Tourism Analysis 20(2) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Analysis>

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 143–158
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354214X
14146846679367
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effect  of Information Channel on Information Source Selection: Students’ Information Search

Hee “Andy” Lee,* Rob Law,† and Chris Luk

*UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
†School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong

A plethora of research studies has examined the effect of information channel and information source on information search behavior respectively but scant research that examined them together is located. This study conducted a factorial repeated-measures ANOVA to examine the interaction effect between information channel and information source on students’ internship information search behavior. Empirical findings indicated a significant interaction effect in students’ information use. That is, how information is transmitted (information channel) is more influential than where information is from (information source) is in information use. Also, it was found that the selection of information channel and source is dependent on the type of internship in query. Internal working environment was found most important and external working environment was least important information in internship selection.

Key words: Information search; Information source; Information channel; Internship; Interaction effect

Address correspondence to Hee “Andy” Lee, Ph.D., UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Level 3, Building 39A, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 0757; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 159–172
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207317
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Site Location Based on a Genetic Algorithm

Pedro Godinho,* Manuela Silva,† and Luiz Moutinho

*GEMF and Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
†Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
‡Adam Smith Business School–Management, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

This research study applies an underutilized analytical tool in academic tourism research, a genetic algorithm (GA), to the area of site location analysis. We initially dissect and explore all the relevant components and processes related to a GA. The proposed research model is then analyzed in terms of the incorporated variables and parameters as well as the reasoning behind their selection. An analytical comparative framework to measure the performance of the fitness function, which includes a pure GA, local search, and a mix of both approaches, is then introduced. The results indicate that in most cases the mixed approach has the better performance.

Key words: Tourism site location; Genetic algorithms (GA); Evolutionary algorithms; Spatial interaction models

Address correspondence to Pedro Godinho, GEMF and Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra, Av. Dias da Silva, 165, 3004-512 Coimbra, Portugal. Tel: +351+239790571; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 173–188
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207353
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Does Life Satisfaction of Tourists Increase if They Set Travel Goals That Have High Positive Valence?

Stefan Kruger,* M. Joseph Sirgy,† Dong-Jin Lee,‡ and Grace Yu‡

*School of Business Management, North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
†Department of Marketing, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
‡School of Business, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea

The setting of a traveler’s goals can influence the traveler’s life satisfaction. The travel goal valence principle states that life satisfaction of tourists is high when their travel goals are related more to (1) intrinsic than extrinsic motives, (2) abstract than concrete desired states, (3) growth than basic needs, (4) approach of desired states than avoidance of undesired states, (5) deprived than nondeprived needs, and (6) flow than nonflow activities. The main purpose of this study is to test the theoretical propositions stemming from the travel goal valence principle in the context of leisure travel to a national wildlife park (Study 1) and leisure travel experienced recently (Study 2). In Study 1 a convenience sampling technique was used by means of a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 228 fully completed questionnaires were received. Study 2 made use of a web-based survey and a random sample technique was used. A total of 254 questionnaires were used in the statistical calculations of Study 2. The results from both studies indicated that traveler/tourist’s life satisfaction can be increased when they have intrinsic goals, growth-based goals, and goals related to flow activities. To enhance traveler/tourist well-being, it is recommended that marketers in the tourism industry implement programs and services guided by the goal valence model.

Key words: Life satisfaction; Tourism and quality of life; Goal setting; Goal valence

Address correspondence to Stefan Kruger, School of Business Management, North West University Potchefstroom Campus, Box 204, Potchefstroom 2531, South Africa. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 189–200
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207399
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Brand Equity Research From 2001 to 2012

Stella Kladou,* Antonios A. Giannopoulos,† and Eleni Mavragani

*Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK
Corallia Clusters Initiative, Athens, Greece
‡International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece

The present study delves into a review of the destination brand equity literature published since 2001, aiming to offer tourism researchers a reference guide to the general context, corresponding methods, and focus of previous works. A multisource search resulted in the identification of 64 relevant papers. Content analysis using multiple classifier variables provides further insights into specific geographical, conceptual, and methodological aspects. Conclusions pertain to the multidimensional character of the construct, the methodology, and context in which destination brand performance has been developed. Destination brand equity appears as a rapidly conceived concept, borrowed from traditional (corporate/product) branding theory, while discussion on its definition and operationalization is still in progress and has yet to mature in a multidisciplinary context. As the first attempt to review destination brand equity within the top tourism and marketing journals and relevant search engines, the study may contribute to a comprehensive overview of the field. The outcomes offer marketing scholars an in-depth view of the concept, providing an overall insight on the various ways destination brands might be evaluated.

