Tourism Analysis 19(5) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 545–556
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
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E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Bullfighting and Tourism

Erik Cohen

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

Bullfighting is introduced into tourism studies as the iconic example of a class of human–animal relations, involving agonistic animal contests initiated by humans. The article focuses on the most popular form of bullfighting, the corrida, at which a matador, fighting on foot (rather than mounted) kills a bull in an arena in the presence of a mixed domestic and sometimes foreign public. It discusses the polysemic perceptions of the bullfight, its exaltation by its protagonists, and its growing condemnation by animal rights and welfare activists. It argues that foreign tourism initially bolstered the expansion of bullfighting in Spain; but it is an ambivalent tourist attraction, of declining attractiveness in recent times. The article presents a comparison of bullfighting with another touristically ambivalent piercing event, the Chinese Vegetarian Festival in Thailand, and with recreational hunting, with which it shares significant commonalities. It concludes by calling for a systematic study of the range of human-induced agonistic animal contests.

Key words: Human–animal contests; Bullfight; Festivals; Rituals

Address correspondence to Erik Cohen, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 557–571
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690097774
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Investigating the Relationships Between Visitor and Trip Characteristics, Vacation Planning, Visitor Spending, and Destination Evaluation: The Case of Garrett County, Maryland

Kudzayi MaumbeJinyang Deng, and Steve Selin

Recreation, Parks and Tourism Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA

The study analyzes factors affecting vacation planning in terms of information search and length of vacation planning time. The study also investigates the relationships between: visitor and trip characteristics; vacation planning; and outcomes such as visitor spending and destination evaluation. Analysis was conducted through structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS. Results show that visitor and trip characteristics affect vacation planning and that planning affects visitor spending and destination evaluation. Management implications are discussed.

Key words: Vacation planning time; Destination evaluation; Garrett County, Maryland

Address correspondence to Kudzayi Maumbe, Assistant Professor, Recreation, Parks and Tourism Resources, West Virginia University, PO Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 573–580
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690097819
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Investigating Stationarity in Tourist Arrivals to Taiwan Using Panel KPSS With Sharp Drifts and Smooth Breaks

Ginny Ju-Ann Yang,* Yung-Hsiang Ying,† Koyin Chang,‡ and Chen-Hsun Lee*

*Department of Money and Banking, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
†Undergraduate Program of Business Administration, College of Management, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
‡Department of Healthcare Information and Management, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan

This study applied panel-based stationary tests to investigate the nonstationarity of long-run tourist arrivals to Taiwan. The sample of visitors in this study arrived from six main source countries between 1970 and 2011. We employed a panel KPSS test using a Fourier function and sharp drifts, which considers cross-sectional dependence as well as sudden impact and smooth transformation of data. This test can determine, with more power, whether tourist arrivals are stationary. Results of this study indicate that the trend in the series of tourist arrivals to Taiwan is stationary, with the exception of arrivals from Korea and Europe, implying that economic fluctuation inserts more impact on the tourism industry in these countries than others.

Key words: Break; Panel KPSS test; Fourier function; Tourist arrivals

Address correspondence to Chen-Hsun Lee, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Money and Banking, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Zhuoyue Rd., Nanzi Dist., Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan (R.O.C.). Tel: +886-7-6011000-3101; Fax: +886-7-6011039; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 581–597
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
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E-ISSN 1943-3999
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Economic Sentiment Indicator as a Demand Determinant

Mehmet Altin and Muzaffer Uysal

Pamplin College of Business, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

This study incorporates the concept of economic sentiment indicator (ESI) into demand studies along with more traditional variables such as interest rate, relative price, and exchange rate. The study utilizes ARIMA and ARDL bound test approach tocointegration using 15 EU member countries to Turkey. The study supports that ESI is a good indicator to gauge and monitor tourism demand, and adding tourists’ state of mind into the demand equation could reduce errors and increase variance in explaining tourist arrivals. Policy makers should monitor ESI as it fluctuates over time and assess its potential effect on visitation behavior. Using this information generated from the study, government officials and tourism suppliers could adjust their promotional activities and expenditures.

