Event Management 19(4) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 445–459
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512524
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Life After a Festival: Local Leadership and the Lasting Legacy of Festivals

Amanda Davies

School of Built Environment, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

This article considers how local leadership capacities can be developed through locally organized festivals and argues that this skill development can be an important legacy of festivals. It draws on the case study of SnowFest, a festival held annually from 2000 to 2003 in a small rural town in New South Wales, Australia. It is argued that festivals provide a useful setting for the development of local leadership capacities. Through reviewing the events leading up to and following SnowFest it was found that seven followers learned new leadership skills through their involvement in SnowFest. Four of these followers had since moved into leadership roles in the community. The particular nature of the leadership of the SnowFest leaders was important in enabling followers to develop their own leadership skills. The article contributes to the growing body of scholarly work that argues the impacts and benefits of locally organized festivals can extend beyond the spatial and temporal limits of the festival event and therefore beyond the scope of typical evaluation tools. The findings of this study are particularly relevant to small rural communities that are negotiating major socioeconomic changes, where effective local leadership has been identified as being crucial to the success of bottom-up community adaptation initiatives.

Key words: Transactional leadership; Transformational leadership; Legacy; Local leadership; Rural festivals; Rural development

Address correspondence to Amanda Davies, School of Built Environment, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia. Tel: +61 8 9266 7641; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .au


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 433–444
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512560
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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The Role of Festivals in Drought-Affected Australian Communities

Chris Gibson* and John Connell†

*Australian Centre for Cultural Environmental Research (AUSCCER), School of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW, Australia
†School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Event management research increasingly recognizes place embeddedness as critical to success. Less well understood is the significance of the festivals and events sector in places suffering from environmental crises. A major empirical survey of 480 festivals in rural Australia, conducted in 2008 at the height of the Millennium Drought, elucidates the role and significance of festivals under conditions of extreme environmental stress. It centers on a qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions on the impacts of that drought. Over 70% of participating festival and event managers indicated that their community had suffered from drought, while 43% cited drought as adversely affecting the organization and management of their event. Impacts varied geographically and by event type (with inland agricultural shows especially hard hit). Nearly half of event managers also explained how their festival played a constructive role in helping their community cope with drought. Festivals stimulated much-needed economic activity and encouraged “creative frugality” in difficult times. Festivals also fulfilled an important civic emotional and psychological role in lifting community spirits and bringing communities together in otherwise adverse circumstances. Biophysical extremity is thus both a constrainer and a catalyst for the festivals and events sector in trying social circumstances.

Key words: Festivals; Events; Disaster; Adaptation; Resilience; Emotional work; Rural communities

Address correspondence to Chris Gibson, Australian Centre for Cultural Environmental Research (AUSCCER), School of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong NSW 2522, Australia. Tel: +61 4221 4261; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 461–477
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512605
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Are all my Volunteers Here to Help out? Clustering Event Volunteers by Their Motivations

Leonie Lockstone-Binney,* Kirsten Holmes,† Karen Smith,‡ Tom Baum,§ and Christine Storer

*William Angliss Institute, Melbourne, Australia
†School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
‡School of Management, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
§Department of Human Resource Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland
¶Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

Posed as a question that an event organizer might contemplate in terms of how best to attract and retain event volunteers, this study adds to the event volunteering literature by cluster analyzing volunteers sampled at four sports events using items from the Special Event Volunteer Motivation Scale (SEVMS). The 28 items were first subjected to Exploratory Factor Analysis resulting in four factors (Solidary, Purposive, External Traditions/Commitments, and Spare Time), followed by a two-step clustering procedure and a series of post hoc tests to describe and validate the clusters. As a result of this procedure, three distinct clusters were formed: the Altruists, Socials, and Indifferents. The Altruists and Socials were primarily driven by two distinct internal factors, which respectively represented the Purposive and Solidary factors. The Indifferents appeared to be pushed into volunteering by external forces, rather than intrinsic motivations. Validation revealed that the Indifferents were significantly less satisfied with their volunteer experience than the other two clusters and were also less likely to volunteer in the future. Across the four events sampled, there were distinct patterns of cluster representation, with one event in particular substantially overrepresented by the more negatively inclined Indifferents. The management and research implications of these findings are discussed.

