Tourism Analysis 20(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 3–12
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167428
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Developing a Market-Specific Destination Image Scale: A Nomological Validation Approach

Chun-Chu Chen,* Yueh-Hsiu Lin,† Jie Gao,‡ and Gerard Kyle§

*Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA
†Graduate Institute of Hospitality Education, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Hsiao-Kang, Taiwan, ROC
‡Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA
§Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This study intended to develop a scale to measure the image of a destination as perceived by tourists from a specific market. Based on Echtner and Ritchie’s framework of destination image, cognitive image was conceptualized as the composite of common image and two salient dimensions—unique and atmospheric images. The scales measuring these three constructs were validated within the theoretical framework of attitude theory. The results showed that all three constructs had significant effects on affective image and travel intention, while travel intention could be better predicted by two salient dimensions. These findings highlighted the importance of capturing salient dimensions and attributes in the process of scale development.

Key words: Destination image; Destination saliency; Scale development; Nomological validation

Address correspondence to Chun-Chu Chen, Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS 2401, Moscow, ID 83844, USA. Tel: 208-885-2164; Fax: 208-885-5929; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 13–23
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167464
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Modeling Tourists’ Length of Stay: Does One Model Fit All?

Yang Yang* and Hong-Lei Zhang†

*School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
†Department of Land Resources and Tourism Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Examining the individual heterogeneity of tourists is fundamental to providing insights on tourist market segmentation, targeting potential markets and niches, and proposing suitable marketing strategies. However, most past studies failed to incorporate this individual heterogeneity in an integral way. This study utilizes a latent class duration model to investigate the latent segments of tourists regarding the preference of length of stay (LOS) in a destination. The study unveils a substantial amount of latent heterogeneity across the sample, and our empirical results identify two latent classes of tourists, namely short-duration and long-duration tourists. These classes share distinct LOS preferences, and information sources and travel partners have no significant influences in predicting the LOS of short-duration tourists. Therefore, the “one-fit-all” solution from the conventional duration model could be misleading, and this highlighted heterogeneity provides destination marketing organizations (DMOs) with the incentive to segment the tourists and offer specific tourism products and bundles.

Key words: Length of stay (LOS); Latent class; Duration model; Individual heterogeneity

Address correspondence to Dr. Hong-Lei Zhang, Department of Land Resources and Tourism Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 25–38
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167509
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Relationship Between Guest Experience, Personality Characteristics, and Satisfaction: Moderating Effect of Extraversion and Openness to Experience

Milos Bujisic,* Anil Bilgihan,† and Scott Smith‡

*Department of Consumer Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
†Department of Marketing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA
‡School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Based on the experience economy concept, this study develops a model that incorporates guest experiences, satisfaction, return intention, word of mouth (WOM), and personality traits. Quasiexperimental design has been used with the manipulation of different experience scenarios. This allows for the testing of causal relationships between the different types of experiences and the three dependent variables of satisfaction, return intention, and WOM. The final elements of the proposed model are personality traits measured using the “Big Five” model. MANOVA was utilized to test the effect of manipulations on the dependent variables. Additionally, the moderating effect of openness to experience and extraversion was tested. The second stage involved the creation of a structural equation model that tested the relationship between four different experience dimensions.

Key words: Experience economy; Performance quality; Satisfaction; Big Five personality

Address correspondence to Anil Bilgihan, Department of Marketing, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 29–52
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167545
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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The South Africa World Cup: The Ability of Small and Medium Firms to Profit From Increased Tourism Surrounding Mega-Events

Bob Heere,* Pieter Van Der Manden,† and Patricia Van Hemert‡§

*University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
†Rainbow Collection, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
§Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands

The purpose of this study is to implement a microeconomic lens to examine how a mega-sport event affects small and medium businesses (SMEs) that hope to profit from the increased tourism associated with the event. Guided by stakeholder theory, local SME owners were interviewed before and after the World Cup. Respondents suggested that the opportunities to take advantage of the World Cup were limited for SMEs because: a) limited or no access to the event and associated tourists, b) lack of knowledge and expertise to take advantage of opportunities, and c) the priority the organizing committee gives to other stakeholders, such as sponsors and the FIFA. Due to these constraints, SMEs were not able to build lasting partnerships through the World Cup, nor were they able to make any profit from the event.

