Event Management 19(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 1–13
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071392828
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

What Is the Value of Event Management Education? The Views of Six Industry Practitioners

Tariq El Kashef

MA Event & Exhibition Management, London, UK

The field of event management has expanded rapidly in recent years. The growth of the industry has led to an increase in demand for professionals and in turn a massive increase in the opportunities for education and training. A multitude of institutions across the UK now offer hundreds of event-related courses to aspiring practitioners including postgraduate diplomas, degrees, and master’s degrees. What is the awareness of the scope, range, and nature of these courses? How useful are they in gaining entry level employment? What are their strengths and what are their shortcomings? In order to answer these questions in depth, a cross-sectional study collected data through semistructured interviews with a largely purposeful sample of six industry practitioners. The findings indicate a general lack of awareness for the scope, range, and nature of event management education among the sample. In addition, the research implied that holding an event management qualification was unlikely to secure job interviews and that recruiters for the events industry place little value on candidates having industry qualifications. However, courses can help secure employment through the contacts and work placements they provide students. This research also found that the greatest strength an event management graduate was perceived to have was an overall knowledge of the industry and that practitioners felt that courses should strive to be more vocational in nature. Finally, the study indicated overwhelmingly that when recruiting, employers placed the greatest emphasis on experience and that the single most important step an individual with no experience could take to increase their chances of employment was to gain experience through volunteering and work placements.

Key words: Event management education; Event management; Event courses; Event qualifications

Address correspondence to Tariq El Kashef, Head of Operations, Action Challenge, MA Event & Exhibition Management, 73b Stroud Green Rd, London, UK N4 3EG. Tel: +44 (0) 7960 898 007; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 15–32
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071392864
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Attendance at the U2 Concert: Is it a Case of “This Is a Man’s World?”

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

Tourism Research in Economics Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

The purpose of this study is to extend existing gender research by segmenting visitors to a major music event, namely U2’s 360° Tour in Johannesburg, using gender as a segmentation base. A survey was conducted at the concert where a total of 600 questionnaires were administered, and 585 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Independent t tests, two-way frequency tables, and chi-square tests were used to profile the attendees and to investigate any significant differences between male and female visitors, based on demographics, behavioral variables, and motivational factors. The results show clear differences between male and female visitors, which are significant enough to regard them as two separate market segments. These differences should be taken into consideration when marketing and managing major music events.

Key words: Gender; Major music events; Events tourism; U2; Market segmentation; Once-off events

Address correspondence to Martinette Kruger, Associate Professor, Tourism Research in Economics Environs and Society (TREES), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Tel: +278 299 1980; Fax: +27 18 299 4140; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 33–46
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071392909
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of Mobile Applications in the Consumer Experience at Music Festivals

Amy Luxford and Janet E. Dickinson

School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Poole, UK

The ubiquitous capability of smartphones and their rapid uptake among music festival attendees indicates the potential for mobile applications as a tool within this environment. As a result, many organizers are choosing to develop festival-specific apps designed to enhance the user experience. Based on a review of festival apps and focus groups with festival attendees, this article analyzes the role of mobile apps in relation to festival consumer experiential needs. Analysis indicates a need for more consumer-focused app interfaces that pay close attention to the event anticipation experience, scheduling capabilities before and during the festival, and personalization options to enhance “presence.” At a practical level, mobile charging facilities are vital at festivals to enable app use.

Key words: Smartphone; Mobile applications; Festival; Consumer experience

Address correspondence to Janet E. Dickinson, School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Poole, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: 01202 965853; Fax: 01202 515707; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 47–55
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071392945
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Olympic Games Complexity Model (OGCM)

Dimitris Gargalianos,* Kristine Toohey,† and David K. Stotlar

*Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Democritos University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece
†Department of Tourism, Sport & Hotel Management, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
‡School of Sport & Exercise Science, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA

The Olympic Games (OG) is a complex event project. This conceptual article aims at presenting the complexity of the Games by virtue of a three-dimensional, graphic model depicting the event’s stakeholders and the interrelationships among them from the perspective of an Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (OCOG). The model evolved from: a) content analysis of relevant literature (i.e., IOC organizational documents regarding the OCOG) and b) personal participation and observation of the authors in the organization of the Games. The model allows managers of OCOGs, especially those who do not have previous experience in Olympic matters, to quickly and comprehensively understand the complex and entwined organizational processes, as well the various stakeholder relationships that may not at first be readily apparent.