Key words: Review; Destination branding; Effectiveness; Brand equity; Brand performance

Address correspondence to Stella Kladou, Senior Lecturer, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 201–213
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207470
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Motivations and Benefits of Attending a Multicultural Festival

Insun Sunny Lee and Songshan (Sam) Huang

School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

This study explores why people attend a multicultural festival and what benefits they perceive they gain from attending such a festival. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with festival visitors of a multicultural festival held in Adelaide, Australia. A multilayered structure of motivation and benefit themes was identified through thematic content analysis of the interview data; differences of motivations and benefits of attending the multicultural festival were found between festival visitors whose self-identified ethnic cultures were represented at the festival and those whose cultures were not featured. The study suggests that multicultural festival visitors gain broad festival experiences that lead to enduring benefits that center around the development of multiculturalism values. This study contributes to the literature in theorizing a context-driven approach in festival visitor studies through exploring context-specific visitor motivations and benefits at multicultural festivals.

Key words: Multicultural festival; Multiculturalism; Motivations; Benefits; Australia

Address correspondence to Insun Sunny Lee, Ph.D., Lecturer in Event & Tourism Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471 Adelaide SA Australia 5001. Tel: +61 8 8302 7664; Fax: +61 8 8302 0512; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 215–227
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207515
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Construction and Application of CAA Model for Intelligent Tourism

Min Wei

School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China

Intelligent tourism is a new conception in intelligent city, which can not only promote the systematic integration and development of tourism information and physical resources, but also provide high-quality services for tourists, tourism enterprises, and government with personality and convenience. Intelligent tourism is becoming a new form of tourism in future-oriented tourism market, which leads the new travel fashion. With the emergence of intelligent urban construction and the perfection of tourism information, objective conditions for intelligent tourism will be further optimized. This article defines the basic concepts of intelligent tourism, and then analyzes the three elements of intelligent tourism: capacities, attributes, and applications (CAA). It was found that the three elements interacted with and depended on each other, based on which the CAA model of intelligent tourism could be constructed. According to the analysis of the intelligent tourism CAA model, some policy recommendations of intelligent tourism are proposed at the end of this article.

Key words: Intelligent tourism; CAA model; Tourism technology; Tourist needs

Address correspondence to Min Wei, School of Management, Xiamen University, 422 South Siming Road, Xiamen, Fujian, China, 361005. Tel: +86-130-3087-6682; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 229–241
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207551
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Nexus Between Tourism Demand and Cultural Similarity

Yun Hsing (Yh) Cheung* and Shrabani Saha

*School of Business, Faculty of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia
†Lincoln Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK

This article attempts to bring an economic underpinning to tourism research. It uses the gravity model to derive an econometric model to explore the relationship between cultural similarity and tourism demand, with special reference to Australia inbound tourism from 42 source countries. Since language and religion are thought to be the main exposition and carrier of culture, we developed a continuous, normalized, and time variant index to capture the similarity in language and religious profile between a source country and Australia. The inclusion of these indexes in an empirical model yields OLS and quantile results that support the belief that there is a close link between culture similarity and tourism demand.

Key words: Culture; Tourism; Language similarity index; Religion similarity index; Australia inbound tourism

Address correspondence to Shrabani Saha, Lincoln Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 243–250
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207597
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

New York City Bed Bug Crisis as Framed by Tourists on TripAdvisor

Bingjie Liu, Lori Pennington-Gray, Holly Donohoe, and Oghenekaro Omodior

Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

In New York City (NYC), one of the world’s top tourism destinations, bed bugs have reemerged as a challenge to the hospitality industry regardless of a hotel’s star rating, location, ranking, or other. Given this growing tourism and hospitality management problem, the purpose of this study was to understand how the NYC bed bug crisis was framed on social media by travelers and how it impacted tourist experiences of NYC. Four general narrative frames and 14 subframes were identified in the analysis and the findings confirm that bed bugs have become a real and growing concern for tourists, and they are using social media to report their bed bug experiences. The significance and implications for hotel and destination management are discussed.

Key words: Bed bugs; Crisis communication; Hotels; Social media; New York City

Address correspondence to Bingjie Liu, Doctoral Student, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, 206C FLG. P.O. Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 251–258
1083-5423/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14265319207632
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Internet Impact on Travel Purchases: Insights From Portugal

Carmen Martins,* Ana Salazar,† and Alessandro Inversini*

*School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, Poole, UK
Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal

This research proposes an analysis of online consumer buying behavior in the travel and tourism field in Portugal. The study utilizes a self-administrated survey on a sample of 380 individuals created in order to understand the influence of the Internet on consumer buying behavior. The survey was administrated in Portugal, one of the European countries that are still struggling with Internet penetration. Results show the importance of the Internet has on two stages of the buying process: (i) alternative evaluation and (ii) buying act. Furthermore, this research highlights the critical role of touristic products availability and search costs on the buying behavior of consumers. However, past bad experiences and a certain level of insecurity persist as factors limiting the online purchase process. Results confirm the general trends in consumer behavior and highlight the need of moving further for Portugal in terms of technology adoption.

Key words: Online consumer behavior; Buying decision; Internet; Tourist products

Address correspondence to Carmen Martins, School of Tourism, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Dorset House, Room D241, Fern Barrow, Bournemouth, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1202 965046; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it