Tourism Analysis 20(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 355–367
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080325
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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On the Way to Sustainable (Well-Being) Tourism Destination? The Case of Savonlinna Town in Finland

Anja Tuohino and Antti Honkanen

Center for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Savonlinna, Finland

The purpose of the study is to test if the model of a sustainable wellness destination developed by Sheldon and Park, adapted from Ritchie and Crouch, could be used while defining the Savonlinna town in Eastern Finland in the context of well-being/wellness tourism. The data for this article are based on interviews conducted in the region during 2009 and 2010. There was much discussion on Savonlinna’s assets for well-being tourism. The overall finding is that the status of Savonlinna as a sustainable well-being tourism destination was more in the minds of the interviewees than on a tangible, practical level. The well-being segment was still seen to be limited and fragmentary.

Key words: Sustainability; Well-being; Destination; Savonlinna; Finland

Address correspondence to Anja Tuohino, Center for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 86 Kuninkaankartanonkatu 7, Savonlinna 57101, Finland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 369–380
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080361
E-ISSN 1943-3999

Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Exploring Aesthetic Dimensions in Nature-Based Tourist Experiences

Monica A. Breiby

Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway

There are few empirical studies linking nature-based tourist experiences to the increasing focus on the concept of aesthetics in the tourism literature to date. Although tourism scholars have studied aesthetic notions with regard to landscape preferences in the past two decades, the literature on the concept of aesthetics as it relates to human-made environments in nature-based tourism is limited. For example, accommodation, food, and signs may all be central features in a nature-based holiday, and thereby influence the tourists’ experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to gain knowledge of the influence of central aesthetic dimensions on tourists’ experiences in a nature-based setting. Specifically, it extends the previous research by including the human-made environment situated within nature together with the natural environment itself. The empirical context is a specific tourist route in Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with travelers holidaying along the route to explore the kinds of aesthetic dimensions and forces that shape aesthetic judgments in such a context. The findings revealed five aesthetic dimensions: (1) “harmony,” (2) “scenery/viewing,” (3) “cleanliness,” (4) “genuineness,” and (5) “variation/contrast.” Based on the results, the study suggests that future tourism research should include aesthetic dimensions for both the human-made and the natural environment, to better understand tourists’ overall “experiencescape” at nature-based destinations. It also emphasizes the importance for managers of focusing on the role of aesthetic dimensions in tourists’ satisfaction. It is especially important to understand how to manage aesthetic dimensions in such a way that they both add customer value and can be a source of competitive advantage for service businesses at nature-based tourist destinations.

Key words: Aesthetic dimensions; Nature-based tourism; Experiences; Human-made environments

Address correspondence to Monica A. Breiby at her current address: Faculty of Economics and Organisation Science, Lillehammer University College, Box 952, 2604 Lillehammer, Norway. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 381–397
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080406
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Association of Quality, Risk, Sacrifice, Satisfaction, and Loyalty at the Destination Level: A Structural Model

Md Enayet Hossain,* Mohammed Quaddus,† and Tekle Shanka

*Department of Marketing, University of RajshahiRajshahi, Bangladesh
†School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

The main purpose of this study was to explore empirically the association of quality, risk, sacrifice, satisfaction, and loyalty. Initially a conceptual model was proposed cultivating literature and then contextualized via field study. The analysis was done based on 602 samples collected from Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, using a Likert scale. The Partial Least Square-based Structure Equation Modeling approach was used for data analysis. The outcome presented a strong association among the constructs. This study demonstrates an important contribution to the body of knowledge in the area of tourism destinations’ management and marketing, and suggests important implications to both practitioners and academics.

Key words: Quality; Risk; Satisfaction; Sacrifice; Loyalty

Address correspondence to Dr. Mohammed Quaddus, Research Professor, School of Marketing, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia. Tel: +61892662862; Fax: +61892663937; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 399–412
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080488
E-ISSN 1943-3999

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2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The University Student Travel Market: Motivations and Preferences for Activities

Huan Xiao,*1 Kevin Kam Fung So,†1 and Ying Wang*1

*Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
†School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, Center of Economic Excellence in Tourism and Economic Development, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Despite the significance of the student travel market, this segment’s heterogeneity in motivation and behavior remains relatively unexplored. This article presents a comparative analysis of domestic and international university students’ travel motivations and activity preferences. Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling, questionnaire data from 307 students showed that students were most likely to seek opportunities for learning and relaxation. Further, the student market lacks homogeneity in terms of travel motivation and preference for activities, and motivational factors are significantly associated with activity preference. The study provides empirical support for the motivation–behavior link in preferences for activities, and offers insights into students’ travel motivation and needs, enabling more effective product design and marketing for this important segment. Differences between domestic and international students suggest a need for differentiated strategies for the two groups of travelers.

Key words: University students; Motivation; Tourist activity; Australia

1Authors contributed equally to this article.
Address correspondence to Kevin Kam Fung So, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, Center of Economic Excellence in Tourism and Economic Development, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 413–418
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080523
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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International Tourism and Economic Growth in New Zealand

Mohammad Jaforullah

Department of Economics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

This article examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests, and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972–2012 on real international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP), and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to real international tourism expenditure is estimated to be 0.4, meaning that a 1% growth in tourism will result in a 0.4% growth of the New Zealand economy. This finding implies that the New Zealand Government’s policy to promote New Zealand as a preferred tourism destination in the key international tourism markets may boost economic growth.

