Event Management 19(3) Abstracts

Return to Event Management>

Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 305–316
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874689
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

What Is Most Important in Transferring Goodwill From Charity Run Participants to Sponsors?

Wayne W. Smith,* Robert E. Pitts,† Weishen Wang,‡ and Rhonda W. Mack†

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
†Department of Management and Marketing, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
‡Department of Finance, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

This study examines whether event factors (satisfaction with the event, attitudes towards the event, and attitudes toward the activity) or program factors (sponsor fit and perceptions of corporate citizenship) are the most influential in shaping participants’ attitudes towards sponsors. Structural Equation Modeling was applied to data from an annual charitable run located in the southeastern US. Results indicate that the quality of the event was a secondary factor in determining brand equity transference between sponsors and participants as measured by attitude toward the sponsors. Perceptions of corporate citizenship and sponsor fit were the most influential factors in transference. Overall this study addresses the need to examine local and smaller events and sponsorship effects.

Key words: Corporate sponsorship; Charitable events; Sponsorship fit; Event quality; Corporate citizenship

Address correspondence to Wayne W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 317–330
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874724
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Factors Determining Attendance at a Film Festival

Maria Devesa,* Andrea Baez,† Victor Figueroa,† and Luis Cesar Herrero‡

*Departamento de Economia AplicadaFacultad de Ciencias SocialesJuridicas y de la Comunicacion, Universidad de Valladolid, Segovia, Spain
Instituto de EstadisticaFacultad de Ciencias EconomicasAdministrativas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Region de los Rios, Chile
Departamento de Economia AplicadaFacultad de Comercio, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

The goal of this article is to assess which factors determine consumption of a cultural festival. Drawing on the data obtained from a survey among attendees of the Valdivia International Film Festival (Chile), two models analyzing consumption intensity (number of films seen) and participation frequency (number of editions attended) are estimated. The variables included in the models reflect the sociodemographic features of those attending as well as specific factors linked to experience and previous cultural consumption, in addition to variables related to motivation. Findings show the most important variables are those related to cultural capital when accounting for participation in the event, although age and place of residence in the case of participation frequency also prove significant. Certain implications regarding cultural policy and management are drawn from the findings to emerge.

Key words: Cultural consumption; Film festival; Negative Binomial Model; Motivation

Address correspondence to Dr. Maria DevesaDepartamento de Economia AplicadaFacultad de Ciencias SocialesJuridicas y de la Comunicacion, Universidad de Valladolid Plaza Alto de los Leones de Castilla, 1, 40005 Segovia, Spain. Tel: +34 921 112300; Fax: +34 921 112301; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 331–348
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874760
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social Media Cocreation Strategies: The 3Cs

Szilvia Gyimóthy* and Mia Larson†

*Department of Culture & Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
†Department of Service Management, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden

This article explores how social media becomes a part of integrated marketing communications of festival organizations. The purpose of this article is to conceptualize the cocreation of festival experiences online by comparing managerial strategies and communicative patterns of three large Scandinavian music festivals: Storsjöyran, Way Out West (Sweden), and Roskilde Festival (Denmark). The theoretical point of departure is taken in the literature on consumer–producer cocreation, originating from recent conceptualizations of the service-dominant logic and a tribal perspective on consumption. Based on the empirical findings, we propose an analytical framework to improve our understanding of the management of social media communications, offering three distinct value cocreation strategies in a festival context.

Key words: Festivals; Social media; Cocreation; Tribal marketing; Communities

Address correspondence to Szilvia Gyimóthy, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Tourism Research Unit, Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Campus Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, B3, Copenhagen, Denmark. Tel: (+45) 99402354; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 349–363
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874805
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Major Sports Events: The Challenge of Budgeting for the Venues

Harry Arne Solberg* and Holger Preuss

*Trondheim Business School, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway
†Institute of Sport Science, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany

This research investigates the challenges of budgeting for the venues constructed for major sports events. It presents empirical data from three events, two of which experienced massive cost overruns. The venues used at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa and the 2011 FIS World Skiing Championship in Oslo, Norway, became 15.5 times and 17.5 times more expensive than the initial budgets, respectively. The 2012 FIS World Ski-Flying Championship, which was hosted in Vikersund, Norway, differed from them in that its final costs exceeded the initial budget by (only) 7.5%. One major reason for the cost overruns was the emphasis on other aims than constructing sports venues, after the award was made. Secondly, many of those who presented these aims operated as free riders who did not participate in funding the venues. Thirdly, the many volunteers involved in constructing the venue in Vikersund, which also included planning and preparations, significantly reduced the costs.

Key words: Major sports events; Cost overruns; Venues; Volunteers

Address correspondence to Harry Arne Solberg, Professor, Handelshøyskolen i Trondheim (Trondheim Business School), Høgskolen i Sør-Trøndelag (Sør-Trøndelag University College), Klæbuveien 72, 7004 Trondheim, Norway. Tel: +4773559972 or +4797531880; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 365–380
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874841
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Coopetition and Knowledge Transfer Dynamics: New Zealand’s Regional Tourism Organizations and the 2011 Rugby World Cup

Kim Werner,* Geoff Dickson,† and Kenneth F. Hyde‡

*School of Hospitality and Tourism, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
†School of Sport and Recreation, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
‡Business School, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand

To ensure the success of Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2011 in New Zealand, regional tourism organizations (RTOs) were expected to collaborate with each other as part of developing a nationwide approach to the event, while simultaneously competing for visitor nights and spending. Simultaneous cooperation and competition is referred to as coopetition. Relatively little is known about the impact of coopetition on knowledge transfer dynamics. The study analyzes how coopetition among the RTOs affected knowledge transfer dynamics between RTOs in the RWC 2011 context. The study utilized an exploratory, qualitative case study approach. Twenty-five semistructured interviews with CEOs and senior managers from RTOs were conducted both preevent and postevent. A formal survey and a documentation review triangulated the findings. The results indicate that a continuum of competition and collaboration (i.e., coopetition) was present in the RTO network for RWC 2011, which restricted the flow of potentially useful knowledge and information. The set up of RWC 2011—especially the regional bidding process to host teams and matches—played an essential role and impeded interregional collaboration and knowledge transfer while simultaneously facilitating competition among the RTOs. The study concludes that coopetition can hinder the sharing and transfer of knowledge in a destination marketing and mega-events context. The study thus addresses the call for research in this field and enhances understanding of how to better leverage mega-events in the future.