Key words: Mega-sport event; World Cup; Small and medium businesses (SMEs)

Address correspondence to Bob Heere, University of South Carolina, Carolina Coliseum, Room 2026m, Columbia, SC 29201, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 53–67
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167581
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Perceptions of Authenticity at a Heritage Destination: An Examination of Visitor Perceptions of Authenticity at South Luogu Alley, Beijing

Jonathon Day,* Xiaolin (Crystal) Shi,* Liping Cai,* and Howard Adler†

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue Center for Lodging Operations, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Authenticity, often cited as an important component of heritage tourism, is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon. A central issue in understanding authenticity is to determine what is perceived to be authentic. The present study examined visitor perceptions of the authenticity of the South Luogu Alley (SLA), a Hutong in Beijing. Described as a “must-see” destination for visitors to Beijing seeking to experience traditional “Hutong” culture, SLA has been redeveloped to incorporate both traditional and modern facilities. The inclusion of new building materials, pseudotraditional architecture, and Western-influenced architecture has raised concerns about the authenticity of SLA. The present study examined perceptions of authenticity of 353 visitors to the SLA. A self-administered survey was used for the study. It examined perceptions of specific elements of the destination and the destination as a whole. It also analyzed the impact of demographic factors and visitor experience on perceptions of authenticity. The present study found that for many visitors the external environment and architecture were most important elements contributing to perceptions of authenticity. The study determined that visitors’ understanding of authenticity is best described as “constructive” and that a variety of personal factors can influence perceptions of authenticity. It also found that visitors’ criteria for authenticity tend to be contextual.

Key words: Authenticity; China; Heritage tourism; Hutong; Visitors

Address correspondence to Jonathon Day, M.B.A., Ph.D., School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue Tourism and Hospitality Research Center, Purdue University, 900 State St., West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA. Tel: 765 4962084; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 69–80
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
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Volunteer Experiences on Organic Farms: A Phenomenological Exploration

Maggie C. Miller and Heather Mair

Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

This article presents an exploration of the understudied phenomenon of volunteering on organic farms, a movement associated with World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF). Using a hermeneutic phenomenological lens influenced by philosophies of Hans George Gadamer, this article illuminates experiences of volunteers on organic farms in Argentina, experiences we denote as “organic volunteering.” Our use of phenomenology provides an opportunity to develop deeper understandings of these lived experiences and what they mean to volunteers. Data collection and analysis of active interviews and participant observation with volunteers revealed a central understanding of opening to living in interconnectedness, which is underpinned by six horizons of understanding: 1) reconnecting, 2) exchanging knowledge, 3) experiencing harmony, 4) bonding with others, 5) consciousness raising, and 6) transforming. Our work suggests that while these experiences are likely similar to volunteer or even alternative tourism broadly defined, organic volunteering encompasses aspects that may extend beyond what has been put forward by volunteer tourism researchers, and is perhaps its own niche of alternative tourism.

Key words: Organic farms; Volunteerism; Alternative tourism; Hermeneutic phenomenology

Address correspondence to Maggie C. Miller, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1. Tel: 226-600-0367; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 81–97
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167707
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Why Pay to View Wildflowers in South Africa?

Martinette Kruger, Armand Viljoen, and Melville Saayman

Tourism Research Focus Area, TREES (Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society), North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa

This research identified viable target markets at two national parks in South Africa, using market segmentation based on motives to travel to the parks during the flower season. We surveyed international, domestic, and local wildflower-viewing visitors and labeled three distinct clusters based on their level of interest in the event: appreciatorsobservers, and admirers. Our results show that such clustering is a useful research tool for producing a clear visitor profile. It enabled us to provide strategic insights for managing wildflower viewing, and similar natural events, according to the preferences of specific market segments.

Key words: Natural events; Floral tourism; Market segmentation; Motives; West Coast National Park; Namaqua National Park

Address correspondence to Martinette Kruger, Associate Professor, Tourism Research Focus Area, TREES (Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society), North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, South Africa. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 99–109
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167743
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Exploring the Shopping Motivations of International Residential Tourists

Maria D. De-Juan-Vigaray* and Joan B. Garau-Vadell

*Marketing Department, Faculty of Business and Economics, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain
†Business Department, Faculty of Business Administration, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Spain

Over the last few decades, so-called “international residential tourism” has increased considerably, creating a new consumer base in tourist destinations, particularly in southern Europe, whose shopping motivations are unknown. As a rule, existing literature has focused its attention on studying consumer motivations in their places of residence, references to the study of the international residential tourist’s (IRT’s) shopping motivations being very limited. It is in this context that this study examines the main contributions related to IRT shopping motivations. Taking as a starting point empirical research carried out in two top international tourist destinations, the study analyzes and contrasts the applicability of general theoretical contributions to this specific IRT segment. The results obtained confirm the existence, although not without its variations, of certain stability in the main aspects relating to shopping motivation, allowing the foundations to be laid for the incorporation of shopping motivation as a variable for the segmentation of IRTs. Both for tourist resort managers and retailers in the area, having access to a valid scale for measuring these motivations may be of great help to them in being able to categorize IRTs in accordance with their shopping motivations. In this way, they will have a broader knowledge of the market and how it is made up and it will facilitate the implementation of marketing policies aimed at improving the planning of commercial areas, as well as help them to adapt their product range and communication to the segments that are of most interest to their companies and destinations.

