Event Management 20(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 3–10
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14538326024874
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Comparative Analysis of Event Attendees’ Spending Behaviors, Satisfaction, and Information Search Patterns by Event Types at a Midwestern College Town

Wei Wang* and Shu T. Cole†

*Department of Economic Development, Tourism, and Sport Management, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

The purpose of this study is to compare differences on information search patterns, spending behaviors, and satisfaction levels among visitors attending three event types. The existing literature has by and large addressed visitor behaviors based on visitor characteristics. This study, however, takes an approach from the supply side and distinguishes visitor behaviors against three event types at the same destination. The study was conducted in a Midwestern college town where 536 usable surveys were collected through onsite interceptions. One-way ANOVA tests were employed to test the behavioral differences at three experience stages (preevents, during, and postevents). The ANOVA tests indicate that festival attendees relied heavily on past experiences and had the highest satisfaction level among all event attendees. Conference attendees tended to stay the longest and sporting event goers spent the most during the event. Implications and future directions of research are provided on this topic.

Key words: Spending behavior; Satisfaction; Information search behavior; Festival; Event

Address correspondence to Wei Wang, Assistant Professor, Department of Economic Development, Tourism, and Sport Management, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive #5022, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA. Tel: (601) 266 4653; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 11-25
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326024919
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Explaining Festival Impacts on a Hosting Community Through Motivations to Attend

Kyle M. Woosnam,* Jingxian Jiang,† Christine M. Van Winkle,‡Hyun Kim,§ and Naho Maruyama¶

*Natural Resources, Recreation, and Tourism, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
‡Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
§Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
¶Department of Regional Policy and Tourism Policy, Takasaki City University of Economics, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan

Extant literature on social–cultural impacts of festivals traditionally takes into consideration perspectives of the host community while neglecting those of visitors, who often times comprise a high percent of total number of attendees at such expositions. Additionally, motivations of these visitors to attend festivals have rarely been considered in explaining perceived impacts among festival attendees. This study examined the underlying structures of motivations to attend the annual Morden Corn and Apple Festival, Manitoba, Canada among area residents and visitors as well as their perceived sociocultural impacts of the festival on community through a newly developed festival-attending motivation scale and modified Festival Social Impact Attitude Scale (FSIAS). Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression results suggested that at least one motivation factor (i.e., social interaction and/or knowledge gain) significantly predicted three of the four modified FSIAS factors.

Key words: Festival Social Impact Attitude Scale (FSIAS); Multiple regression; Exploratory factor analysis (EFA); Social–cultural impacts; Morden Corn and Apple Festival; Manitoba, Canada

Address correspondence to Kyle M. Woosnam, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Natural Resources, Recreation, and Tourism, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, 180 East Green Street, Athens, GA 30602-2152, USA. Tel: (864)-653-0167; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 27-40
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326024955
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing Festival Attendees’ Behavioral Intentions Through Perceived Service Quality And Visitor Satisfaction

Sophie Hall,* Ade Oriade,† and Peter Robinson†

*Event and Venue Management Graduate, University of Wolverhampton, City Campus, Wolverhampton, UK
†Department of Marketing, Innovation, Leisure and Enterprise, University of Wolverhampton, City Campus, Wolverhampton, UK

This study examines the festival attributes with the most significant impact on attendee quality perception, and subsequently the relationship between quality, satisfaction, and the likelihood that attendees would revisit and recommend the festival to others. Data were collected via self-completed questionnaires at Worcester city with particular focus on Worcester festival, which is an annual community festival staged for 2 weeks in the summer. Perceptions of attendees were analyzed and the findings support the view that festival attributes determine perceived quality and that quality has effect on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. This study contributes towards the understanding of festival attendee service quality perception, satisfaction, and subsequent behavioral intentions. The research implications were discussed and recommendations for future research and industry managers were made.

