Tourism Review International 19(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 105-122
1544-2721/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453553
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Differences Between Educational and Escapist Experience Stagers: A Multiperspective Approach

Shengnan Zhao,* Gyan P. Nyaupane,† and Kathleen Andereck

*Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA
†School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

Experience stagers facilitate augmentation of travel experiences among tourists. Regarding tourist attractions as experience stagers, this article adopts a multiperspective approach to understand whether cultural attractions with ideographic and organizational disparities are different. First, Pine and Gilmore’s experience framework was applied to classify two major types of cultural attractions, heritage sites and cultural events, as educational and escapist experience stagers. A series of comparisons of these two experience stagers was then conducted with respect to visitor perceptions, sociodemographics, and travel patterns. The results suggest that while these experience stagers were similar in some aspects, such as facilitating visitors’ attainment of cultural benefits and attracting participants who shared some sociodemographics and travel pattern characteristics, they were significantly different in pulling visitors to attractions, promoting social benefits, and attracting visitors who were heterogeneous in othersociodemographics and travel patterns. Several managerial and theoretical implications of the study are discussed.

Key words: Cultural tourism; Experience economy; Perceptions; Sociodemographic characteristics; Travel patterns

Address correspondence to Shengnan Zhao, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., ET-101, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA. Tel: 562-985-8728; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 123-132
1544-2721/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453599
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Selling Spirituality: Issues in Tourism

Kate Bone

Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

This article seeks to address the somewhat contentious issue regarding the marketing and selling of spirituality as a highly sought-after commodity in the West at present. Findings of ethnographic case study research conducted at two spiritual retreat tourism sites in New Zealand are presented. Spirituality will be framed though the conceptualizations and definitions provided by tourist and tourist host participants. The perceptions of people engaged in spiritual retreat tourism will be discussed alongside issues surrounding the commoditization and commodification of spirituality. The critical analysis provided in this article has led the researcher to conclude that it may be a condition of modern capitalist society that people feel comfortable and are willing to pay for spiritual experiences. The case studies presented may be considered best practice examples of when spirituality is commodified in an ethical way according to the consumers involved.

Key words: Spirituality; Marketing; Commodification; Wellness tourism; Tourism

Address correspondence to Kate Bone, Monash Injury Research Institute, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 133-145
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453634
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Participant Perceptions of a Sport Event, Destination Competitiveness, and Intended Future Behavior: The Case of the Thunder Road Marathon in North Carolina

Kakyom Kim* and Giri Jogaratnam

*The School of Hospitality, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA
†Hotel and Restaurant Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USA

The current study analyzes responses from 1,393 runners who participated in a marathon event to assess how both their perceptions of the sport event and destination competitiveness are linked with satisfaction and intended future behavior. Analysis found that the perception of the sport event and two of the destination competitiveness factors (parking/traffic and hospitality) appeared to be significantly linked with satisfaction. Satisfaction in turn appeared to be strongly linked with intended future behavior. Based on the findings, several implications for sports event organizers and destination marketers are discussed.

Key words: Sport events; Destination competitiveness; Satisfaction; Future behavior

Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor, The School of Hospitality, Johnson & Wales University, 801 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA. Tel: (980) 598-1528; Fax: (980) 598-1520; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 147-161
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453670
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Gender Differences in Vacation Behavior

May Kristin Vespestad* and Mehmet Mehmetoglu

*Harstad University College, Harstad, Norway
†Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

This study directs attention to the gender aspects of the vacation. In tourism, gender differences are evident in that male and female consumption differ in various phases of a vacation. This study intends to shed light on gender intricacies as it relates to nature-based vacations. Based on a quantitative survey, the vacation experience is measured in the dimensions of tourism motivation, evaluation of attributes, and activity involvement. A survey questionnaire was handed out among tourists in northern Norway, resulting in a sample size of 867 respondents. The study findings show a clear disparity between genders in the dimensions measured. Women placed higher importance on vacation motivations relating to mental relaxation, escape, physical activity. andlearning about places and cultures. Women also value the tourism company attributes of price, products, and hygiene higher than men do. In terms of destination attributes, women value restaurant options, price level at destination, and climate higher than men do. The results also reveal that women are more prone to participate in activities that are culturally oriented, as well as hiking, and men take more interest in fishing and boating. The study thus raises awareness of how gender dissimilarities in tourism consumption might contribute to the knowledge of how women and men differ in their preferences when being on vacation.

Key words: Gender; Destination attributes; Company attributes; Motivation; Activities

Address correspondence to Mehmet Mehmetoglu, Professor, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway. Tel: (+47) 73 59 74 97; Fax: (+47) 73 59 53 10; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 163-174
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453715
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Rapid Growth and Density of Liquor Licenses in a Heritage Tourism Destination: Charleston’s Emerging “Entertainment District”

Stephen W. Litvin, Ellison B. Wofford, and Wayne W. Smith

Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

The research that follows addresses issues related to the nighttime economy and the rapid proliferation of bars along a section of a tourism-oriented city’s main street. A decade ago, locals did not frequent this area, it was of no interest to tourists, and the neighborhood was regarded as a place where one would not want to walk, especially at night. However, with the area’s recent and rapid transformation to the nightlife center of the city, new issues have arisen that are of concern to city government officials. This article considers, via a qualitative approach, the effects the burgeoning nighttime economy has had, and may have, on residents, other businesses, and the community as a whole.

Key words: Nighttime establishments; Entertainment zone; Community development; Mixed-use neighborhoods; Quality of life; Tourism management

Address correspondence to Stephen W. Litvin, Professor, Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business, College of Charleston, 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29464, USA. Tel: 843-953-7317; Fax: 843-953-5697; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 175-178
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14430967453751
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

The Discriminant Effect of Perceived Value on Travel Intention: Visitors Versus Nonvisitors of Florida Keys

Chun-Chu Chen* and James F. Petrick†

*Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This research attempts to examine the relationships between perceived value and travel intention while comparing the differences between previous visitors and nonvisitors of the Florida Keys. Results from a sample of 565 respondents revealed that perceived value had a positive association with travel intention, while high perceived value did not always lead to high travel intention. As shown in this research, many previous visitors did not want to visit the Florida Keys in the foreseeable future because they wanted to visit other destinations. This article concludes with recommendations for the tourism industry to maintain the perceived novelty of their products.

Key words: Perceived value; Travel intention; Novelty; Past travel experience; Florida Keys

Address correspondence to Chun-Chu Chen, Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA. Tel: 208-885-7921; Fax: 208-885-5929; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it