Event Management 19(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 151–157
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839502
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Everybody Loves a Parade . . . But How Many Is Everybody?

Vern Biaett* and Wendy Hultsman

*The Nido Qubein School of Communication, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA
†School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

This study created and field tested a density count method to analytically estimate the number of spectators attending parades. Literature review revealed an earlier suggested method to estimate attendance at parades, but no indication of it ever being assessed in the field was uncovered. Additional literature, more focused on other types of large open festivals, provided further empirical insight into estimating attendance at events in general. The study began with trials and fieldwork to establish basic physical space requirements of spectators, as well as the total available square footage of viewing area along a parade route, in order to ascertain the maximum possible attendance as a control on final attendance approximations. During two major parades in Phoenix, Arizona, researchers hand counted exact attendance in predetermined route sections which, when compared to density counts of identical sections by another researcher, were deemed comparably significant. Combining the density counted estimates for all sections, spectator attendance was extrapolated for both parades, which was found to be considerably less than attendance estimates assumed by event organizers and reported in the press. The density count technique was verified as a valid method to estimate parade attendance, ultimately controlled by calculations of maximum possible attendance.

Key words: Parade; Attendance; Density; Event

Address correspondence to Vern Biaett, Ph.D., CFEE, The Nido Qubein School of Communication, High Point University, 833 Montlieu Ave., Drawer 33, High Point, NC 27268, USA. Tel: 623-251-1867; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 159–174
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839539
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Legitimacy of Festivals and Their Stakeholders: Concepts and Propositions

Mia Larson,* Donald Getz,† and Pantazis Pastras

*Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden
†School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
‡Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK

This conceptual article provides an overview of organizational and stakeholder legitimacy as applied to the study of festivals and their networks of stakeholders. Legitimacy is shown to be a vital condition for festival acceptance and sustainability. Different kinds of criteria for judging legitimacy (legal, pragmatic, moral, and cognitive) are illustrated by reference to typical festival stakeholders. As well, legitimacy can either be situational, depending on problems at hand, or more permanently derived from legal status or institutional arrangements and ownership. Networks of stakeholders have to be considered, and at the levels of industry (i.e., the festival/event sector), area (e.g., festivals in a city), and firm (the festival organization). This article concludes with a discussion of practical management implications, and with a set of propositions that can be used as hypotheses to be tested and as a general guide for future research and interdisciplinary theory building.

Key words: Legitimacy; Organizations; Stakeholders; Festivals; Propositions

Address correspondence to Mia Larson, Associate Professor, Department of Service Management and Service Studies, Campus Helsingborg, Lund University, P.O. Box 882, 251 08 Helsingborg, Sweden. Tel: +46 707 880408; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 175–185
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839575
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Simplicity in the Complexity of Organizing the Olympic Games: The Role of Bureaucracy

Dimitris Gargalianos,* Makis Asimakopoulos,† Packianathan Chelladurai,‡ and Kristine Toohey§

*Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, Democritos University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece
†Synergy Sports, Athens, Greece
‡Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, College of Health and Human Services, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA
§Department of Tourism and Sport, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia

The Olympic Games involve many individual and organizational stakeholders as well as an infinite number of tasks requiring technical competence; hence, they are complex to organize. On the other hand, there are constant principles in their organization that are determined by the rules of the 2014 Olympic Charter and the Host City Contract (HCC), which affect the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG), an entity of limited duration established with a single mandate: to organize the Games. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the organizational efforts of an OCOG are guided by Weber’s tenets of bureaucracy: division of labor; authority structure; system of abstract rules; impersonality; and technical competence. In order to fulfill this purpose the authors used a case study methodology and investigated the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee of Olympic Games (ATHOC). The methodology also included review of relevant literature and official ATHOC documents, especially the 2004 Official Post Games Report. Moreover, personal experience of the first and second authors, who were contractually involved with the organization of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, was employed. It was concluded that ATHOC used Weber’s tenets of bureaucracy to simplify its organizational efforts.

