Tourism Culture & Communication 14(3) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 139–150
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14213698267271
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

What Influences Visitor Mindfulness at World Heritage Sites?

Shuhaida Md Noor,* S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh,† Mastura Jaafar,† and Vithya Ganesan*

*School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
†School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Mindfulness refers to a state of mind in which a person selectively and actively processes information gathered from their surrounding environment. This concept may be helpful for enhancing visitor learning at heritage sites. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the concept of mindfulness in tourism. This study investigates the influence of both setting and visitor factors on the state of mindfulness of visitors to selected heritage sites at the Malacca World Heritage Site (WHS), Malaysia. We demonstrate that various factors correlate with visitor mindfulness, namely variety, personal connection, and the interactivity of communication media. Conversely, other visitor characteristics do not influence mindfulness directly, namely age, gender, education, nationality, and frequency of visitation. However, these features do affect the setting factors. This study contributes to the mindfulness literature regarding the importance of setting and visitor factors in a WHS and recommends that mindfulness be considered as part of an overall approach toward more sustainable heritage tourism.

Key words: Mindfulness; Setting factor; Visitors’ features; Communication; Tourism; World Heritage Site (WHS)

Address correspondence to Mastura Jaafar, School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Tel: 60-4-6533888, ext. 2827; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 151–168
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14213698267316
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Intercultural Interactions in Tourist Bars: Yangshuo, China

Lingxu Zhou* and Geoffrey Wall†

*School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong
†Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

This article explores intercultural interactions in bars in a tourism destination. Mixed methods are used to compare Western and Chinese tourists’ behaviors in Western bars in China where intercultural interactions take place. Western bars provide the physical environment and context for the encounters of these two groups of tourists. For Western tourists, traveling in China is primarily a cross-cultural experience and requires intercultural adaptation. Chinese tourists visiting Western bars are experimenting with Western culture. Understanding the behaviors and experiences of tourists will help planners, entrepreneurs, and marketers to better manage and promote tourist bars and similar establishments.

Key words: Culture; Culture shock; Intercultural communication; Social interact

Address correspondence to Lingxu Zhou, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Hung Hom, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 3400 2329; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 169–182
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14213698267352
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exchange and Change in Northern Norway:  On Reciprocity in Nature-Based Tourism

Gaute Svensson

Department of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of TromsøTromsø, Norway

This article explores the reciprocal relationship between nature-based tourism entrepreneurs and locals outside the tourism industry in a small community in Northern Norway. In this article I argue that we need to recognize the norms of reciprocal behavior and how these norms play a vital part within nature-based tourism—as it does outside the industry. As business owners are both confirming and violating these norms they contribute to a constant negotiation of acceptable reciprocal behavior. Two contrasting cases show how tourism entrepreneurs can incorporate reciprocity into their business strategy, either conforming to or violating the norms. Social sanctions will potentially have a great impact for a company as it might affect agreements and cooperation with locals. The potential reward in the form of access to private property is equally important as it may be beneficial for the ones conforming to the norms. The analytical part of this article is anchored in Marshal SahlinsStone Age Economics. The data collection in this research are based on participant observation through internship in several tourism companies. This includes formal and informal interviews.

Key words: Nature-based tourism; Northern Norway; Reciprocity; Norms; Social sanctions

Address correspondence to Gaute Svensson, Department of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway. Tel: +47 92054564; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 183–197
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14213698267398
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Analyzing Responsible Corporate Identity in the Hospitality Sector: A Case Study

Patricia Martinez and Ignacio Rodriguez Del Bosque

Faculty of Economics, University of Cantabria, Cantabria, Spain

As companies are often criticized for failing to deliver on corporate responsibility, in this article we analyze corporate responsibility in the identity of firms in the hospitality industry employing qualitative research based on an illustrative case study. This article analyzes associations between corporate identity, corporate social responsibility, and corporate communication, using the case of Melia Hotels International―one of the leading hotel companies. Our results reveal a failure to communicate values of corporate responsibility and socially responsible attributes through visual identity and external formal communications. We reveal the way in which companies may fail to gain a competitive advantage on positive aspects of their corporate identity.

Key words: Corporate identity; Corporate social responsibility; Behavior; Communication; Visual identity; Hospitality sector

Address correspondence to Patricia Martinez, Faculty of Economics, University of Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 – Santander, Cantabria, Spain. Tel: +0034.942.20.16.61; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 199–213
1098-304X/14 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14213698267433
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2014 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Drama in the Snowfield: Audience Reaction to a Fatal Tourist Incident

Pekka Iivari

Multidimensional Tourism Institute, Rovaniemi, Finland

This article examines public reactions to a tourism safety incident by employing a drama theory approach. A discussion forum launched by a fatal dog sleigh accident serves as a platform for the chat group selected here as a case audience generating instantaneous reactions to the incident. The results suggest that interaudience communication constituted the incident as a drama and, as its subset, a tragedy with discernible episodes through an internal sense-making process. The audience interacted with each of the members in varying intensity, depending on changing individual interests. Explanation of the behavior of the audience can be derived from a drama theory approach. The existence of emotions, episodes, climax, and action in the audience’s dynamic provide evidence for the explanation power of drama theory in tourism safety incident communication in chat groups. The article offers a cross-disciplinary approach contributing to interpretation of postincident communication in social media in the case of a tourism safety incident.

Key words: Tourism safety; Management; Chat group; Crisis management; Accident; Social media

Address correspondence to Pekka Iivari, Multidimensional Tourism Institute, Viirinkankaantie 1 FI-96300, Rovaniemi, Finland. Tel: +358 (0) 400 425 784; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it