Key words: Coopetition; Knowledge transfer dynamics; Mega-events; Regional tourism organizations (RTOs); Destination marketing

Address correspondence to Prof. Kim Werner, Ph.D., at her current address: Hochschule Osnabrück, Faculty of Business Management and Social Sciences, University of Applied Sciences, PO Box 1940, 49009 Osnabrück, Germany. Tel: +49 541 969 7268; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 381–390
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874887
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Branded Marketing Events: A Proposed “Experiential Needs-Based” Conceptual Framework

Teagan Altschwager,* Steve Goodman,† Jodie Conduit,† and Cullen Habel

*ACRS, Department of Marketing, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
†School of Marketing and Management, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

Marketers and event organizers have long viewed sponsorship as a way to fund events and garner public attention for brands. Recent years has seen brands employ event techniques in their own right, with specific intent of more directly influencing the consumer’s attitude toward the brand. We propose a conceptual framework for how those events affect consumers across the range of “typical” consumers that attend events. This is done through proposing a typology of experiential involvement that demonstrates the likely impact an event will have on a consumer; events are categorized as educational or entertainment. Combining the typology with event types we propose a hierarchy of effectiveness for researchers and practitioners to consider and further research.

Key words: Branded event; Event marketing; Experiential needs

Address correspondence to Teagan Altschwager, Ph.D., Research Consultant, ACRS, Monash Business School, Monash University, Caulfield Building S6, Room 04, Victoria, Australia 3145. Tel: +61 3 9903 1123; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 391–406
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874922
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Alignment Between Information and Communication Technology Strategy and Business Strategy of Professional Conference Organizers

Ce Mo,* Nina Mistilis,* and Giacomo Del Chiappa

*School of Marketing, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia
†Department of Economics and Business, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy

This study examines factors affecting alignment between information and communication technologies (ICTs) strategy and business strategy in professional conference organizers (PCOs). Adopting the resource-based view (RBV), contingency theory, and value discipline theory, a conceptual model is proposed and empirically tested using online survey data. The results indicated that while most PCOs successfully aligned ICTs with business strategies of operational excellence and customer intimacy, very few achieved a tight alignment for product leadership business strategy, found to be the only strategic alignment component significantly impacting on firm performance. Finally, theoretical and practical implications for PCOs’ ICTs application are discussed.

Key words: Strategic alignment; Events industry; Business process; Value discipline theory

Address correspondence to Nina Mistilis, School of Marketing, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, 1029 High Street, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Tel: +612 9385 2639; Fax: +612 9663 1985; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 407–419
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220874968
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Food Events in Lifestyle and Travel

Donald Getz,* Tommy Andersson,† Sanja Vujicic,‡ and Richard N. S. Robinson§

*Professor Emeritus, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
†The University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
‡Experience Consulting, Gothenburg, Sweden
§UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

A large-scale survey of food lovers revealed the critical importance of planned events in their lifestyles and travel. Details provided in this article include participation frequencies for various food-related events, segmentation based on food-event attendance, and the differences between segments in terms of preferences for enjoyment events versus learning events. The small segment most likely to travel for food experiences, called dynamic foodies, prefers specialist learning events. The much larger segment, called active foodies, prefers enjoyment events, suggesting that higher levels of involvement translate into demand for more specialized benefits. Conclusions are drawn for food events and their marketing, and for destination development and marketing to food tourists. Research needs are identified.

Key words: “Foodies”; Food events; Food tourism; Lifestyle; Segmentation

Address correspondence to Donald Getz. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 421–428
1525-9951/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14386220875002
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Uses and Abuses of Economic Impact Studies in Tourism

Semoon Chang,* Hwa-Kyung Kim,† and Katarina Petrovcikova

*Gulf Coast Center for Impact Studies®, Mobile, AL, USA
†Hotel Management, Jeju International University, Jeju City, Korea
‡KORA TRADE Ltd., Kosice, Slovakia

Economic impact studies are used widely either to secure financial support for an event or to promote an organization or an event. The very nature of impact studies tends to lead to an overestimation of the impact. Discussed in this article are such issues as: types of economic impact, ticketed events versus open-gate events, short-term events such as festivals versus long-term attractions such as parks and museums, offsetting impact within the jurisdiction, treatment of nonwage expenditures, appropriate use of multipliers, especially in short-term or one-time events, and daily expenditures per visitor based on survey of visitors to two festivals in Alabama and Mississippi. The main conclusion is that public sector subsidy to short-term events should be based more on their role in enhancing the area’s quality of life than on their estimated economic impact.

Key words: Economic impact; Overestimation of impact; Use of multipliers in short-term events; Daily visitor expenditures

Address correspondence to Semoon Chang, Director of the Gulf Coast Center for Impact Studies®, 1100 Carolina Court, Mobile, AL 36695, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it