both because we do not highlight and celebrate its importance enough and also because so few inventors are known to the mainstream society. Whether in teams or alone, inventors are a key ingredient in our quest to solve grand challenge problems and transform our world. In order to spark invention and create a world with more inventors, we need to appreciate the culture and talent that supports invention—a rich ecosystem for discovery, invention, innovation, and economic growth will not thrive without a supportive and nurturing culture and extraordinary talent. In the 21st century, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) has become an important skill set for invention and a key driver to solutions for the problems that we face. Globally, there are so many possibilities for the future, and this is why Alan Kay’s statement, “The best way to predict the future is to invent it,” resonates. We live in a complex world with many challenges that require a vast array of smart, dedicated people from all walks of life to provide everything from solutions to problems to tools that help make life entertaining and interesting. Invention is a key ingredient in the future we are trying to create.

Key words: Invention; Innovation; Economic growth; Hero; Grand challenge problems; Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)

Accepted August 15, 2014.
Address correspondence to Yolanda Leslie Comedy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Center for Advancing Science and Engineering Capacity, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA. Tel: +1 (202) 326-6780; Fax: +1 (202) 371-9849; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 195-214
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301579
E-ISSN 1949-825X
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Innovative Regenerative Engineering Technologies for Soft Tissue Regeneration

Roshan James,*†‡ Matthew D. Harmon,*†¶ Sangamesh G. Kumbar,*†‡¶ and Cato T. Laurencin*†‡§¶

*Institute for Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
†Raymond and Beverly Sackler Center for Biological, Physical and Engineering Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
§Connecticut Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, Farmington, CT, USA
¶Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

Current strategies to treat tissue or organ failure rely heavily on autografts and allografts. There has been some success; however, both approaches have limitations, including donor organ shortage, risk of disease transmission, and immune rejection. The future of regenerative medicine is the combination of advanced biomaterials, structures, and cues to guide stem cells to differentiate into the desired tissues. Strategies that recapitulate the complexity of the local tissue microenvironment and the stem cell niche play a crucial role in regulating cell self-renewal and differentiation. Biomaterials and scaffolds based on biomimicry of the native tissue will enable a convergence of concepts derived from advanced materials science, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Academic institutions take up the burden of implementing innovative initiatives through research grants provided by federal agencies and private foundations. Transitioning laboratory research into commercial reality requires a realization of the business opportunity, market share, prototyping, and market valued data sets. Funding initiatives by the National Science Foundation have helped to accelerate technology transfer in partnership with industries. Opportunities to partner with medical device companies and contract service providers must be leveraged to collectively prepare a business roadmap leading to a successful startup.

Key words: Soft tissue; Musculoskeletal; Technology; Rotator cuff; Ligament; Tendon; Commercialization

Accepted September 7, 2014.
Address correspondence to Cato T. Laurencin, M.D., Ph.D., University Professor, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. Tel: +1-860-679-6544; Fax: +1-860-679-1553; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 215-222
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301614
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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PowerBridgeNY: A Cleantech Proof-of-Concept Center

Kurt H. Becker,* Orin Herskowitz,† Micah J. Kotch,‡§ Emily Wheeler,‡ James Aloise,† Julia Byrd,† and Jeffrey M. Peterson§

*Department of Applied Physics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY, USA
†Columbia Technology Ventures, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
‡New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, NY, USA
§New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY, USA

This article describes the establishment and operation of a consortium of two Cleantech Proof-of-Concept Centers funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These centers aim to create an early stage lab-to-market support structure, including access to funding that will enable the development and validation of promising clean energy technologies emerging from research laboratories and ultimately lead to the formation of startup companies located in New York State. The two centers, one led by New York University in partnership with the City University of New York and the other one led by Columbia University in partnership with Stony Brook University, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Cornell University’s new New York City Applied Science campus, operate under the umbrella of a single organizational structure as PowerBridgeNY. Here we describe the motivation for the establishment of the center and summarize the various aspects of its operation through the first round of project selections since the center’s inception in early 2013.