Key words: Olympic Games (OG); Simplicity; Weber’s tenets of bureaucracy

Address correspondence to Dimitris Gargalianos, Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, Democritos University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 187–210
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839610
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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The London Summer 2012 Olympic Games: Threat of Disruption and Business Reaction

Adam Jones,* Janet Woolley,* and Graham Currie†

*School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UK
†Institute of Transport Studies, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

The impact of and reaction to the disruption on transport created by mega-events on host communities and, in particular, businesses, is an underresearched area. Utilizing social exchange theory, this article examines the relationship between businesses and transport authorities in the implementation of the Travel Demand Management (TDM) strategy for the London Olympics 2012. This research identifies the mechanisms by which the authorities meet the specific antecedent conditions that impact on the exchange. This research is unusual as a qualitative approach is used to gain in-depth understanding of the impacts of mega-events on business and their attitudes to these antecedents. The theoretical contribution of this study is a model that depicts the decision-making processes by which businesses evaluate the exchange relationship. Results identify that there is a link between business typology, antecedent, and the level of engagement. The practical implications of the results and the limitations of the study are discussed with reference to future mega-events and research possibilities.

Key words: Mega-events; Olympics, Business; Travel demand management (TDM); Social exchange theory

Address correspondence to Janet Woolley, Senior Lecturer, School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Hillbrow, Denton Road, Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK Bn20 7SR. Tel: +44(0) 1273 643624; Fax: +44(0) 1273 643949; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 211–226
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839656
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of Festivals and Events in the Regional Development of Cities: Cases of Two Finnish Cities

Mervi Luonila and Tanja Johansson

Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

This article examines the role of festivals and cultural events in regional development from a discursive perspective. The particular focus is on the meanings attached to their importance and potential in both the discourses of public strategy documents and the views of festival managers. The empirical analyses cover two Finnish regions: Pori and Seinäjoki. The article further enhances understanding of festival management in identifying discourses in regional strategy making. This knowledge will help festival and event organizers to cope with external stakeholders and their varying demands, which could support the longevity of their event. Public authorities, on the other hand, will be able to use the analytical information on festival production in their decision making with regard to regional strategy development.

Key words: Festival management; Regional development; Public strategies; Discourse

Address correspondence to Mervi Luonila, M. Mus., Ph.D. student, Department of Arts Management, University of the Arts Helsinki, P.O. Box 30, FI-00097 UNIARTS, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 227–245
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839692
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Sport Mega-Event Volunteers’ Motivations and Postevent Intention to Volunteer: The Sydney World Masters Games, 2009

Tracey J. Dickson,* Simon Darcy,† Deborah Edwards,† and F. Anne Terwiel

*Centre for Tourism Research, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia
†UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia
‡Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts and Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC, Canada

Investment in mega-sport events is frequently justified on the basis that there are infrastructure and social legacies that remain after the event. This research explores the claims of a social legacy through a pre- and post-Games survey of volunteers at the Sydney World Masters Games 2009 (SWMG). Through online surveys the research explores pre-and post-volunteer motivations, postevent volunteering intentions before the Games and actual volunteer behavior after the Games. The pre-Games survey supports previous research that a desire to be involved in the event motivates people to volunteer. However, the postevent expression of motivations shifted to a more altruistic focus. The postevent volunteering intentions as indicated in the preevent survey would support the claim of a social legacy; however, this was not supported by the postevent measures of volunteering levels. The use of a pre- and postevent survey has highlighted that the timing of measures of motivations can influence responses and one may not depend on preevent intentions as an indicator of postevent behaviors.

Key words: Volunteer; Events; Motivation; Intentions; Sydney; World Masters Games

Address correspondence to Tracey J. Dickson, Associate Professor, Centre for Tourism Research, Faculty of Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, University Avenue, Canberra, ACT, 2617, Australia. Tel: + 61 (0)2 6201 2465; Fax: +61 (0)2 6201 5239; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 247–260
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839737
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Organizational Power and the Management of a Mega-Event: The Case of Sydney 2000

Stephen Frawley

Australian Centre for Olympic Studies, UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Lindfield, NSW, Australia

The organization of a mega-event such as the Olympic Games is a complex task involving a multitude of individuals and stakeholder groups. In 2000, Australia’s largest city, Sydney, staged the Summer Olympic Games. The agency given primary responsibility for these Games was the Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG). Two additional organizations also played a central role in the management of the event: the Australian Olympic Committee and the New South Wales Government. This article explores the role played by the host national Olympic committee as a key Olympic stakeholder in the organization of the Olympic Games. The research highlights that organization of a mega-project, such as the Olympic Games, is not only the result of recent developments but also of countless social and organizational figurations that developed over many years prior to the winning of a bid to stage the event.