Key words: Tourism; Economic growth; Cointegration; Vector error correction model (VECM); New Zealand (NZ)

Address correspondence to Mohammad Jaforullah, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: +64 3 479 8731; Fax: +64 3 479 8174; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 419–424
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080569
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Research Note

Opportunities and Issues in the Health Tourism Industry: Deep Sea Water Development in Taiwan

Kuan-Huei Lee* and Timothy J. Lee†

*Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore
†Department of Tourism & Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan

The deep sea water (DSW) industry has a great commercial potential for the global health tourism market. This study aims to investigate the successful relationships between stakeholders with a focus on the role of the government. Two surveys were conducted on the east coast of Taiwan to discover if the local governments were willing to give any assistance of the development of the DSW industry. The results of the study revealed that the first priority was the installation of a thalasso spa in Hualien, eastern Taiwan. Taiwan Government must consider that the opening of three similar facilities close together will need careful planning and study of the market size. The study suggests establishing a government-owned DSW Research & Development Park andthalasso spa near the three private sectors to balance the fierce competition among the three private companies.

Key words: Deep sea water (DSW); Health tourism; Local government; Taiwan

Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Ph.D., Professor in Department of Tourism & Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 425–431
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080604
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
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Research Note

Implications of Cultural Differences for Expatriate Managers in the Global Hotel Industry

Timothy J. Lee

Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, Japan

The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of expatriate managers as an emerging phenomenon in the context of the international hotel industry. Expatriate managers face significant challenges due to cultural differences when operating and managing hotels in foreign countries. The article explains culture and cultural values, and analyzes the implications for expatriate managers with respect to the three basic dimensions of cultural values: individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. Recommendations are provided, drawn from the perspectives of expatriate managers themselves and international hotel corporations. The article also provides insights into the implications of cultural differences for expatriate hotel managers and how they can adjust to the different working environment.

Key words: Expatriate manager; Cultural difference; Globalization; Hotel industry

Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 433–439
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080640
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Business Tourism Development on the Basis of Public–Private Partnership

Vladimyr Yermachenko,* Nadiya Dekhtyar,* and Oleksandr Dorokhov

*Department of Tourism, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Kharkiv, Ukraine
†Department of Economics, Kharkiv National University of Economics, Kharkiv, Ukraine

The indicators of business tourism reflect the background of a national economy support, the openness of business environment in general. The article discusses the relevant problems of tourism in Ukraine in accordance with the global trends in the world services market. The research covers statistical observations, contradictions, and challenges in the formation of a model of recreational planning and, using the prominent experience of tourism-leading countries in the national strategies, highlights advantages and disadvantages of construction of large-scale convention centers as elements of business tourism. Tourist flows for Ukraine are estimated as rather unstable, which substantiates the necessity of monitoring of the national tourism market. The creation of an integrated warehouse for tourism data is needed, either for governmental institutions, local administrations, or private companies, which could receive updated information on the state of the market. Public–private partnership in this will enable access to extra funds in order to use IT technologies in tourism warehouse maintenance, while the private participants will enrich their market research. The ability to evaluate foreign economic operations in trade in services is intended to solve the break in information support of tourism development in Ukraine.

Key words: Business tourism; Concept of tourism development; State database

Address correspondence to Oleksandr Dorokhov, Department of Economics, Kharkiv National University of Economics, InfomaicsKharkiv, Ukraine. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 443–454
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
14400815080686
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Review

The Ties That Bind: Exploring the Relevance of Neotribal Theory to Tourism

Anne Hardy* and Brady Robards†

*Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia
†School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia

In tourism studies/tourism management, traditional approaches to the segmentation of tourists have tended to focus upon the tangible aspects of why people travel, such as visitors’ motivations, demographic characteristics, and values and behavior exhibited at specific destinations. This review article from Hardy and Robards takes a critical approach to challenge the governing assumption involved here, that marketing studies of “tourism” should routinely or necessarily focus on the individual and thus upon class-based characteristics such as income to define tourists. Rather, the authors argue that tourists may be fruitfully segmented by commonalities of intangible aspects, such as “a shared sense of sentiment,” “tourist ritual,” “collective bonding,” and “belonging.” Hardy and Robards thereby suggest that neotribal approaches indeed offer rich opportunities to do this by empowering the exploration of tourists’ symbolic and behavioral characteristics. This review article consonantly proposes that by returning toMaffesoli’s work, researchers in the twin fields of tourism studies/tourism management may make substantial critical contributions to unfolding understandings of and about “consumer tribes.” Hence, Hardy and Robards suggest that subtribes exist within broader neotribes and that that sort of “membership” may not in fact be as fluid as many investigators have previously suggested. (Abstract by Reviews Editor)

Key words: Recreational vehicle users; Consumption; MaffesoliNeotribes; Subtribes; Critical theory

Address correspondence to Anne Hardy, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 16, Sandy Bay, 7000, Tasmania, Australia. Tel: +61 3 6226 7687; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it