Key words: Proof-of-concept center; Cleantech; Lab-to-market; Startup formation

Accepted August 22, 2014.
Address correspondence to Kurt Becker, Vice Dean of Academic Affairs, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, 15 Metro Tech Center, 6th Floor, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. Tel: +1-718-260-3608; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 223-232
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301650
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved

Engineers and Scientists: Value Creators in the Seven-Phased Model of Technological Innovation

Paul Swamidass

Harbert College of Business, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA

The author has used the seven-phased model of technological innovation to introduce to engineering students at the undergraduate, masters, and doctoral levels the principle of upward cascading value of their ideas once they are properly harnessed. This article explains the simplified technological innovation journey as a seven-phased model to help more engineers and scientists to understand their value-creating role in the early phases of the journey. In addition, students also learn to protect this intellectual property with provisional patent applications to add value to their ideas and resulting products. The article uses an illustration to show how the value created by engineers/scientists could cascade upward. It comes as a revelation to engineering students that they can create value for themselves, for potential investors, and for the economy with their engineering education.

Key words: Engineer-entrepreneur; Scientist-entrepreneur; Technological innovation; Cascading value of ideas, Seven-phased view of technological innovation; Value creation by engineers and scientists; Provisional patent; Pro se patent application

Accepted August 22, 2014.
Address correspondence to Paul Swamidass, Ph.D., Professor of Operations Management, Harbert College of Business, 436 Lowder Building, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. Tel: +1-334-663-3007; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 233-248
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301696
E-ISSN 1949-825X
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Health Implications of Nanotechnology in Medicine

Anastasia Groshev,* Anjali A. Hirani,† Aditya Grover,† Yashwant V. Pathak,† and Vijaykumar B. Sutariya

*Morsani College of Medicine, USF Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
†Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USF College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Nanotechnology as an emerging field presents a substantial potential for improvement of life via novel technologies ranging from supercomputer hardware to alternative energy sources. It is estimated that the amount of patent literature grew by 150% from 2006 to 2011. According to the US Patent Collection, the number of patents since 1975 to date is over 4,000 with approximately 10% of those being in the medical field. The spectrum of the applications in the medical field is especially exciting, as nanotechnology allows for design of novel active pharmacological ingredients and drug delivery systems presenting potential solutions for penetration of physiological barriers, drug targeting, and regulating sensitive transcription pathways. The patents and intellectual property protection has led to tremendous growth and development of various areas of medicine, such as diagnostics, imaging, and medical devices. In healthcare, the goals of the nanotechnology include improvement of quality of life and minimizing risk of off-target effects of potent medications. To accomplish that, National Nanotechnology Initiative investments are estimated to be more than $1,600 million in 2012 with more than $100 million spent toward environmental health and safety. However, growth of nanotechnology in medicine is still slower compared to other areas, such as electronics, due to the special safety considerations and approval process though the Food and Drug Administration. This work is dedicated to discussion of the current nanotechnology advances and patents pertaining to medicine and their safety implications in healthcare.

Key words: Nanotechnology; Delivery systems; Nanotoxicology; Healthcare

Accepted August 20, 2014.
Address correspondence to Vijaykumar B. Sutariya, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 4202 East Fowler Ave, MDC 30, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-1401; Fax: +1-813-974-9890; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 249-257
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301731
E-ISSN 1949-825X
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tackling Big Problems With Small Particles: Nano-Based Rapid Biosensors for Detecting Sexually Transmitted Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa

LaRon E. Nelson,* Chia T. Thach,† Yashwant V. Pathak,† and Yaw Adu-Sarkodie

*School of Nursing, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA
†College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
‡School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