Key words: Tourism demand; Economic sentiment indicator (ESI); Econometric models; Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); ARDL bound test approach; Turkey

Address correspondence to Mehmet Altin, Ph.D. Candidate, Pamplin College of Business, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, 362 Wallace Hall (0429), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Tel: 540-231-5515; Fax: 540-231-8313; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 599–608
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
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E-ISSN 1943-3999
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(Mis)Understanding the Nature of Tourist Experiences

Uli Knobloch, Kirsten Robertson, and Rob Aitken

Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

With the emergence of experiential marketing, the positive customer experience has become fundamental to marketing, hospitality and tourism. However, positive experiences have not been defined. This study explores how the words often used to define positive experiences may actually prevent us from understanding them. The terms “memorable,” “extraordinary,” “special,” and “peak” are particularly prevalent, but their meanings and characteristics are problematic and the nature of the experience to which they refer varies widely. In-depth interviews with tourists investigated the nature of their experiences and the perceptions that defined them in relation to the terms commonly used by researchers. Findings showed that 1) respondents associate different meanings with each term and 2) types of experiences might stand out in the minds of respondents for different reasons. This calls for a new approach for looking at tourists’ experiences that emphasizes the multidimensional nature of experiences, as well as the importance of emotional aspects. Findings raise questions about the uninformed use of words by researchers and the limitations for understanding the nature of experience, which may be a consequence. To contribute to experiential marketing and understanding experiences, researchers must embrace individual’s terms and acknowledge how defining terms shape outcomes.

Key words: Tourism experience; Memorable experiences; Experiential marketing; Emotions; Experience definitions

Address correspondence to Uli Knobloch, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, School of Business Commerce Building, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 609–623
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690097936
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Discourse About Workforce Development in Tourism—An Analysis of Public Policy, Planning, and Implementation in Australia and Scotland: Hot Air or Making a Difference?

David Solnet,* Dennis Nickson,† Richard N. S. Robinson,* Anna Kralj,‡ and Tom Baum†

*UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
†Department of Human Resource Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
‡Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia

This article addresses the contribution of the policy formulation process in driving agendas relating to workforce development in the tourism sectors of Australia and Scotland. This discussion represents an exploratory study that seeks to fill a clear conceptual and empirical gap in the extant literature. The discussion is located within wider consideration of the role of public and private sector stakeholders in policy formulation and implementation as a manifestation of active labor market policy engagement. Using a process of systematic documentary analysis, the study considers public policy reports and implementation strategies published in Australia (24) and Scotland (34) between 2000 and 2012 and focuses on the role of key actors, methodologies employed, and the recommendations that arise within each report. Conclusions relating to the process of stakeholder engagement and its relative ineffectiveness are drawn.

Key words: Active labor market policy (ALMP); Employment; Workforce development; Human resource development; Tourism; Australia; Scotland

Address correspondence to Dr. David Solnet, Ph.D., University of Queensland Business School, Building 39A, St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia. Tel: +61 411 828 757; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 625–628
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690097972
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Research Note

Electricity Consumption and Hotel Industry in Singapore

Chew Ging Lee

Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

This research note provides an examination of the hotel industry as a determinant of electricity consumption in Singapore. The GARCH-M(1, 1) model has been adopted to model the relationship between electricity consumption and the hotel industry in Singapore, together with a control variable (industrial production). This study identifies industrial production, gross lettings in terms of room nights, and the variability of electricity consumption as the key determinants that affect electricity consumption. All these variables exhibit positive effects on electricity consumption in Singapore.

