Tourism Review International 19(1-2) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 1-18
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678713
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Heritage Tourism Within a Capital City: Symbolism and Dissonance

Margaret J. Daniels,* Laurlyn K. Harmon,† Marielle Barrow,‡ Minkyung Park,* Russell E. Brayley,* and Rodney Vese§

*School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
†Department of Recreation Management and Therapeutic Recreation, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA
‡Cultural Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
§Applied Information Technology and Earth Systems, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

Tourists visiting the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an urban park located in the capital of the US, Washington, DC, are predominantly engaged with monuments, memorials, museums, and other historic sites. Current challenges facing this heritage destination are linked to significant deferred maintenance that has negatively impacted the visual appeal of popular sites, facilities, and greenspace. Using a mixed-methods approach framed within symbolic interactionism and cognitive dissonance, researchers examined the meanings visitors attributed to the destination, comparing national and international tourists. National tourists were more likely to indicate that the visit evoked strong emotional responses ranging from pride to embarrassment, consistently noting that maintenance shortcomings reflected poorly on their country as a whole. The findings inform destination management in capital cities.

Key words: Heritage tourism; Symbolic interactionism; Cognitive dissonance

Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Ph.D., School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Science and Technology Campus, Bull Run Hall 201B, 10900 University Blvd., Manassas, VA 20110, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 19-30
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678759
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Perceptions of Mobility-Impaired Travelers: An Analysis of Service Expectations, Evaluations, and Travel Barriers

Sila Karacaoglu,* Medet Yolal,† and Dogan Gursoy

*School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey
†Carson College of Business, School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA

This study examines tourism experiences of mobility-impaired individuals, their evaluations and expectations from tourism service providers, and their satisfaction with the services provided. Data were collected from a sample of respondents in Eskisehir, Turkey. The findings suggest that health is not the main barrier to travel; instead, income is found to be one of the most important factors affecting the travel patterns of the mobility impaired. Additionally, while the respondents are found to have a generally favorable evaluation of hotel attributes, transportation services are found to present a significant barrier to travel. Implications and recommendations for strategic tourism management are provided.

Key words: Disabled tourists; Expectations; Mobility impairment; Hotels; Turkey

Address correspondence to Dogan Gursoy, Ph.D., Professor, Carson College of Business, School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, 340G Todd Hall, PO Box 644736, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 31-42
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678795
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Accessibility of Travel and Hospitality Services as Perceived by Travelers With Mobility Impairments

Yeon
Woo Park, Shu Cole, and Ye Zhang

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

The purpose of this study is to investigate mobility-impaired consumers’ perceived accessibility of travel and hospitality services. Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted among 23 participants with mobility impairments. Results of the study suggest five dimensions of accessibility in travel and hospitality services as perceived by customers with mobility impairments: access to physical features, access to service procedures, ease of access to physical and service features, upkeep of accessible physical and service features, and access to accurate and reliable information. This conceptualization of accessibility can be used by travel and hospitality services to develop accessible services for people with mobility impairments.

Key words: Accessibility; Travelers with disabilities; Physical features; Service procedures; Information

Address correspondence to Shu Cole, Associate Professor, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, SPH 133, 1025 E. 7th Street, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA. Tel: 812-855-9037; Fax: 812-855-3998; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 43-61
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14338796190477
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Wildlife Conservation Through Tourism Microentrepreneurship Among Namibian Communities

Duarte B. Morais,* Birendra K. C.,* Yuchen Mao,* and Alfons Mosimane

*Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
†Multidisciplinary Research Centre, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Wildlife conservation has often focused on protecting charismatic wildlife from native communities and allowing multinational companies to profit from showing those resources to foreign tourists. This has contributed to local poverty and fueled poaching and concomitant policing of resources by governments, foreign conservationists, and private industry. An alternative receiving increasing scholarly attention consists on enabling eco-dependent tourism microentrepreneurship as a way to foster local conservation behaviors. In the case of wildlife tourism in Namibia, this might entail the provision of wildlife tours and camping services by indigenous communities. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which wildlife tourismmicroentrepreneurship leads to intrinsically motivated wildlife conservation. A controlled comparison case study design was used to test this research question. The findings reveal that males in conservancy communities have internalized proconservationbehaviors and both males and females in those communities report richer and more complex wildlife value orientations.

