Tourism in Marine Environments 11(1) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 1–17
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718358
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Surfing in the United Kingdom

Bryan Mills* and Andy Cummins†

*Faculty of Business, Enterprise and IT, Cornwall College, Cornwall, UK
†Surfers Against Sewage, St Agnes, Cornwall, UK

The academic community’s interest in surf tourism continues to grow with important contributions being made to our understanding of culture, economic behavior, and impact at specific sites. However, there was little understood about the impact surfers and surf tourism have on the overall economy of the UK. Given the estimated 500,000 surfers in the UK in 2007 by the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and given unique access to a comprehensive database of UK surfers it has been possible to go some way toward correcting this data shortage. By analyzing 2,159 questionnaire responses, and after taking account of economic multipliers, a total contribution to the UK economy by domestic surfers of 4.95 billion with an average direct spend of 2,980 per year on surfing-related expenditure may be estimated making surfing an important contributor to UK tourism and the UK economy.

Key words: Surf tourism; Multiplier; Economic impact; Coastal tourism; Marine tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Bryan Mills, Faculty of Business, Enterprise and IT, Opie, Cornwall College, RedruthCornwall, TR15 3RD, UK. Tel: 01209 617582, ext: 3582; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 19–32
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718394
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Whale-Watching Activity in Bahía Málaga, on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, and its Effect on Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Behavior

Isabel Cristina Avila,* Lina Marcela Correa,† and E. C. M. Parsons‡

*Department of Biometry and Environmental System Analysis, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

During the whale-watching season of 2008, 6,663 whale watchers and 267 boat trips were recorded in Bahia Malaga, Colombia. Forty-four percent of humpback whale pods sighted in the area were approached by boats. Operators in 2008 did not comply with Colombian whale-watching guidelines during most encounters. The modal distance between whales and boats was 50 m. Ninety-four percent of boats approached too fast (> 3 knots), and 78.6% of them approached mother–calf pods. On average, a pod of whales was observed for 42.6 minutes (SD 33.1), and by more than one boat in 60.2% of cases. As a consequence of boats’ presence, whales modified their behavior by reducing blows per minute, moved faster and more erratically, increased breaching frequency, and decreased resting behavior.

Key words:
Megaptera novaeangliae; Whale watchers; Boats; Behavior; Breeding area; Uramba-Bahia Malaga; Colombia

Address correspondence to Isabel Cristina Avila, Department of Biometry and Environmental System Analysis, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Room 03.063, Tennenbacher Straße 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. Tel: +49 761 203-8667; Fax: +49 761 203-3751; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 33–54
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718439
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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The Use of Data From a Platform of Opportunity (Whale Watching) to Study Coastal Cetaceans on the Southwest Coast of South Africa

Katja Vinding,*† Marthan Bester,* Stephen P. Kirkman,‡§ Wilfred Chivell,¶ and Simon H. Elwen*

*Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa
Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
‡Department of Environmental Affairs, Branch Oceans and Coasts, Cape Town, South Africa
§Animal Demography Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa
¶Dyer Island Cruises and Dyer Island Conservation Trust, Kleinbaai, Western Cape, South Africa

Effective conservation management requires information on wildlife abundance and distribution. Platforms of opportunity, including whale-watching vessels (WWV), can provide inexpensive and valuable information particularly in data deficient areas. This study analyzed over 5,500 cetacean encounters from more than 2,500 trips over 10 years by a WWV in the Western Cape, South Africa. Results were twofold: 1) providing spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the five main cetacean species for the area (southern right, humpback, and Bryde’s whales, Indo-Pacific bottlenose and Indian Ocean humpback dolphins) and the first long-term, year-round data for this area; 2) showing that regularly recorded opportunistic encounters from a WWV constitute an important source of baseline information. Caveats and limitations of data from WWV are discussed and advice regarding data collection from platforms of opportunity is provided. Particularly, the lack of effort data and of clearly defined behavioral categories is emphasized and standardization of guidelines for data collection methods worldwide is suggested.

Key words:
Balaenoptera brydei; Cow–calf pairs; Distribution; Ecotourism; Eubalaena australis, Guidelines; Human impacts; Megaptera novaeangliae; Monitoring cetaceans; Tursiops aduncus, Seasonality; Sousa plumbea

Address correspondence to Katja Vinding, Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 55–72
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718475
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Interpretation as a Vital Ingredient of Geotourism in Coastal Environments: The Geology of Sea Level Change, Rottnest Island, Western Australia

Jessica Rutherford, David Newsome, and Halina Kobryn

Environment and Conservation Science Group, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia

At a time of increasing global awareness of the exploitation of the Earth’s resources and the environmental impacts of human activity, this article stresses the importance of geological education. It highlights that in a tourism hot spot containing globally significant geological features and processes, it is essential to create educational interpretative themes that provide engaging scientific information to generate appreciation and awareness of climate change. Appropriate literature is reviewed, which includes a brief account of the geology of Rottnest Island. The review emphasizes the interpretive importance of carbonate geological features displaying evidence of sea level change events, exposures of Late Pleistocene aeolionite, and Holocene dune formations. Sea level change is regarded as an especially relevant geological theme for interpretative product development on the island. Such a theme provides the foundation for the interpretation of scientific data that can link the visitor to the significance of environmental change. The article concludes that educative geological themes, as presented via tourism, can provide a dialogue between the public, scientists, and the media about global climate change.

Key words: Geotourism; Coastal tourism; Interpretation; Sea level change

Address correspondence to David Newsome, Environment and Conservation Science Group, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 73–77
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718510
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Research Note

Whale Watching in Norway Caught Between More Traditional Hunting Canons and the Lucrative Promise of Seismic Airguns

Giovanna Bertella* and Heike Iris Vester†‡§

*School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
†Georg-August University of GöttingenGöttingen, Germany
‡Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, Germany
§Faculty of Aquaculture and Biosciences, University of NordlandBodø, Norway

This research note concerns the role of whale-watching tourism providers in the debate over protection of the marine environment. The case reported is about northern Norwegian whale-watching organizations. Based on the analysis of local newspapers and on the direct experience of one member of our research team, this research note concludes that the whale-watching companies, and more in general the wildlife tourism companies, engage only marginally in the debate. This can be explained referring to the companies’ limited availability of resources and experience in the field, and to the existence of different perspectives relative to the way humans can use and impact the marine environment and its inhabitants.

Key words: Whale watching; Environmental protection; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Giovanna Bertella, School of Business and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 79–86
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427315X
14398263718556
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Review

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2013–2014

Carol Scarpaci* and E. C. M. Parsons†

*College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
†Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published between June 2013 and May 2014.

Key words: Whale watching; Code-of-conduct; Regulations; Management; Swim-with-dolphin/whale tourism; Whale watchers; Illegal feeding; Whale ecotourism

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it