Tourism Analysis 20(6) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 577–591
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877797
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Validating a Structural Model of Destination Image, Satisfaction, and Loyalty Across Gender and Age: Multigroup Analysis With PLS-SEM

Guy Assaker,*† Rob Hallak,† A. George Assaf,‡ and Tony Assad*

*Lebanese American University (LAU), Beirut, Lebanon
†University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
‡University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA

This study validates an interesting model of destination image (DI), tourist satisfaction, and loyalty across gender and age. We confirm that DI predicts satisfaction and has a significant direct and indirect effect on loyalty. After examining the validated structural model across different groups of respondents based on gender, age, and the gender by age interaction, we found that the model constructs differ across some of the groups. Specifically, young males from the sample were less likely to develop destination loyalty despite having a strong destination image of Australia and reportedly being satisfied with their trip experience. The findings present important implications concerning the predictors of destination loyalty across market segments with different demographics.

Key words: Structural equation modeling (SEM); Moderating effect; Age; Gender; Destination image (DI); Destination loyalty

Address correspondence to A. George Assaf, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Tel: +1-413-545-1492; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 593–605
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877832
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Competitiveness: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Macau, and Singapore

Louise Todd,* Anna Leask,* and Alan Fyall†

*The Tourism Group, Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
†Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

This article presents a comparative study of the destination competitiveness of Hong Kong, Singapore, and Macau and those strategies developed to enhance their future positions in the global destination “marketplace.” The methodology adopted is secondary in nature in that a critical review of the existing literature was conducted along with a synthesis of current practices across the three city-state destinations. The 15 Cs Framework provides the research parameters for the study in that it advocates an inclusive approach to those challenges and opportunities facing destinations as they seek to enhance their overall competitiveness. In particular, the study explores the specific approaches of the three destinations in terms of their similarity to thematically grouped clusters of the 15 Cs. The article closes by highlighting particular opportunities and challenges and potential management approaches that could be adopted within the destinations for the future.

Key words: Hong Kong; Singapore; Macau; Visitor attractions; Destination manage

Address correspondence to Anna Leask, The Tourism Group, Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, 219 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH9 1UQ, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 607–618
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877878
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Short-Term Volunteering and International Development: An Evaluation Framework for Volunteer Tourism

Daniel Gilfillan

Fenner School of Environment & Society, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

The purpose of this article is to promote debate about the linkages between volunteer tourism and international development, and to argue that volunteer tourism should be assessed as a development activity. Most volunteer tourism activities involve participants from developed countries traveling to volunteer in developing nations, with volunteers largely motivated by the desire to make a positive contribution to their hosts. Volunteer tourism has strong linkages to sustainable tourism, which originated in response to criticisms of mass tourism, including concerns over the negative impacts on hosting communities. In this article I propose a framework to evaluate the potential contributions of volunteer tourism projects to developmental goals. The proposed framework includes four criteria: that volunteers provide skills unavailable locally; that projects form part of a larger development program; that projects prioritize benefit to the host community; and that projects are community driven.

Key words: Volunteer tourism; Development; Evaluation; Local ownership; Community driven; Skills transfer

Address correspondence to Daniel Gilfillan, Fenner School of Environment & Society, Australian National University, Building 141, Linnaeus Way, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 619–629
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877913
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Impact of Group Package Tour Dimensions on Customer Satisfaction (an ANNs Application)

Luiz Moutinho,* Meltem Caber,† Maria Manuela Santos Silva,‡ and Tahir Albayrak†

*Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland
†Faculty of Tourism, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
‡Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

This study examines the main dimensions of a traditional group package tour and their impacts on customer satisfaction by using artificial neural networks approach. Data obtained from the Russian tourists visiting Antalya, Turkey are analyzed for testing the neural network model. Five nodes at the input layer of the neural network model were: Airline (AL), Transfer (TRF), Hotel Guide (HG), Info (INF), and Hotel (H), which offered three hidden neurons related to single output layer of customer satisfaction (SAT). The optimal fit between inputs and output was achieved with a feedforward network with a single hidden layer of three neurons. The three hidden neurons: “Over Promises and Under Delivered,” “Home from Home,” and “Tourism-Built Environment,” were also examined by their influence on the SAT of two customer segments, who are named as the “positivists” and “negativists.”