Key words: Electricity consumption; Hotel industry; Volatility modeling; Singapore

Address correspondence to Chew Ging Lee, Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Tel: +6(03) 8924 8259; Fax: +6(03) 8924 8019; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 629–636
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690098016
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Research Note

An Examination of Missing Links Between Quality of Life and Tourist Motivation

Hyelin Kim and Eunju Woo

Pamplin College of Business, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

The primary purpose of this study is to examine the missing links between elderly tourists’ quality of life and their travel motivation. Moreover, the study assumes that the elderly tourist’s overall quality of life is affected by five important life domain satisfactions: family life, health life, emotional well-being, material well-being, and leisure life by applying bottom-up spillover theory. Using a sample drawn from retired persons over the age of 65 in South Korea, a structural equation modeling approach was used to identify the relevant relationships between the five life domain satisfactions, overall quality of life, and travel motivation. The results reveal that satisfaction with family, health, emotional state, and leisure life positively influences satisfaction with overall quality of life. Overall quality of life is positively related to travel motivation in the elderly.

Key words: Elderly tourist; Motivation; Life domain satisfaction; Overall quality of life

Address correspondence to Eunju Woo, Ph.D., Pamplin College of Business, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 342 Wallace Hall (0429), Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Tel: +1 540-577-6676; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 637–641
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
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Research Note

Occupational Self-Perceptions of Hotel Employees: An Exploratory Study

Arie Reichel,* Galia Fuchs,* Abraham Pizam,† and Yaniv Poria*

*
Hotel and Tourism Management, Ben Gurion University on the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

This study aimed to reveal the occupational self-perceptions of rank-and-file employees in the Israeli hotel industry. Due to the exploratory nature of the study a qualitative research approach was adopted. The findings are based on 40 semistructured interviews with current and former Israeli hotel employees. The results revealed that almost all participants had disconcerting negative perceptions of rank-and-file occupations in the Israeli hotel industry. The themes emerged as relevant to the understanding of employees’ occupational self-perception were classified into four groups: working conditions, occupational profile, job characteristics and requirements, and moderating factors linked with the reputation of the hotel and hospitality industry as a work environment.

Key words: Occupational self-perceptions; Hotel employees; Rank-and-file employees; Israeli hotels

Address correspondence to Prof. Yaniv Poria, Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel. Tel: 972-8-6479737; Fax: 972-8-6472920; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 645–654
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14116690098133
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Review

Traveling Through the End Times: The Tourist as Apocalyptic Subject

Hazel Tucker and Eric Shelton

Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

In this review article, Tucker and Shelton present apocalyptic thought as being a significant discursive element involved in the production of the tourist as subject. Both concepts—tourist and apocalypse—are treated as metaphors and therefore as being produced within language. The authors discuss the immanence, and not imminence, of apocalypse in current popular secular apocalyptic thought, lurking both as an uncertain fascination and a form of anxiety that has no apparent end. Mapped onto this thinking is the tourist as subject, a metaphor of the social world, including apocalypticism. Involving the discursive construction and representation of the tourist experience, as well as the semiotics of tourist spaces and landscapes, the authors suggest tourism’s “worldmaking” power lies in its aestheticizing of the object of interest and in its production of an aesthetic distance. In the case of the apocalyptic tourist subject, the aesthetic distance is seen to be produced (by Tucker and Shelton) in order to observe signs of the approaching catastrophe. This distancing is seen by them to be particularly obvious in any form of last chance tourism, including nature tourism and heritage tourism. In their eyes, the resulting apocalyptic subjectivity is necessarily situated within a politics of “saving” the past for the future. Tucker and Shelton thereby recruit Walter Benjamin’s notions of aura and distraction to illustrate the political nature of the apocalyptic tourist aesthetic, and they suggest that critique of tourist subjectivity should be regularly/repeatedly used to inform the worldmaking praxis of about things in and through tourism. (Abstract by the Reviews Editor)

Key words: Apocalyptic thought; Tourist subject; Aesthetic distance; Aura; Distraction; Worldmaking

Address correspondence to Hazel Tucker, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 0064 3 479 7671; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it