Tourism Review International 19(4) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 179-191
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14456408880957
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism, Aesthetics, and Touristic Judgment

Daniel C. Knudsen,* Michelle M. Metro-Roland,† and Jillian M. Rickly

*Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
Haenicke Institute for Global Education, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA
‡Nottingham University Business School, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

This article explores the role of aesthetics in the tourist experience. Because tourism involves the interpretation of signs within a landscape and landscape imagery is an important way in which places are delineated, aesthetic modes—the beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque—are important foundations for the making of meaning when touring. However, aesthetics does more than bring order and meaning to what we see while touring by providing paradigms of visuality. These same paradigms also serve to naturalize ideology through the subjective judgments involved in tourism, a process we term “touristic judgment.”

Key words: Landscape; Semiotics; Aesthetics; Ideology; Touristic judgment

Address correspondence to Daniel C. Knudsen, Department of Geography, Indiana University, 120 Student Building, 701 East Kirkwood Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Tel: (812) 855-6303; Fax: (812) 855-1661; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 193-205
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14456408880993
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Aesthetic Awareness and Spectacle: Communicated Images of Novi Sad (Serbia), the Exit Festival, and the Petrovaradin Fortress

Nicholas Wise* and Ivo Mulec

*Leisure and Recreation Management, Asia University, Taichung City, Taiwan
†TIMS Faculty of Sport and Tourism, Educons University, Novi Sad, Serbia

More research and discussion is needed to understand how destination image and awareness links to aesthetic portrayals. Representations of image, awareness, and aesthetics are embedded in textual content, and the narratives portrayed offer valuable meaning that is open to interpretation. Newspaper articles and websites play a crucial role in creating and presenting new images of places to international audiences. While image is certain, what is often overlooked in textual sources are discussions addressing the importance of aesthetics, which also link to destination image and awareness. The city of Novi Sad, Serbia represents a unique case given the location of the city’s popular music event, the Exit Festival, which attracts youths from across the former Yugoslavia, Europe and the world and has contributed to a new image of Serbia. Moreover, the event’s unique setting, held in the Petrovaradin Fortress on the banks of the Danube River overlooking Novi Sad, is described in relation to historical/cultural ambiance, and aesthetic attributes. Sources analyzed stressed the beauty of Novi Sad and the festival venue, but mere notions of spectacle could not be ignored. Discussions of image, awareness, and aesthetic dimensions presented in newspaper content and websites are analyzed in this article to understand how the festival textual content challenges us to re-create place meanings of Serbia.

Key words: Aesthetics; Image; Awareness; Spectacle; Novi Sad, Serbia; Exit Festival

Address correspondence to Nicholas Wise, Leisure and Recreation Management, Asia University, No. 500, Liufeng Rd, Wufeng District, Taichung City, Taiwan 413. Tel: +886 4 2332 3456; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 207-223
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14456408881037
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Reflections on Judgment: An Analysis of Tourists’ Contributions to Guest Books

Emily Moskwa

School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia

This article analyses 17 years of entries in tourist guest books to gain detailed insight into perceptions of experience. The study site is an Outback region of South Australia admired for a number of contrasting aesthetic qualities. The words and phrases offer more than standard comments to hosts; they represent emotional outpourings and reflections that double as public displays of touristic experience and judgment. The judgments made on place and experience reveal an appreciation of an immersion in a natural environment aesthetic, distinct from the built environment. The research explores the benefits tourists gain through contact with nature as it reflects on a social construction of the natural world. The article also suggests how, in engaging in the process of reading other tourists’ entries and individually writing one’s own entry for an expected audience of hosts and future tourists, the tourists themselves become part of a larger discourse about place and the meaning of the nature-based experience at that place. The method provides a flexible tool for investigation to complement other research methods used in studies of the tourist experience and provides for an analysis of the tourists’ environmental awareness and engagement. The implications for tourism marketing and management are discussed.

Key words: Guest books; Tourist reflections; Tourist experiences; Contact with nature

Address correspondence to Emily Moskwa, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001. Tel: (08) 8302 1863; Fax: (08) 8302 5082; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 225-233
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14456408881073
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Nature of Aesthetics: How Consumer Culture Has Changed Our National Parks

Stephen L. Wearing,* Matthew Mcdonald,† Jo Ankor,‡ and Stephen Schweinsberg*

*University of Technology Sydney, Lindfield, Australia
†RMIT University, Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
‡Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia

Tourism is essentially a modern Western social and cultural phenomenon, the analysis of which has evolved from premodernism through to postmodernism. Tourism differs significantly from non-Western and historical forms of travel, being closely related to the emergence of modernity with the emphasis on economic viability and consumer culture. The massive growth of tourism over the 20th century and the emergence of a multibillion dollar global tourist industry have impacted on national parks as tourists increasingly seek nature-based experiences. This has occurred in conjunction with increases in leisure time, disposable income, technological improvements in communication and transportation, demographic changes, and a shift in the axis of personal identity and meaningful social action from production to consumption. This article examines how aesthetics fits into this evolution and the current role of national parks with a focus on the emergence of their production through the mass media to a consumer market. Finally, we propose more reflexivity in regards to tourism and place image production.

Key words: Aesthetics; Consumer culture; Landscape; National parks; Mass media

Address correspondence to Stephen L. Wearing, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 1, Lindfield, 2070 NSW, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 19, pp. 235-241
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427215X14456408881118
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Tourism by Design: Signature Architecture and Tourism

Greg B. C. Shaw

Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism Administration, California State University, Sacramento, Sacramento, CA, USA

Iconic signature architecture is contradictory to the regional aesthetic in the urban landscape, purposely deviating from the local aesthetic, while at the same time giving a unique visual identifier, thus enhancing the sense of place. The best examples are major tourism attractions and are immediately recognized throughout the world. This research note explores the very visual architecture tourism, “architourism” phenomenon of the early 2000s, and why it may again become relevant. This exploratory study used an online survey to investigate architecture tourists, their types, motivations, and information sourcing. The respondent architecture tourists exist along a continuum from core to accidental, and were primarily driven by building aesthetics. An interest may be provided for future study into the phenomenon of architourism by using this research as a foundation.

Key words: Architourism; Core; Peripheral; Incidental; Accidental; Aesthetics

Address correspondence to Greg B. C. Shaw, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism Administration, California State University, Sacramento, 6000 J Street; 4000B Solano Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA. Tel: 916-278-2936; Fax: 916-278-5053; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it