Key words: Olympic Games (OG); Complexity; Stakeholders

Address correspondence to Dr. Dimitris Gargalianos, Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, Democritos University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece. Tel: 0030 – 6974 38 39 71; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 57–72
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071392981
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Organization Costs for a FIFA World Cup and Their Significance During a Bid

Holger Preuss* and Martin Schnitzer

*Department for Sport Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
†Department of Sport Science, Leopold-Franzens University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

There is a lack of scholarly research into long-term local organizing committee (LOC) budget forecasts in the bidding stages of a FIFA World Cup. As FIFA increasingly takes control of LOC revenues and contributes to the LOC’s costs, the bid committees are adopting a strategy to distort their budgets. On the one hand, this situation encourages committees to underestimate their budgets to give FIFA the impression that greater profits can be achieved, prospectively leading to a better bidding position. On the other hand, an underestimated budget means that potential shortcomings need to be covered by taxpayers’ money. For this reason, our research aim is twofold. First, we will shed light on the size of an LOC budget by conducting a benchmarking analysis that demonstrates the complexity of the LOC budget and illustrates the many different ways in which previous hosts have compiled their budgets. Expert interviews verify that the size of the LOC budget plays a strategic role in the bidding process. Secondly, we will discuss the political constraints on forecasting an LOC budget based on games theory and agency theory. The article explains the ex-ante and ex-post opportunism of the LOCs in terms of their budget prognosis and how FIFA reacts to these behavioral patterns.

Key words: FIFA World Cup; Benchmark analysis; Long-term budget planning; LOC budget; Financing mega-events; Games theory; Institutional economics

Address correspondence to Prof. Dr. Holger Preuss, Department for Sport Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Albert Schweitzer Str. 21, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Tel: +49 (0) 6131/39 25414; Fax: +43 (0) 6131/39 26443; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 73–92
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071393025
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Exploring Physical Activity Intention as a Response to the Vancouver Olympics: An Application and Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior

Luke R. Potwarka

Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand motivational factors behind individuals’ intention to become more active in response to the Vancouver 2010 Olympics. Gender, geographic proximity to the event, past behavior, and descriptive norm were explored as extensions of the TPB model. Just over 400 (n = 405) students attending undergraduate classes in two universities at opposite ends of Canada completed a questionnaire prior to the start of the Games. Results from the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that 50.7% of the variance in respondents’ intention scores was explained by the variables in the proposed extended TPB model. Specifically, attitude toward the behavior, past behavior, and descriptive norms (i.e., people’s perceptions about the degree to which other people were going to become more active as a result of the Olympic Winter Games) emerged as significant predictors of intention to become more active in response to the event. Implications for the design of interventions aimed at enhancing participation legacies of Olympic Games are discussed.

Key words: Theory of planned behavior (TPB); Physical activity; Intention; Olympics; Trickle-down effect

Address correspondence to Luke R. Potwarka, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 93–107
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071393061
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review of Established Methods in Event Research

Phil Crowther, James Bostock, and John Perry

Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

In reviewing 165 of the most prominent event articles, this article provides a timely evaluation of prevalent research methods that have shaped event research in the past 16 years. We adopt critical case sampling and citation analysis approaches to identify 21 journals and the 165 articles. We subsequently analyzed the content of each article to reveal the method(s) used and classified these by journal and by year. To facilitate discussion about the findings, the article initially appraises the character of the event phenomenon and the implications of this for methods selection. This discussion portrays a largely social and contingent character to events that presents specific requirements to researchers seeking to interrogate it. The discussion pinpoints key considerations that should shape event researchers’ decisions about their selection of methods. The findings reveal a preponderance of survey-based approaches and also very limited adoption of multiple methods. The findings also indicate a less prominent, but growing, application of subjectivist-oriented approaches, such as interviews, indicating a progressive trend that is discussed as being more favorable to the character of the subject matter. Ultimately we provide six precepts that emerge from this study, to signpost key considerations for event researchers as our discipline moves beyond the early stages of its development toward a more mature phase.