Key words: Residential tourism; Tourist destinations; International residential tourists (IRTs); Shopping motives; Shopping motivation scale

Address correspondence to Maria D. De-Juan-Vigaray, Marketing Department, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Alicante, 99. E-03080 Alicante, Spain. Tel: +00 34 965 90 34 00, ext. 3167; Fax: +00 34 96590 36 11; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 111–116
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167626
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Research Note

Tourism Policy Rhetoric and Practice: A Methodological Approach to Exploring the Cyprus Context

Sotiroula Liasidou

Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Intercollege Limassol Campus, Limassol, Cyprus

Tourism policy constitutes a complex issue of analysis given the multidimensional nature of the industry. Understanding policy formation in well-established destinations, as in the case of the island of the Republic of Cyprus, can constitute a contextual backdrop to understand the pitfalls to implementing framed strategy. In particular, this article attempts to shed light on the inability of Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO) to enforce successfully the “Tourism Strategic Plan 2003–2010.” The primary research involves 26 semistructured interviews by elite policy makers of the island. The results suggest that the industry as such struggles with theoretical tensions, and many gaps are created in terms of the implementation.

Key words: Tourism policy; Strategic planning; Cyprus; Semistructured interviews

Address correspondence to Sotiroula Liasidou, Assistant Professor, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Intercollege Limassol Campus, Limassol, Cyprus. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 117–122
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
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Research Note

Evaluation of the Determinant Factors of Innovation in Colombia’s Tourist Product

Alexander Zuniga-Collazos,* Rich Harrill,† Nelcy R. Escobar-Moreno,* and Marysol Castillo-Palacio*

*Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Universidad de Medellin, Medellin, Colombia
†School of Hotel, Restaurant, & Tourism Management. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Colombia is a country that has achieved significant tourism growth in recent years, yet there is limited empirical evidence about its tourism development. Innovation in tourism products is one of the keys to Colombia maintaining positive tourism development. This empirical study analyzed innovation in tourism products in 364 Colombia companies. The findings show that “changes or improvements to existing products or services” and “research and development to create new products” have a significant relationship with tourism product innovation in Colombia.

Key words: Colombia tourism; Latin American tourism; Tourism development; Enterprise innovation

Address correspondence to Alexander Zuniga-Collazos, Research Professor, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Universidad de Medellin, Medellin, Colombia. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 123–128
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14205687167824R
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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Research Note

The Travel Guidebook: Catalyst for Self-Directed Travel

Donald N. Roberson, Jr.

Department of KinanthropologyFakulty of Physical Culture, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic

An increasing number of travelers are using various sources in order to enhance their travel experience. One overlooked resource is the travel guidebook. To this end, the purpose of this study was to understand the role of the guidebook in the travel experience. Research questions focused on how the traveler is using the guidebook. The study utilized “on the spot” interviews of tourists as well as a questionnaire. Sixty-one tourists or groups of tourists with a total of 137 people were interviewed. As a follow-up, a questionnaire about travel and guidebooks was completed by 98 tourists. Findings from this research indicate the following ideas. Tourist guidebooks are a catalyst for travel by allowing freedom of movement and increased knowledge of their visit. Tourist guidebooks add an educational component to travel. Most independent travelers are using some type of guidebook. More and more independent travelers are using the Internet for travel questions, and many of them are carrying this information in hand-held electronic devices. The guidebook has become a liberating aspect of travel by allowing the traveler to become more self-directed. This new information is often self-modeled while looking and following the concepts within the guidebook.

Key words: Travel guidebook; Self-directed learning; Leisure learning; Self-modeling; Educational travel

Address correspondence to Donald N. Roberson, Jr., Ph.D., Department of KinanthropologyFakulty of Physical Culture, Palacky University, Tr. Miru 115, Olomouc, Czech Republic 77900. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 129–136
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
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Research Note

Strategic Marketing Development of Hospitals Participating in Medical Tourism: A Case of South Korea

Keetag Choi,* Timothy J. Lee,† and Hwa-Kyung Kim‡

*Division of Culture & Tourism, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, South Korea
†Department of Tourism & Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan
‡Department of Hotel Management, Jeju International University, Jeju City, South Korea

This article highlights the strong potential and growing popularity of the Asian medical tourism industry focusing on South Korea and presents an overview of the background of the industry, the current situation, issues of concern, and directions to pursue for the systematic development of the medical tourism industry in that country. It examines the difficulties encountered given that the current medical tourism market in Korea is under constant attention but still at the beginning stages. The study a) examines the recognition and attitudes of hospitals towards medical tourism, b) investigates networking involvement of the medical tourism-related institutions, and c) suggests recommendations for strategic implementation of medical tourism in Korea. The study provides useful strategic analysis for the sustainable development of the medical tourism industry in a country where medical tourism is receiving rapidly growing attention.

Key words: Medical tourism; Promotion activities; Network development

Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Ph.D., Professor in Department of Tourism & Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it