Key words: Group package tour; Dimension; Satisfaction; Artificial neural networks

Address correspondence to Tahir Albayrak, Associate Professor, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Tourism, Campus, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90.242.2274550; Fax: +90.242.2274670; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 631–643
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877959
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Christian Spirituality and Tourist Motivations

Young-Sook Lee,* Nina Katrine Prebebsen,† and Joseph Chen‡

*Department of Tourism and Northern Studies, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Alta, Norway
†Tromsø University Business School, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
‡School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

This study contributes by highlighting an underlying link between Christian spirituality of nature and tourists’ motivation towards nature-based destinations. Positioning Norway as a nature-based destination within British, French, and Swedish markets, examinations are performed representing three Christian spiritual dimensions of travel: a) getting away from everyday life; b) search for tranquility; c) getting close to nature. A correspondence analysis reveals that a clear division exists between Western European group and Northern European group. These two groups demonstrate high and low motivational factors to visit Norway, and focus on various dimensions of nature. Although there is a clear division, all of the three Christian spiritual dimensions in travel are equally prominent in both high and low motivations. This confirms that spiritual dimensions in travel matters, especially when it comes to motivate people to travel to nature-based destinations. Results provide implications to tourism researchers and the tourism industry in planning and marketing for nature-based destinations.

Key words: Christianity; Motivations; Norway; Nature-based destination

Address correspondence to Young-Sook Lee, Department of Tourism and Northern Studies, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, UiT Campus Alta, Alta C 213, Follumsvei 31, Alta, Norway. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 645–651
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845877995
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Religious Tourism and Economic Growth in Oil-Rich Countries: Evidence From Saudi Arabia

Ahmed Alodadi and James Benhin

Graduate School of Management, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK

Key studies have identified the need to diversify the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia economy beyond its heavily oil-based status if it is to attain long-term sustainable growth. Tourism, in particular religious tourism, has been recognized as one key non-tradable sector that could promote this growth. This article applies a time-series approach to examine the impact of the tourism industry on the economic prosperity of the Kingdom between 1970 and 2011. The results show that tourism only plays a minor role in improving economic growth when the economy as a whole is taken into consideration. However, when isolating the non-oil sectors, the impact of tourism could be seen to have a greater influence on economic growth. Tourism is therefore potentially important for any future diversification of the economy from oil.

Key words: Cointegration; Economic growth; Religious tourism; Saudi Arabia

Address correspondence to Ahmed Alodadi, Graduate School of Management, Plymouth University, PL4 8AA, Plymouth, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 653–664
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878039
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Construction and Evaluation of a Performance Model of the Tourism Industry

Min Wei

Management School, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China

In order to analyze the total performance and quality performance of tourism industry, panel data model with fixed effects and quantile regression method were applied to systematically study both the direct and indirect influencing factors from low level to high level under conditional distribution. This article selected China as an example, and the results demonstrated that the improvement of China’s tourism industry performance mainly relied on the gradual release from lower elements to higher elements, and that the overall economy strength could be enhanced by increasing capital investment of tourism industry. In addition, the quality construction could be further strengthened with the help of human resources and market system construction; opening level and service level of the economic structure should be paid close attention for more excellent performance.

Key words: Performance model; Economic structure; Direct and indirect influencing factors; China

Address correspondence to Min Wei, School of Management, Xiamen University, No. 422 South Siming Road, Xiamen 361005, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 665–676
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878075
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Planning for the Economic Impacts of Tourism in Ireland: A Local Authority Perspective

James Hanrahan* and Emmet McLoughlin†

*Tourism Program Chair, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Sport, School of Business and Social Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo, Ireland
†Department of Marketing, Tourism and Sport, School of Business and Social Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo, Ireland

In this study, the authors investigate the level of local authority economic planning in Ireland. Every Irish local authority county development plan (CDP) was investigated, utilizing a content analysis approach to differentiate the levels of sustainable economic planning for tourism in 2014. Analysis has found that some local authorities seem to acknowledge tourism’s potential for economic development and are developing plans based on this. In spite of this, further analysis reveals a lack of strong effective policies, strategies, economic indicators, and guidelines to sustainably manage the economic impacts of tourism. The findings from this article suggest that local authorities in Ireland still have a lot of work to do if they are to proactively plan to mitigate tourism’s negative economic impacts and maximize the positive potential for all tourism stakeholders within the county parameters.

Key words: Sustainable tourism planning; Tourism indicators; Economic impacts; Local authorities; Ireland

Address correspondence to Emmet McLoughlin, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Sport, School of Business and Social Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo, Ash Ln, Sligo, F91 YW50, Ireland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 677–687
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878110
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Assessment of Competitiveness: The Case of Three Alpine Winter Sports Destinations

Kirstin Hallmann,* Sabine Mueller,† and Mike Peters‡

*Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management, University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
†Institute of Outdoor Sports an Environmental Science, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
‡Department of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism/SME & Tourism School of Management, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

A number of scientific contributions have attempted to measure destination competitiveness with the help of destination performance indicators either categorized as supply-side or demand-side measures. There is a lack of empirical studies that assess performance evaluation of both supply and demand side. Therefore, based on the theoretical discussion of destination competitiveness models, a selection of demand- and supply-side relevant indicators were developed and operationalized. The article aims at measuring destination competitiveness both perceived by tourists but also by stakeholders within three winter sports destinations. A logistic regression analysis for the quality standard of the tourism product as the dependent variable was carried out. The quality of accommodation, hotel staff, and information management, but also destination policy and planning indicators significantly influence the perception of the quality standard of the tourism product. This article concludes with recommendations for destination marketing.

