Tourism Analysis 20(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 269–282
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891771
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

On Avatar’s (2009) Semiotechnologies: From Cinematic Utopias to Chinese Heritage Tourism

Rodanthi Tzanelli

School of Sociology & Social Policy, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

The article explores the conditions that fostered an unlikely convergence between James Cameron’s Avatar (2009) media industry, his and his colleagues’ travel and activist pursuits in Brazil, and Chinese tourist planning. Focusing on one of the film’s simulated landscape markers, Cameron’s collaborative composition of an audiovisual “Pandorapedia” and his documentary on his Amazonian travels, it debates how cinematic tourism assists in reconfigurations of utopian visions as tourist markers. The particular utopian icon that connected such disparate projects as those of movie making and its digital popular extensions to the generation of tourism in Chinese world heritage sites was that of the fictional “Hallelujah” or “Floating” Pandora Mountains. Highlighting meeting points between semiotechnological assemblages (world “languages,” music, and visual technologies) and human artwork (acting, audiovisual creativity, and activism) it outlines how (a) postmodernist combinations of art travel and tourist commodification relocate into postnational environments but (b) do not lose their regional relevance and applicability.

Key words: Cinema; Heritage tourism; Social movements; Synesthetic performativity; Utopia (digital)

Address correspondence to Rodanthi Tzanelli, School of Sociology & Social Policy, Social Sciences Building, Room 12.04, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, West Yorkshire, UK. Tel: 0113 343 8746; Fax: 0113 343 4415; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 283–296
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891816
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

On The Trail of Errol Flynn: Explorations in Autoethnography

Warwick Frost and Jennifer Laing

Department of Management and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Bundoora), Australia

To attract tourists, destinations are increasingly developing products based on film and other popular culture connections. These include tours, museums, visitor centers, statues, and walking trails. This article examines the recently developed Errol Flynn Trail in Hobart, Australia. Utilizing an autoethnographic approach, we analyzed how the Trail worked, the stories it told, and the tourist experience it provided. Our findings suggest that the Trail provides a rich and satisfying experience for visitors interested in the Golden Age of Hollywood movies in the 1930s and 1940s. There is a strong connection between Errol Flynn and the destination, and as the Trail is linked to sites of Flynn’s early years, it provides access to a detailed and nuanced back story of the actor’s life and notoriety. The tragic elements of this story add to the authenticity and level of parasocial interaction of visitors, and there are elements of cocreation of the experience, as visitors are likely to be passionate about this period rather than just casual participants. These types of self-guided walks offer the flexibility to go off trail or allow visitors to spend as long as they like at one site. Further research should explore the demand for and nature of these self-guided experiences, particularly in a media-induced context.

Key words: Film tourism; Media tourism; Place marketing; Autoethnography; Walking trails; Errol Flynn

Address correspondence to Warwick Frost, Department of Management and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Bundoora), Victoria 3086, Australia. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 297–311
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891852
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Successful and Unsuccessful Film Tourism Destinations: From the Perspective of Korean Local Residents’ Perceptions of Film Tourism Impacts

Yejin Yoon,* Sangkyun (Sean) Kim,† and Seongseup (Sam) Kim‡

*College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
†Department of Tourism, School of Humanities and Creative Arts, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia
‡School of Hotel & Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

This study has empirically examined the influence of both successful and unsuccessful film tourism destinations on the local residents’ perceptions of film tourism impacts. It was contextualized in seven film tourism destinations in South Korea associated with popular Korean films and TV dramas. An impact scale comprising 24 tourism impact items was adopted and modified from previous studies on residents’ perceptions of the economic, sociocultural, and environmental impacts of tourism. It was found that the majority of residents perceived the impacts of film tourism positively, particularly for those related to the positive sociocultural life and positive economic impacts (e.g., improvement of community’s image, improvement of local residents’ quality of life, and additional opportunity for cultural experience). The findings of the article also confirmed that there were statistically significant differences between successful and unsuccessful film tourism destinations, regarding their residents’ perceptions towards film tourism impacts. Important practical implications for destination stakeholders and marketers are offered in relation to a better understanding of film tourism phenomena and local residents’ perceptions towards their impacts. This will lead to more sustainable film tourism planning and development.

Key words: Outdoor filming set; Local community; Residents’ perception; Tourism impacts; Sustainability; MANOVA

Address correspondence to Sangkyun (Sean) Kim, Senior Lecturer, Department of Tourism, School of Humanities and Creative Arts, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 313–326
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891898
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Film Tourism: Integrated Strategic Tourism and Regional Economic Development Planning

Meredith Wray* and W. Glen Croy

*School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Southern Cross University, East Lismore NSW, Australia
†Department of Management, Monash Business School, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

Economic and social changes have had dramatic effects on regional areas. In a search for diversification, tourism and film may be targeted by these regions. Challenges of regional planning, however, include lack of local expertise, decentralized decision making, and diverse stakeholder groups. Specifically for film tourism this includes anticipating visitation numbers and assessing potential negative impacts. Broken Hill, located in Outback Australia, was used to investigate the complementary integration of film into regional development and tourism strategies. A stakeholder engagement process that adopted a transactive approach was implemented. The main findings of this process highlighted the need to develop the strong film presence into a visitor-friendly product, coordinating the film product with other destination strengths, establishing an expert and sector-diverse governance team, and developing a consistent brand with film as a component. Implications for other regional areas include considering how a film presence can be harnessed to develop film tourism experience opportunities, utilizing film tourism and production expertise to develop a coordinated and sustainable product, and to promote film experiences reflective of their place in the destination hierarchy. Finally, for film tourism, is the need to utilize representations of the range of destination experiences in film in destination marketing.