Key words: Wildlife tourism microentrepreneurship; Communal conservancies; Wildlife value orientations; People-First Tourism

Address correspondence to Duarte B. Morais, Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, 4008E Biltmore Hall, Campus Box 8004, Raleigh, NC 27695-8004, USA. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 63-73
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678830
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ecological Slums? Initial Notes on Tourism and Ecology in Brazilian Favelas

Camila Maria Dos Santos Moraes

Tourism and Heritage Department, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
CPDOC/FGV-RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

This article examines the ecology in favelas (shanty towns) from comparative analysis of two recent initiatives that have created new features of these communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The first one is the Carioca Landscape Natural Park on BabilôniaHill, created by the city government in 2013, and the second is a reforested space in the upper part of the Vidigal favela, containing Dois Irmãos Trail, which has become one of the main hiking trails in the city. This study is the result of fieldwork in these favelas and analysis of the literature as well as official documents produced by government agencies and community associations. I focus on the favelas because these are the main access routes to these parks and residents carry out the reforestation. Furthermore, reports of foreign tourists and residents of Rio that have visited these places indicate that the reforestation and creation of ecological parks are unexpected, because traditional images of favelas are of dirty areas, urban agglomerations that areantiecological, since many of Rio’s favelas are built on hills originally covered by Atlantic Forest and encroach on protected areas. However, both projects began precisely for these reasons. Thus, this article analyzes this apparent paradox of favelas turning into ecotourism attractions.

Key words: Favela; Ecology; Tourism

Address correspondence to Camila Maria dos Santos Moraes, Assistant Professor, Tourism and Heritage Department, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 75-86
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678876
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

“Breaking the Silence”: Local Perceptions of Slum Tourism in Dharavi

Nieck Slikker* and Ko Koens†‡

*International Tourism Management, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands
†Academy of Hotel and Facility Management, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, Netherlands
‡School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Slum tourism has been criticized for potentially exploiting the communities it visits. While the daily life of residents is the primary attraction of slum tourism, they do not receive any remuneration. Given the heated debate surrounding this topic, it is surprising that the perspective of residents remains largely unknown. This article aims to address this lacuna, by providing insights into the perceptions that residents have on slum tourism in Dharavi slum, India. It is unique in that it explicitly addresses host perceptions towards slum tourism enterprises as well as charitable activities funded through slum tourism. Insights were gained through 74 semistructured interviews, conducted in the most visited areas of the slum. Four different resident perspectives are recognized: apprehensive, positive, indifferent, and skeptical. Over time, residents in Dharavi become less excited by the presence of tourists, but they do not develop a negative attitude to them. Although residents are not without criticism of tourism, and there is a lack of knowledge on tourism’s contribution to community development projects, they do not view tourism as exploitative. The struggle for Dharavi will be to ensure tour operators will continue to operate in a way sensitive to the local community, as tourist numbers and competition increases.

Key words: Slum tourism; Dharavi; Local perceptions; Resident perspective; Tourism ethics

Address correspondence to Nieck Slikker, International Tourism Management, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Rogakker 3, 6741 ES, Lunteren, Netherlands. Tel: +31 6 22 515491, E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 87-100
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14327569678911
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Making Slums Into Attractions: The Role of Tour Guiding in the Slum Tourism Development in Kibera and Dharavi

Fabian Frenzel* and Stephanie Blakeman

*School of Management, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
†Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark

This article investigates how slums are made into a tourism attraction. We focus in particular on the role of tour guides and tour guiding operations in this process. In the tourism literature in general tour guiding has been subject to much reflection and debate. However, tour guides’ role in enabling tourism in new places, in the making of attractions, has not been discussed much. Also, in the emerging research on slum tourism little attention has been given to tour guides and their roles. This article addresses both research gaps in providing insights into tour guiding in slum tourism, and by addressing the roles of tour guides in attraction making through a comparative analysis of tourism in two slums: Dharavi, in Mumbai, India, and Kibera, in Nairobi, Kenya. Based on empirical research of tour guiding operations we found that different levels of formality in tour guiding coexist across destinations. Formal tour guiding operations are more successful in establishing a slum as an attraction as they enable significant growth in tourist numbers. However, formal tour guiding operations and strong international participation in their foundation are factors that seem to undermine to some extent the creation of intimate and authentic encounters in tour guiding, preferred by some tourists. This leaves space for more informal tour guiding, with strong local ties, which are better placed to produce intimate experiences.

Key words: Slum tourism; Tour guiding; Attraction making; Organizational structures; Social ties; Intimacy

Address correspondence to Fabian Frenzel, School of Management, Ken Edwards Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 116 252 5641; E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it