Key words: Destination; Competition; Quality; Performance

Address correspondence to Mike Peters, Department of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism/SME & Tourism School of Management, University of Innsbruck, Karl-Rahner-Platz 3, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Tel: +435125079560; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 689–696
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878156
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Exploring the Determinants of e-Commerce by Integrating a Technology–Organization–Environment Framework and an Expectation–Confirmation Model

Sung Mi Song,* Eojina Kim,† Rebecca (Liang) Tang,† and Robert Bosselman†

*Department of Hospitality & Culinary Art, Hyundai Art Institute for Vocational Education, Incheon, South Korea
†Department of Apparel, Events, and Hospitality Management, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

An increasing number of lodging businesses utilize online third-party intermediaries (OTPIs) for distribution services on the internet. The purpose of the study was to investigate the decision-making processes of lodging firms in the adoption of OTPIs. The study developed and tested a conceptual model by strategically combining a technology–organization–environment framework (TOE) and an expectation–confirmation model (ECM). The results showed that, with regard to TOE, technology and organization have significant impacts on confirmation in ECM. Furthermore, the environment aspect of TOE significantly influences satisfaction in ECM, and both confirmation and satisfaction are antecedents of continuance intention. The study contributes to the knowledge body of TOE and ECM, and provides industry practitioners with strategies for the communications and decision-making processes of lodging businesses and OTPIs.

Key words: Online third-party intermediaries (OTPIs); Lodging; E-commerce; Technology–organization–environment (TOE) framework; Expectation–confirmation model (ECM)

Address correspondence to Eojina Kim, Department of Apparel, Events, and Hospitality Management, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 697–702
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878192
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Application of Game Theory in Tourism

Xuan Tran* and Carla Thompson†

*Department of Hospitality, Recreation, & Resort Management, College of Education and Professional Studies, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USA
†Department of Research and Advanced Studies, College of Education and Professional Studies, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USA

Although tourism development in Northeast Asia is growing increasingly competitive, there has been limited research focused on applying game theory to analyze the competition between tourist country destinations. Game theory involves the study of conflict and cooperation applied whenever the actions of the involved agents are interdependent. This study utilized game theory to examine characteristics between China and Japan relative to tourism in Northeast Asia destinations. The game theory components were analyzed for Japan, China, and Northeast Asia to create a benchmark for future tourism policy. Findings indicate: (1) the best responses for China and Japan to boost their economies by engaging in tourism development, (2) Japan has a dominant strategy but China does not in their tourism competition, and (3) both China and Japan include the Nash equilibrium strategy when they engage in tourism development.

Key words: Tourism; Best response; Nash equilibrium; Dominant strategy

Address correspondence to Xuan Tran, Associate Professor, Department of Hospitality, Recreation, & Resort Management, College of Education and Professional Studies, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514, USA. Tel: 850-474-2599; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 20, pp. 705–717
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X14464845878237
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Prospects and Challenges in the Study of New Age Tourism: A Critical Commentary

Tomas Pernecky* and Jill Poulston*†

*School of Hospitality and Tourism, Faculty of Culture and Society, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
†New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

The New Age phenomenon is a marginal unknown in tourism studies, despite its inclusion under the broader umbrella of religious tourism, and various attempts to conceptualize it as a form of New Age tourism. It offers an opportunity for researchers in the field to study a large part of a society that is neither separate from, nor necessarily included in, categories of religion. In this review article, Pernecky and Poulston challenge typical tourism approaches to segmenting markets into discrete groups, and work with the premise that if approached through an understanding of social, cultural, political, and spiritual contexts, New Age is a fertile capping term for a phenomenon that shapes the global mind change, shifting values, understandings, and behaviors in the world. To address broader concerns, the authors provide both a critical review of existing definitions and conceptualizations of the New Age phenomenon and an historical foundation for both the phenomenon and the term. Pernecky and Poulston also highlight potential pitfalls in the study of the New Age concept, and present a complex set of challenges for tourism researchers, students, and practitioners who may be tempted by etic framings of the subject. In that light, the authors emphasize the need for emicapproaches, that is, those which painstakingly and demonstrably acknowledge the perspectives, viewpoints, and experiences of the actors involved, which they argue are more richly suited for understanding “New Agers.” Importantly, the review article presents the New Age movement and concept not only as a singular “special interest group,” but as a context of noteworthy conceptual value, as touristic objects, places, and experiences indeed play a vital role in the constitution of meaning and interpretation—that is, in the worldmaking processes of our time. (Abstract by Reviews Editor)

Key words: Commodification; New Age; Emics; Etics; Globalization; Mobilities; Diaspora; Worldmaking

Address correspondence to Tomas Pernecky, School of Hospitality and Tourism, Faculty of Culture and Society, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it