With an estimated 500 million annual cases worldwide, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major global concern, as they are responsible for many preventable illnesses and death for men, women, and youth in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common STIs—chlamydia and gonorrheaare easily treatable by antibiotics. Nonetheless, conventional methods for diagnosing STIs are high complexity, high cost, invasive, and time intensive. This contributes to low use of these technologies by clinical agencies and low uptake of clinical screening services by high-risk groups. There is a need to explore and develop portable, low-cost, easy-to-use, and rapid tests for the diagnosis and treatment of curable STIs. Nanotechnology has the potential to develop these point-of-care devices for the screening of curable STIs in countries with high STI burden but limited health resources. Only a few nanoparticle-based biosensors have been developed to detect sexually transmitted infectious disease pathogens. To date, research on nano-based biosensor detection of infectious pathogens has not expanded to applications for STIs. These biosensors would increase the utilization of clinical screening for STIs by decreasing time between diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, identifying a low-cost, low-complexity solution would facilitate uptake by national and local public health systems in sub-Saharan African countries.

Key words: Nanoparticles; Sexually transmitted infection (STI); HIV/STI coinfection; Sub-Saharan Africa; Review

Accepted August 20, 2014.
Address correspondence to LaRon E. Nelson, Dean’s Endowed Fellow in Health Disparities and Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Tel: +1-585-275-2375; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 259-269
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301777
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Leadership Role of Nanotechnology Innovation in Economic Development and Governmental Policy

Samuel M. Rapaka,* Anastasia Groshev,† Yashwant V. Pathak,* and Vijaykumar B. Sutariya*
*College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Nanoparticle technology is implemented in a wide variety of industrial fields, including electronic devices, solar energy systems, stain-resistant fabrics, and even in medical biotechnology dealing with targeted drug delivery. The commercialization of nanoparticle technology has a large impact on the economy in regard to growth and expansion of pharmaceutical and electronics industries, enhanced workforce training and education, and an increase in the number of jobs associated with development of nanotechnology. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimate a global output ranging from US$1 trillion to US$3 trillion in manufactured goods incorporating nanotechnology and over 2 million new jobs. The future of the growth of nanoparticle technology relies on innovation by increasing industrial financial resources allocated to research and development and partnerships with universities. In 2013, the federal budget provided $1.8 billion investments in the National Nanotechnology Initiative, a central agency engaged in nanotechnology research and development, which added to the $18 billion of federal investments since 2001. The large increase in nanotechnology innovation can be assessed by the 150% increase in nanotechnology patent literature since 2006. Government policy regarding nanotechnology is handled by the agencies responsible for the consumer product. The food and drug administration (FDA) handles most of the healthcare applications, but there is a call for more regulation of nanotechnology in other fields in fear of any long-term effects from exposure. Together, the economic development, innovation, and government policy will dictate the future growth of nanotechnology in the US and worldwide.

Key words: Nanotechnology; Nanomaterials; Economic development; Government policy

Accepted September 15, 2014.
Address correspondence to Vijaykumar B. Sutariya, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, MDC 30, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33612-4749, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-1401; Fax: +1-813-974-9890; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Technology and Innovation, Vol. 16, pp. 271-276
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/194982414X14138187301812
E-ISSN 1949-825X
Copyright ©
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Nonexistent Compounds as a Guide to Innovation

Dean F. Martin and Barbara B. Martin

Institute for Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

A study of nonexistent compounds can be a useful exercise in gaining insight into the factors that can inhibit innovation. Several reasons are suggested: lack of financial support, disinterest in preparing compounds that lack evident utility, notable synthetic challenges with inadequate rewards, inhibition by well-established contemporary knowledge, and invalid interpolations.

Key words: Argon; Autohypnosis; Innovation; Isomers; Noble gases; Xenon

Accepted June 17, 2014.
Address correspondence to Dean F. Martin, Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Department of Chemistry, CHE 205, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620, USA. Tel: +1-813-974-2374; Fax: +1-813-974-3203; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it