Key words: Volunteers; Motivation; Cluster analysis; Sports events

Address correspondence to Leonie Lockstone-Binney, Ph.D., Associate Professor, William Angliss Institute, 555 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, Australia 3000. Tel: +61 3 9606 2159; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 479–493
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512641
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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“All Shook up” at the Parkes Elvis Festival: The Role of Play in Events

Paul T. Jonson, Jennie Small, Carmel Foley, and Katie Schlenker

Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway NSW, Australia

Leisure in the postmodern environment is often regarded as superficial, depthless, and meaningless, dominated by simulation and hyperreality. Many aspects of the Parkes Elvis Festival fall clearly into the category of simulation and hyperreality as attendees imitate Elvis Presley (and other associated characters) and are willing to accept the fake and contrived as real. However, the simulation does not, in the case of the Parkes Elvis Festival, lead to a depthless, meaningless, or inauthentic experience. Using Huizinga’s ideas of play and Bateson’s play frame we present the Elvis Festival as a liminal social space that invites playfulness and creativity. The theory of Georg Simmel is explored to show how sociability is created at the event to facilitate play. Finally,Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow is used to demonstrate ways in which the enjoyment of the playful event experience is maximized for participants. We argue that play provides the substance that makes the Parkes Elvis Festival memorable and meaningful. An understanding of play theory may assist event managers to increase social facilitation at festivals and events, ensuring an enjoyable, sociable, creative, and authentic experience for attendees.

Key words: Postmodernity; Play; Play frame; Sociability; Flow; Event management

Address correspondence to Paul T. Jonson, Business School, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia. Tel: +61 2 9514 5494; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 495–507
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512687
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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On Positive Psychology of Events

Sebastian Filep,*† Ivana Volic,‡ and Insun Sunny Lee§

*Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
†Honorary Fellow, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
‡Department of Tourism, Faculty of Sport and Tourism, Educons University, Novi Sad, Serbia
§School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

Although contributions from the disciplines of sociology and anthropology have shaped the foundations of event studies as an academic field of inquiry, contributions from the discipline of psychology have played a minor role in the development of events scholarship. There is an opportunity for a further development of psychology of events as part of the discipline-based discourse in the event studies field. In this conceptual article, an overview of positive psychology, a study of what makes life worth living, is first presented and the field is critically evaluated. A research agenda, based on positive psychology theories and approaches, is then presented to the events reader. It is argued that the theories and approaches from this field could enhance understandings of how people anticipate events, enjoy events, and how they acquire psychological rewards and benefits from event experiences. New directions for research about visitor motivations, humor, and cocreation of events as well as visitor well-being are proposed in the article. The role and the value of appreciative inquiry, a strength-based methodological approach, to inform future event planning and design is also discussed. It is argued that the contributions from positive psychology could help develop psychology of events scholarship in a meaningful and theoretically informed manner.

Key words: Positive psychology; Well-being; Event experiences; Event planning and design

Address correspondence to Dr. Sebastian Filep, Senior Lecturer, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Tel: + 64 3 479 5403; Fax: + 64 3 479 9034; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 509–524
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512722
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Commemorative Events and National Identity: Commemorating Death and Disaster in Australia

Elspeth Frew* and Leanne White†

*Department of Management and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia
†Marketing, College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Commemorative events are held to remember all types of occasions including disastrous and tragic incidents. Due to the passage of time, the commemoration and collective memory of the event may change its significance and relevance due to changes in the associated social, political, and cultural landscape. This article examines the commemorative events associated with three tragic incidents that occurred on Australian soil, namely, the 175th anniversary of the Myall Creek massacre held in 2013, the 70th anniversary of the Second World War bombing of Darwin held in 2012, and the 10th anniversary of the Port Arthur massacre held in 2006. National identity and commemorative events are strongly connected and the article examines these particular anniversaries and commemorative events in the context of Australian national identity, collective memory, and how the significance of these commemorations may change from generation to generation. The article finds each of the commemorative events have altered in their significance and are now remembered in a different light, with the Myall Creek massacre reflecting aspects of Aboriginal reconciliation; the bombing of Darwin reflecting Australia’s role on the world’s political stage; and the Port Arthur massacre highlighting Australia’s strict gun laws.

