Tourism Culture & Communication 14(2) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 63–75
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X
14133839512541
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Bidding for World Heritage: Singapore’s Botanic Gardens

Joan C. Henderson

Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore

This article is concerned with the meanings and significance attributed to UNESCO World Heritage Sites by officials, and motivations underlying their pursuit of inscription on the World Heritage List, including perceived opportunities for tourism growth. Issues are discussed with particular reference to Singapore and the nomination of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, the first such attempt by the city-state. The concept of World Heritage and procedures are explained and the relationship between World Heritage and tourism is reviewed before consideration of circumstances in Singapore. The various roles performed by the Botanic Gardens are examined and reasons for making the bid are assessed. In Singapore, there is less emphasis on the tourism functions of World Heritage and the expected political and sociocultural returns appear more important. World Heritage is seen to be regarded as economic, sociocultural, and political capital, which is allocated different relative values depending upon wider conditions prevailing in the nominating country.

Key words: Botanic Gardens; Singapore; Tourism; World Heritage

Address correspondence to Joan C. Henderson, Associate Professor, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798. Tel: +65 6790 6116; Fax: +65 6791 36; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 77–89
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X
14133839512587
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Turkey as a Destination: A Study of Sensory Brand Associations

Nergis Aziz,* Efstathios Kefallonitis,† and Barry A. Friedman†‡

*Business Administration Department, Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, Suleyman Sah University, Istanbul, Turkey
†Marketing and Management Department, School of Business, State University of New York, Oswego, NY, USA
‡ Suleyman Sah University, Istanbul, Turkey

This study explores Turkish sensory destination branding using the perceptions of US citizens that have or have not visited Turkey. Study participants had sensory brand associations of Turkey through smell, taste, sound, and sight. The most frequently mentioned associations were scent and taste of food (47%), the sounds of busy urban areas (31%), the call to prayers (26%), and architectural sights (29%). Visitors associated Turkey with the scent of flowers, the taste of sweets and food, and the feel of cotton and silk to a significantly greater extent than nonvisitors. Compared to nonvisitors, visitors also associated Turkey to a significantly greater extent with the architectural images, beaches, and mosques, as well as the sounds of busy urban areas, call to prayers, music, and people talking. In aggregate, these findings have implications for the destination branding process.

Key words: Destination branding; Sensory branding; Turkey

Address correspondence to Nergis Aziz, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Business Administration Department, Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, Suleyman Sah University, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 91–102
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X
14133839512622
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Preservation of Macau’s Intangible Colonial Heritage: The Case of Patúa

Cora Un In Wong

Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China

The heritage literature by and large suggests that heritage, in both its tangible and intangible forms, possesses the power to confer cultural identity to people(s), and the desirability of preserving heritage is often justified along those lines. When it was enlisted into the Macau Intangible Heritage List in 2012, Patúa became one of the special administrative region’s 10 official intangible heritages. Patúa is a Luso–Asian Creole spoken by the “sons of the land” since the 16th century when Macau was founded by the Portuguese. It is widely believed to be on its way to extinction. This article suggests that, in this instance, the difficulties of saving intangible heritage can be explained through rational human behavior amid political and demographic changes. It investigates whether Patúa still provides any degree of cultural identity, either to the people of Macau at large or to the minority of its inhabitants for whom it really qualifies, historically speaking, as cultural heritage. It also explores the potential of Patúa as an ingredient of heritage products for tourists.

Key words: Colonial intangible heritage; Creole; Patúa; Macau

Address correspondence to Dr. Cora Un In Wong, Assistant Professor, Institute for Tourism Studies, Colina de Mong-Ha, Macao, China. Tel: +853 8506 1227; Fax: +853 8598 3118; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 103–115
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X
14133839512668
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Inquiry Into Jamaican Perspectives on Tourism

Todd M. Vanden Berg

Department of Sociology, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, USA

This article is based on semistructured interviews conducted with Jamaicans from 2010 to 2013. The goal of conducting the interviews as well the objective of this article is to give voice to Jamaican perspectives on tourism. This article gives extensive space for Jamaican views of tourism to be heard through the use of direct quotations. Such “unfiltered” voices have been largely lacking in the anthropology of tourism literature and give a unique window into an understanding of host perspectives of tourism. Social exchange theory is then used to investigate host comments on tourism. The analysis of host perspectives on tourism points to possible directions tourism development on the island might take, as well as giving greater understanding of a sense of Jamaican cultural identity tied to tourism and also globalization. Jamaicans who work in the tourism sector see economic benefit as only one positive aspect of their jobs. The sociocultural benefits of participating in the tourism sector are clear: the joy of interacting with people of other cultures, the joy of learning about other cultures, and the joy of sharing Jamaican culture with tourists. Authentic interaction with tourists is a desire for those working in the tourism industry and is viewed by respondents as a way to participate in global intercultural interaction. Such findings speak to the long tradition of tourism on the island as to the cultural identification of tourism for Jamaicans. Finally, community tourism development is suggested as a direction for Jamaican tourism development in light of host comments on tourism.

Key words: Jamaica; Host perspectives; Globalization; Intercultural communication; Community tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Todd M. Vanden Berg, Professor of Cultural Anthropology, Calvin College, 2301 Burton Street, Grand Rapids, M I 49546, USA. Tel: 00 616-526-6705; Fax: 00 616-526-8551; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 117–134
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830414X
14133839512703
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Spanish Travelers’ Expectations of Service Encounters in Domestic and International Settings

Lucía Fernández-Amaya,* María De La O Hernández-López,* and Pilar Garcés-Conejos Blitvich

*Depto.
FilologíaTraducción, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain
†Department of English, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA

Despite the vast extant literature on customer satisfaction and cultural expectations, little attention has been paid to guests’ linguistic expectations in interaction with receptionists. To help fill in this gap, this study examines 183 questionnaires that include guests’ general expectations when communicating with receptionists in either their home country (Spain) or abroad, in order to understand whether there are stable expectations in relation to 1) attitude, 2) cultural values, and 3) language used. The results show that there are some expectations that vary depending on whether guests are either in their home country or abroad. These findings may not only help understand guests’ specific preferences and expectations, but also their orientations towards either solidarity or deference.

Key words: Hospitality interaction; Politeness; Cross-cultural communication; Customer expectations; Communication

Address correspondence to María de la O Hernández-LópezDeptoFilologíaTraducción, Universidad Pablo de OlavideDespacho 14.01.37, CtraUtrera Km. 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it