Key words: Service quality; Behavioral intentions; Festivals; Quality attributes

Address correspondence to Peter Robinson, Principal Lecturer and Head of Department, Marketing, Innovation, Leisure and Enterprise, University of Wolverhampton Business School, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, City Campus North, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1AD, UK. Tel: 01902 323149; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 41-52
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326025035
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Role of Self-Concept Theory on Motivation, Satisfaction, and Intent to Return of Music Festival Volunteers

Jarrett R. Bachman,* William C. Norman,† Christopher D. Hopkins,‡ and Robert S. Brookover, IV†

*College of Business, California State University, Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA, USA
†Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
‡Department of Marketing, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

Volunteers play a critical role in the production of festivals and events in many ways, such as providing assistance to artists and vendors, direction for attendees, and grounds keeping. However, determining what motivates volunteers, how they become satisfied, and how likely they are to continue volunteering at an event has been overlooked. This is especially true in reference to the music festival industry, which has seen unparalleled growth in the last decade. In order to further understand music festival volunteers, the concept of self-image was examined at the 2013 Austin City Limits Music Festival to determine linkages between self-image congruency and motivation, satisfaction, and intent to return using structural equation modeling. This music festival is of specific interest to the development of understanding the role of self-image in festivals and events due to the scale and size of the festival as well as the festival’s requirement of being a local resident in order to volunteer. As such, the importance of understanding these local volunteers at a mega-event, which hosts 75,000 attendees per day over two 3-day weekends, is vital. This study found that self-image congruency has an impact on motivation, satisfaction, and intent to return and develops practical linkages and theoretical support for the consideration of self-image congruency when examining festival and event volunteers in a tourism context.

Key words: Mega-events; Music festivals; Self-concept theory; Austin City Limits; Volunteerism

Address correspondence to Jarrett R. Bachman, College of Business, California State University, Monterey Bay, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955, USA. Tel: (831) 582-5223; Fax: (831) 582-4379; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 53-68
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326025071
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Explore or Establish? Event Graduates’ Early Career Paths

Weng Si Lei (Clara)*† and Kim Ieng Loi (Connie)*

*Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao, China
†Institute for Tourism Studies, Taipa Campus, Taipa, Macao

This article investigates the career development trajectories of graduates from Event Management fields by linking to concepts of self-discovery theory and person–job fit (P–J fit). The research study uses key informant interviews for data collection to obtain insights, and conducts content analysis by using NVivo software. Results highlight three career development trajectories of graduates’ early years and the paramount role of a conducive working environment as a major determinant, which imposes strong influence on graduates’ early career development. Results also delineate the different roles of the two types of person–job fit. Challenges faced at the early career development stage are identified. Implications for educators, career counselors, and employers are addressed.

Key words: Graduates; Career development; Challenges

Address correspondence to Weng Si Lei (Clara), Assistant Professor, Institute for Tourism Studies, Taipa Campus, Estrada Coronel Nicolau de Mesquita No. 14, Edif. Cesar Fortune AC/V1-V3,Taipa, Macao, China. Tel: +853 8598 2122; Fax: +853 8598 2005; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 69-80
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326025116
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Do You “Do” Event Management Education (EME)? A Case Study of Event Management Higher Education Awards

W. Gerard Ryan

University of SalfordSalford, Greater Manchester, UK

This case study of Event Management Education (EME) was conducted at the beginning of 2014. It presents the preliminary findings obtained from a questionnaire completed by EME lecturers and will contribute to the progress and direction of future EME awards. There is an indication from these preliminary findings that while lecturers are confident of the quality of student they produce, they are aware difficulties exist in the teaching of EME. Also, while there is a desire from award leaders to modify EME awards, other influences from within the school may restrict these objectives. Alongside these findings, there is good evidence of subject knowledge and industry experience from those who teach these awards.