Key words: Regional development; Destination management; Outback; Broken Hill; Australia

Address correspondence to W. Glen Croy, Department of Management, Monash Business School, Monash University, 900 Dandenong Road, Caulfield East, Victoria 3145, Australia. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 327–332
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891933
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Revitalization of Historical Heritage Using Pop Culture in Japan: Shiroishi City and the Game/Anime Sengoku Basara

Takayoshi Yamamura

Center for Advanced Tourism Studies, Hokkaido University, Sapporo City, Hokkaido, Japan

This research note examines the processes of tourism promotion and local cultural heritage revitalization using the video game/anime Sengoku BASARA, focusing on the case of Shiroishi city in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Through interviews with people directly involved in the tourism sector and local media or online sources, the unfolding of the tourism boom is described. The article looks especially at the involvement of three groups—fans (tourists), local community, and the anime/game production company—and divides the processes of tourism development and promotion into five stages. Participatory events are flourishing through the efforts of local citizens and fans, who join together in appreciating the historical heritage of the local region. These findings suggest that a key to the successful use of game contents to promote historical tourism for the game/anime to be treated as an opportunity, and to have the fans of the game/ anime become fans of the local region. Such a process encourages local residents to feel pride towards the history. An important factor in achieving this is to connect the present-day contents depicted in the game/anime with the authentic historical contents in the local region. Finally, the attractiveness as well as the depth of the local region must be shown to the fans. It must be presented to the local residents that the fans of the game/anime are not just admirers of the work, but that they are actually admiring the historical character of the local region and the history of the local region. These suggestions imply the possibility of a new form of tourism where new cultures can be created by revitalizing the local heritage.

Key words: Anime; Video game; Historical heritage;
Sengoku BASARA; Shiroishi

Address correspondence toTakayoshi Yamamura, PhD, Professor, Center for Advanced Tourism Studies, Hokkaido University, North 17 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo City, Hokkaido 060-0817, Japan. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 333–339
1083-5423/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14356694891979
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Locating Imagination: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Literary, Film, and Music Tourism

Stijn ReijndersLeonieke Bolderman, Nicky Van Es, and Abby Waysdorf

Erasmus School of History, Culture and Communication, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

This research note introduces the design of a recently launched research project at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. The topic of this new research project is media tourism, the phenomenon of people traveling to places because of an association with a film, television series, novel, song, or other media product. Recently significant growth has been detected in this form of tourism, with far-reaching consequences for the locations concerned. The aim of this project is to discover why and under what circumstances popular media products give rise to new tourism flows, and which variations can be found based on the specific characteristics of the medium, the tourist, and the location involved. Media tourism has received a growing amount of attention from scholars in various academic disciplines. However, the existing knowledge about this phenomenon is still highly fragmented. This project aims to be the first in which interdisciplinary research will be conducted, involving an analysis and comparison of literary, cinematic, and musical examples of media tourism. By investigating commonalities and differences, we intend to highlight how literature, film, and music, each in their own way, stimulate the geographical imagination and literally “move” their audiences. The research is based on a combination of qualitative content analysis, ethnographic fieldwork, and experimental methods.

Key words: Film; Music; Literature; Tourism; Imagination

Address correspondence to Stijn Reijnders, Associate Professor of Cultural Heritage, Erasmus School of History, Culture and Communication, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, NL-3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 343–353
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14362097173837
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Ordering the Disordered Subject: A Critique of Chinese Outbound Tourists as New Zealand Seeks to Become China Ready

Jundan (Jasmine) Zhang and Eric J. Shelton

Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Currently, expanding Chinese outbound tourism attracts significant practical research effort utilizing various conceptual approaches in many countries. In this Review Article, J. Zhang and Shelton note that this form of tourism to New Zealand is notably increasing and the nature of the experience is accordingly changing from group coach travel to FIT. In their critique, J. Zhang and Shelton argue that despite the increased and careful scrutiny of both the tourism industry and the tourism studies academia on this development, most of the analytic effort (such as that on push/pull factors) is founded upon a dominant and unchallenged Western discourse around self and subject. They maintain that the term “subject position” might be a concept that is common across the broader social sciences but is uncommon in outbound tourism research itself. In this Review Article, the authors are interested in the extent to which, in a Chinese cultural setting, Western formulations of self and subjectivity are actually appropriate, and, they question whether “Chinese outbound tourism to New Zealand” indeed acts to produce the ordered subject. In this light, they critique the very demand that New Zealand becomes China Ready, and they contend that, before their arrival, the Chinese outbound tourist to New Zealand already will have been hailed by a set of subjectivities operating in China, which will act to significantly disorder their touristic performances. Thus, Zhang and Shelton suggest that New Zealand policymakers and tourism product providers must understand these multiple and discursive subjectivities, which are likely to be barriers for any prescriptive reading of the individual tourist. This review is thus intended to help both operational practitioners and field researchers realize that New Zealand—and, indeed, each and every large international destination—must produce compelling/relevant/satisfying supply-side subject positions that may profitably be mapped onto such individual tourists both before and during their visits. (Abstract by Reviews Editor)

Key words: Subjectivity; Ordering; Discourse; Subject position; Chineseness; China outbound tourism

Address correspondence to Jundan (Jasmine) Zhang, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, 4th Floor, Commerce Building, Cnr. Clyde and Union Streets, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. E-mail:  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it