Key words: Commemoration; Collective memory; Anniversary; Australian national identity

Address correspondence to Dr. Elspeth A. Frew, Associate Professor, Department of Management and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 2333; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 525–541
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512768
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Tourism Events and the Nature of Stakeholder Power

Fidella Tiew,* Kirsten Holmes,† and Nigel De Bussy

*Faculty of Business and Humanities, Curtin University, Sarawak, Malaysia
†School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia

This exploratory case study examines the power relations among the stakeholders of a tourism event in Borneo. It examines the sources of stakeholder power and the pattern of interdependence of various stakeholders, primarily based on interviews with event managers and stakeholders, as well as field visits. An analysis of the different types and amount of resource control, dependency, and network centrality resulted in four different categories of stakeholder power patterns—executive, asset based, referral, and diffuse stakeholders. The study also found that resource-based power was the primary source of power, whereas network-based power was a secondary and supplementary source. The case study revealed that the salience of event stakeholders based on their power was highly variable due to the different types of power that they had. This article contributes to the literature of event tourism, a typology of the event stakeholder powers in a predominately government-owned music festival, and offered practical suggestions to event management. It also advances the stakeholder power concept within event tourism studies.

Key words: Tourism event; Stakeholder power; Resource dependency; Network centrality; Stakeholder salience

Address correspondence to Fidella Tiew, Faculty of Business and Humanities, Curtin University, Sarawak Campus, 98009 Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 543–552
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512803
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Incentive Travel: A Theoretical Perspective

Judith Mair

UQ Business School, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia

Despite the economic importance of the meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions (MICE) industry, it remains relatively underresearched. The area of incentive travel is particularly lacking in academic research and remains without a strong theoretical foundation. Anecdotal evidence suggests that incentive travel is seen as an important and significant reward by organizations and their employees. However, while considerable research has examined how to motivate employees in the workplace, including the use of incentives, there has been little examination of why travel makes such as good incentive. In an effort to address this gap, this conceptual article integrates tourism motivation literature with the literature on employee motivation, with particular reference to expectancy theory. Expectancy theory suggests that the valence of a reward (its attractiveness) is a key component of motivating employees. Travel motivation theory helps to explain which particular aspects of travel make it an attractive reward. The article presents an introductory conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between incentive travel and employee motivations and acts as a foundation for future research in this area.

Key words: Incentive travel; MICE/business events; Travel motivation; Expectancy theory

Address correspondence to Dr. Judith Mair, UQ Business School, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Tel: +617 3346 7947; Fax: +617 3364 9408; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 553–566
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748512849
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Events in the Network Society: The Role of Pulsar and Iterative Events

Greg Richards

Academy for Leisure, NHTV Breda and Tilburg University, NHTV Breda, The Netherlands

This conceptual article argues for a broader view of the role of events in social systems. When analyzed as social phenomena, events can be seen as social actors that have the potential to both sustain and transform social systems. The maintenance of social systems is often reliant on iterative events, regularly occurring celebrations that tend to confirm social structures. In contrast, pulsar events have the potential to transform social structures. In this sense events can be seen as actors that have important influences on social systems, particularly in linking localized small world networks with the global space of flows. These ideas are explored through the case of Barcelona, which illustrates the interplay between these different types of events in their total portfolio, and how the extension of ritual in the sense of Collins can also contribute to the generation of new relationships and practices in the contemporary network society. Barcelona is examined as an eventful city in which the alternation of continuity through iterative events and change through pulsar events contributes to increasing the network effects of events.

Key words: Event effects; Event portfolio; Social practices; Pulsar events; Iterative events; Barcelona

Address correspondence to Greg Richards, Academy for Leisure, NHTV Breda and Tilburg University, NHTV Breda, P.O. Box 3917, 4800 DX Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: 0031657979314; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 19, pp. 567–587
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599515X
14465748774001
E-ISSN 1943-4308

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Technology, Society, and Visioning the Future of Music Festivals

Martin Robertson,*† Ian Yeoman,‡ Karen A. Smith,§ and Una McMahon-Beattie¶

*Event Management, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK
†Honorary Fellow, College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
‡Tourism Futures, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
§Tourism Management, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
¶Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Ulster, Belfast, UK

Many music festivals fail because the experiences offered do not ensure relevance and meaning to the attendee. Engagement with new and virtual landscapes and with the enhanced sensory feelings and imaginations that technologies can offer may alleviate this. Utilizing a futures frame, this conceptual article contributes to the pursuit of successful future event design by applying a normative visionary methodology—employing trend analysis, scenarios, and science fiction to create prototypes that may assist in the formation of appropriate experience options and opportunities for music festivals of the future. It is proposed that this technique may aid positive social outcomes.

Key words: Music festivals; Future studies; Scenarios; Play; Science fiction; Society

Address correspondence to Martin Robertson, Senior Academic, Event Management, Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1202 962241; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it