Tourism Culture & Communication 15(3) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 173–181
1098-304X/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034047
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Diversiform Character of Diasporas Today: Mapping and Monitoring the Polymorphous and/or the Protean

Keith Hollinshead

Department of Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK

This article is the first of a pair of manuscripts based on the assumption that different diaspora constitute various sorts of imagined communities that each comprise a dispersed association of ethnically and/or culturally and/or historically connected populations. These imagined but spread peoples appear (on the surface) to exhibit—to various degrees—unified cross-national identifications, and tend to have experienced similar and often “difficult” heritages of displacement, travel, and migration, and are inclined to reflect like psychic and political dynamics of memory and self-celebration. This first article is further predicated on the view, however, that the very concept of the imagined diasporic network (in tourism studies and related fields) generally gives rise to troubled ideas about enforced flight, reluctant scattering, and dislocated wandering, and therefore demands rich and deep levels of interpretive perspicacity if the resultant conflictual identities and the involved indeterminacies of being are to be effectively mapped and deeply registered. It recognizes that these hard to decipher contingencies of identification are nigh impossible to read in clear-cut absolute terms of nature or agreed inheritance, for each diaspora tends to be typified by and through idiosyncratic and hybridized cultural forms.

Key words: Interstitial groups; Restless populations; Third-space peoples; Enunciation; Multiple identities; Transgressive affiliations; Difficult psychological spaces; Negotiated selfhood

Address correspondence to Keith Hollinshead, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Luton LU2 8LE, Beds, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1582-489065; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 183–193
1098-304X/15 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034083
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Diasporas Disentangled: The Cultivation of an Open/Spiral Imagination in Tourism Studies

Milka Ivanova and Keith Hollinshead

Department of Marketing, Tourism and Hospitality, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire, UK

This companion article by Ivanova and Hollinshead seeks to show how “the changing same of the diasporic imaginal” (after Leroi Jones, via Gilroy) often conceivably constitutes “a wicked problem” (after Brown, Harris, and Russell) that is often so complex in its characteristics that hard and fast definitions about it (and solutions for its problematics) are not easy to conjure up. Thus, in order to monitor how ethnic, cultural, and historic codes are switched and hybridized in and through the inconstant identifications of diasporic senses of inheritance and aspiration, this article endeavors to show how transdisciplinary lines of inspection may prove useful. Taken in tandem with the previous article by Hollinshead, the two dovetailed articles thereby comprise no tributary celebration of the purity of ethnic or national culture, but one that indeed demands a high degree of open interpretive imagination if such matters of ambivalence and ambiguity are to be gradually and meaningfully deciphered.

Key words: Transdisciplinarity; Open transdisciplinarityPreformulated knowledge; Conjoint knowledge/coherent knowledge; Wicked problem; Ontological commitment; Imaginative inquiry; Critical tourism studies

Address correspondence to Dr. Milka Ivanova at her current address: Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS6 3QS, UK. Tel: +44(0) 113-8123599, ext. 23599; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 195–204
1098-304X/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034128
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Anchoring to Identity Through Exploring Another Land: The Iranian Diaspora in New Zealand

Mitra Etemaddar,* Hazel Tucker,† and Tara Duncan†

*Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
†Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Diasporas’ travel back to their original home country has often been regarded as one of the main strategies diasporas employ to maintain their cultural ties with home, as well as to (re)connect with their identity. Questions remain, however, as to how these cultural and emotional needs are met by diaspora populations who, for many reasons, either temporarily or permanently, are not able to travel back to their original homeland. Based on a qualitative study of a multiday domestic trip undertaken by a group of Iranian diaspora living in Dunedin, New Zealand, this article illustrates how an Iranian community in New Zealand (re)connects with their identity and culture through domestic tourism within their country of settlement. The study shows how this group utilizes their sense of being together through the cultural milieu within a trip that allows for a process of becoming in a new place. This article therefore offers alternative ways to understand identity maintenance for those in diaspora and, in so doing, challenges current dominant understandings of “diaspora tourism,” which tend to limit ideas of identity within diaspora to certain forms of travel back to countries of origin.

Key words: Iranian diaspora; New Zealand domestic tourism; Identity; Home; Diaspora tourism

Address correspondence to Mitra Etemaddar, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand 9054. Tel: +64 3 479 4873; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 205–214
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034164
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Expressions of Diasporic Identity: Travel and Food as Signifiers of Polish Identity

Joanna (Asia) Alder

Senior Lecturer in Leisure Industries, University of WolverhamptonWolverhampton, West Midlands, UK

This article investigates the role of travel and food as signifiers of a diasporic identity among three post-World War II generations of Polish diaspora in Derby, UK. Food is an important feature of Polish culture. Together with religion and language, Polish food takes a central role in the first generations’ lives. However, involvement with aspects of Polish culture diminishes significantly with every generation. Food is the strongest and often only surviving expression of Polish identity in the second and third generations. As such, for some people food is not only a way to practice and feel their Polish heritage, but also a source of ethnic belonging, identity, and pride. In addition, the knowledge of Polish language is often limited to food-associated names. Cooking and buying Polish food holds meanings and brings memories of earlier family times. Diaspora travel or return to homeland is often used as an opportunity to engage with food, source food, and build and reaffirm Polish identity. Based on in-depth interviews with three generations of Polish people, this article considers the meaning of food in identity creation and retention. It takes into account the fluid and changing nature of identity. It considers food as an element and a building block in the creation of personal, social, and national identity of three generations of Poles.