Key words: Event research; Research methods; Survey; Interviews; Focus groups; Observation

Address correspondence to Phil Crowther, Principal Lecturer, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, UK S1 1WB. Tel: 00 44 114 2253145; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 109–121
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071393188
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Leadership in Event Management

Tomas Pernecky

School of Hospitality and Tourism, Faculty of Culture and Society, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Fifteen years ago the study of events as a specific field of inquiry did not exist. Today, students’ interest in taking up courses in event management is met with rapid growth of programs catering to this specialized body of knowledge. These developments are parallel to the increasing number of events being held around the world. Events are now seen as important phenomena, with cities and nations recognizing the social, economic, and cultural potential of major, hallmark, and mega-events. Not only are these seen as a vital part of tourism’s export economy, events can also provide people with meaningful social and cultural encounters, eventuate in lasting memories, and give hosting destinations a competitive advantage. The growth of events, however, comes with concerns of sustainable practices and leadership. While the first has been addressed by a number of events scholars, sustainable leadership remains largely unchartered territory in the domain of Event Studies. This article addresses some of the key issues and developments in the events sector, and outlines the more problematic areas concerning leadership and sustainability by drawing on the Rhineland/Honeybee leadership model.

Key words: Honeybee approaches; Rhineland capitalism; Sustainable leadership; Stakeholders

Address correspondence to Tomas Pernecky, Ph.D., School of Hospitality and Tourism, Faculty of Culture and Society, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9-921-9999, ext. 6764; Fax: +64 9-921 9962; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 123–142
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071763060
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourists’ World Expo Experiences

Soyoung Boo* and Xiao Lu†

*International Institute of Tourism Studies, School of Business, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
†Department of Event Management, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, P.R. China

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of the experience economy in the tourism industry. However, particularly in regard to expos, it still remains a neglected topic of interest in event tourism research. The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of event tourists’ experiences by observing the phenomenon of the expo. By employing Pine and Gilmore’s four dimensions of experience scheme, the authors explore how the feelings of time distortion and telepresence, positive effect, and memory serve as discernible consequences for expo attendees. The main findings include the observation that Entertainment experience has the strongest impact, followed by Education experience and, finally, higher levels of experience, with the latter showing a significantly higher level of memory according to different groups of demographics. The authors have added empirical content to the experiential marketing research agenda along with recommendations for future areas of study.

Key words: Experience economy; Event tourists; Expo experiences; Shanghai World Expo

Address correspondence to Soyoung Boo, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, International Institute of Tourism Studies, School of Business, The George Washington University, Funger Hall, Suite 301, 2201 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Tel: 202-994-8197; Fax: 202-994-1630; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 143–150
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14229071393223
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Personal Meaning Mapping at Festivals: A Useful Tool for a Challenging Context

Christine M. Van Winkle* and John H. Falk†

*Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
†Center for Research on Lifelong STEM Learning, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

Personal meaning mapping (PMM) has been used extensively to understand visitor meaning making in a range of free-choice contexts. This research note presents PMM as a useful tool for understanding festival visitor experiences in the complex and challenging context of festival events. While past research has explored the meaning of festivals from various perspectives, in-depth explorations of the holistic festival visitor’s experience has rarely been explored in situ from the attendee’s perspective. Considerations for implementing PMM in festival settings are explored.

Key words: Personal meaning mapping (PMM); Festivals; Visitor experience

Address correspondence to Christine M. Van Winkle, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, 318 Max Bell Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2, Canada. Tel: 1 (204) 474-8647; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it