Key words: Mega-events; Olympic Games; Organizational power; Stakeholder management

Address correspondence to Stephen Frawley, Ph.D., Australian Centre for Olympic Studies, UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, 100 Eton Road, Lindfield, NSW, Australia. Tel: 02-9514-5111; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 261–273
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839773
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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The Role of Test Events in Major Sporting Events

Svein S. Andersen,*† Dag Vidar Hanstad,† and Kari Plejdrup-Skillestad

*Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway
†Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway

Test events are important in the preparation of major sporting events. Nevertheless, there are few studies of how such tests are carried out to combat risks and build capacities to manage the unexpected incidents during implementation. This article explores two questions: (1) What role did the test event in 2010 play in the preparation and execution of the FIS Nordic World Championships (SWC) in Oslo 2011? (2) To what extent can experiences from this project be viewed as a successful attempt to apply an overall model of mindful organization? The study is based on in-depth interviews with key leaders in the organizing committee of SWC as well as different documents and media coverage. Data collection and analysis is organized around key concepts from theories of mindful organizations. The study shows that even if project leaders had a conscious and consistent mindful approach to preparations, the test event demonstrated a number of important shortcomings relating to facilities, support, and the event organization itself. The way such shortcomings were analyzed and acted upon was essential for a successful world championship. An important aspect of this was the realization that the real challenge was to reorganize and fine tune the organization to combat risks and manage the unexpected.

Key words: Test events; Major sporting events; Risk management; Mindful organization

Address correspondence to Dag Vidar Hanstad, Department of Cultural and Social Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, P.O. Box 4014 Ullevaal stadion, N-0806 Oslo, Norway. Tel: +4790892229; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 275–289
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839818
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Women at a Music Festival: Biological Sex Defining Motivation and Behavioral Intentions

Robertico Croes* and Seung Hyun Lee†

*Tourism, Events and Attractions Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†School of Hospitality Leadership, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

This study aims to assess whether biological sex impacts motivation and experience at a music festival in Curacao and is premised on different consumption behavior induced by biological sex. Differences in motivations and behavioral intentions based on biological sex were observed. The study further revealed that biological sex plays an important role in framing the experience and behavior intentions of the female segment. This finding is relevant as females are becoming an important mainstream at music festivals and travel and leisure consumers. Biological sex as a predictor of motivation and behavioral intentions has wider effects than just increasing demand; it may deeply shape travel and leisure patterns. Failure to consider this finding could lead to dissatisfaction and missed opportunities in product offerings.

Key words: Experience; Female; Loyalty; Motivation; Music festival; Satisfaction; Curacao

Address correspondence to Robertico Croes, Professor and Chair, Tourism, Events and Attractions Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8028; Fax: 407-903-8105; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 291–302
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14297053839854
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Tourist Dimension of Canine Events

Milosava Matejevic,* Ksenija Wallrabenstein,† and Zoran Ristic*

*Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
†Social Zoom doo, Novi Sad, Serbia

Canine events, as a very specific kind of events, attract a large number of visitors, among which competitors represent the majority, and on whom the attraction of the event itself mostly depends. Canine events can contribute both to the development and to higher income from tourism and catering in the destination itself, but organizers should, first of all, understand the competitor’s motivation for the participation in certain/specific events of such type. The purpose of this study was to find out the level of interest of the competition participants in the tourist activities, which are the basic factors of motivation when choosing the event at which they will take part. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) method distinguished four factors of motivation of participants at the canine events. The results of this research show that tourist dimension of canine events is not of great importance to its participants, but it is not, however, negligible or excluded.

Key words: Dog shows; Participant motivation; Event tourism; Pet tourism

Address correspondence to Milosava Matejevic, Ph.D. student, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia. Tel: +381 21 485 2845, +381 63 331055; Fax: +381 21 459-696; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it