Key words: Polish diaspora; Culture; Food; Identity; Diaspora travel

Address correspondence to Dr. Joanna (Asia) Alder, Senior Lecturer in Leisure Industries, University of WolverhamptonWolverhampton, West Midlands WV1 1LY, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 215–226
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034209
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Whose Diwali Is It? Diaspora, Identity, and Festivalization

Alison Booth

Department of Tourism and Events, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

This article interrogates how the government engagement in economic and political management decisions may affect the cultural representation and cultural identity of minority or diasporic cultures. Set in Auckland, New Zealand, the results demonstrate how festival producer relationships and diaspora community involvement transform under the influence of festivalization. Auckland’s “Major Civic Event,” Diwali: Festival of Lights is the largest festivity representing New Zealand’s Indian diaspora. More recently, and especially in diasporic settings, Diwali has been referred to as a “festival” and a public celebration for Hindus and non-Hindus alike. The case study, central to this research, traces factors (1998 to 2013) that have transformed the production of Diwali, one of India’s most important cultural festivals, from a community celebration to a cultural tourism destination. The findings in this research demonstrate how diaspora communities react when executive management decisions seek to align events with larger tourism and economic development strategies central to festivalization.

Key words: Indian diaspora; Festivalization; Festival; Diwali; Community festivities

Address correspondence to Alison Booth, Department of Tourism and Events, School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Tel: + 64 9 921 9999, ext. 6550; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 227–236
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034245
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Standing Stones, Festival, and the Celtic Diaspora

Jo Mackellar and Ros Derrett

Destination Research, East Ballina, Australia

Ancestral homelands continue to influence the identities and tourism behaviors of populations living in a diaspora. Festivals create a time and space to reflect on the collective myths where aspects of emotional memory can find creative expression through communal celebration with others. This article explores the influence of Celtic diaspora in reimagining rituals, symbols, and ceremonies to create new multisensory experiences, and further how these can be incorporated into the process of designing and delivering festival experiences. The experiences of audiences and event stakeholders at the Australian Celtic Festival in Glen Innes, Australia offer a case study that examines the emergence of a flourishing annual festival with Celtic heritage at its core. The research uses a mixed-method approach of stakeholder interviews and participant surveys to examine various perspectives of the event, from which the emergence of five key themes demonstrate how and why festivals can be manipulated to include a rich reappraisal of new spaces and places while maintaining selected elements of identity and homelands. Further, findings show that the festival activities facilitate the links between the communication of culture within tourism spaces.

Key words: Festival; Celtic diaspora; Identity; Heritage; Ritual

Address correspondence to Jo Mackellar, Manager, Destination Research, PO Box 7077, East Ballina 2478, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 15, pp. 237–247
1098-304X/15 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830415X
14483038034281
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2015 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Identity, Adjustment, and Transnational Activity Patterns of Fourth-Wave Ukrainian Diaspora in The United States

Svitlana Iarmolenko* and Deborah Kerstetter

*School of Human Ecology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA

Traditional models of acculturation have been challenged by emergence of transnational diasporas: immigrant groups maintaining simultaneous connections to home and host nations. Because the nature of transnational activity is highly idiosyncratic, a careful look at each group is needed. In this study the authors posit that “What this country needs is more Ukrainians” through the investigation of diasporic identity, adjustment issues, and propensity for transnational travel of the fourth-wave Ukrainian immigrants in the US—an important but overlooked group. Interviews with individuals in this group uncover an incredibly challenging context of adaptation marked not only by social demotion but also rejection by earlier waves; a conflicting nature of postmigrationidentity encompassing both a desire to stay “Ukrainian” and a perceived need to assimilate for the sake of economic success, and a problematic relationship with the modern homeland that affects the transnational activity, especially travel, within this group. In conclusion, the unique background and context of migration for this diaspora produces identities and transnational relations uncharacteristic for earlier waves or other ethnic groups, and thus their diaspora tourism patterns are heavily dependent on the situation (familial, economic, political) in the country of origin. This study contributes to developing our understanding of the relationships between contexts of migration, acculturation, identity, and travel behavior of diasporas, especially for recent waves within groups that have not received much academic attention.

Key words: Ukrainian diaspora; Identity; Adjustment; Acculturation; Transnational activity

Address correspondence to Svitlana Iarmolenko, School of Human Ecology, Georgia Southern University, PO Box 8034, 983 Forest Drive, Statesboro, GA 30460-8034, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it