Key words: Event management; Education; Curriculum design; Professionalization; Pedagogy; Higher education

Address correspondence to W. Gerard Ryan, University of Salford, 213 Maxwell Building, The Crescent, Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT, UK. Tel: 0161 295 5379; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 81-97
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326025152
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating the Guimarães 2012 European Capital of Culture: National and International Tourists’ Behaviors and Perceptions

Laurentina Vareiro,* J. Freitas Santos,†‡ Paula Cristina Remoaldo,§ and J. Cadima Ribeiro‡

*Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, UNIAG, Barcelos, Portugal
†Accountancy and Administration Institute/CECEJ, Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal
‡NIPE, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
§Department of Geography, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

In 2012, Guimarães hosted the European Capital of Culture (ECOC). An evaluation of this event was needed because public, private, and community funds were involved. This analysis considers tourists as external and independent stakeholders who assessed the cultural activities developed during the event as well as the attributes of the city. The main objectives of the research conducted were to assess the visitors’ motivations during the hosting of the Guimarães ECOC 2012, their perceptions towards the city, and if national and international visitors kept different perceptions of it. For 2 months, in the summer of 2012, a survey was applied to 390 visitors. The results revealed that hosting the 2012 ECOC was a major contribution towards attracting new visitors to the city (though many of the visitors stayed only for a short period of time). Based on tourists’ perceptions, the tangible heritage was clearly detached from the set of attributes associated to Guimarães, whereas the intangible heritage was less noted. The Portuguese tourists seem to be more prone to value the tangible heritage than the foreign tourists. Overall, Guimarães received a very positive evaluation relating to the city’s image and, as stated by tourists, visiting it was declared to be highly recommended. Following the obtained empirical results, the need for changing the city’s promoted image emerges, which has been too centered on its tangible heritage. In doing so, it is believed that there will be longer overnight stays by visitors.

Key words: European Capital of Culture (ECOC); Image of destination; Mega-events; Tourists’ perceptions

Address correspondence to Laurentina Vareiro, Ph.D., Professor of Economics at the School of Management, Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Campus do IPCA, 4750-810 Barcelos, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 99-108
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326025198
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Elite Active Sport Tourists: Economic Impacts and Perceptions of Destination Image

Siu Yin Cheung,* Jennifer Y. Mak,† and Anthony W. Dixon‡

*Department of Physical Education, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
†School of Kinesiology, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA
‡School of Hospitality, Sport and Tourism Management, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA

Active sport tourism has been defined as travel away from the home environment to actively participate in sport. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on active sport tourists. Furthermore, researchers also identified a significant gap existed in the sport tourism literature regarding elite athletes. Although research focusing on hallmark sport events has been abundant, several researchers have identified a lack of research on small-scale sport events. Thus, the purpose of this research was to provide an analysis of elite active sport tourists’ expenditures and the resultant direct economic impact of these expenditures, as well as their perceptions of the host destination in a small-scale international sport event: East Asian Games. A total of 140 elite athletes from eight different countries and regions in East Asia participated in this study.

Key words: Active sport tourism; Elite athletes; Economic impact; Destination image

Address correspondence to Jennifer Y. Mak, Ph.D., M.B.A., Professor and Director of Sport Administration, School of Kinesiology, Marshall University, One Marshall Drive, GH104, Huntington, WV, USA. Tel: (304) 696-2927; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 109-115
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14538326024991
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Topic Trend of Event Management Research

Kwangsoo Park* and Seunghyun “Brian” Park†

*Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
†Department of Management, University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO, USA

In spite of increasing numbers of publications and newly established journals in event management, research topics and themes have not drawn much attention among event scholars. This research note reports on research trends in event management journals and makes suggestions for future research. A total of 463 research articles published in the four event management journals and 78 event management articles in the leading hospitality and tourism journals were collected. The results showed that topics for event studies have changed over time. Recent studies heavily focus on visitor experiences, investigating motivation, satisfaction, and behavioral intention, while past studies paid more attention to the economic impact of events or volunteer motivation.

Key words: Research topics; Event management; Content analysis

Address correspondence to Kwangsoo Park, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, 178(B) E. MorrowLebedeff Hall, Dept 2610, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. Tel: (701) 231-7355; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it