Tourism Analysis 21(2-3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 131–143
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Cosmic Strangers: Humans and Aliens on Space Travel Cartoons

Erik Cohen

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

This article expands Simmel’s classic concept of the “stranger” from humans to aliens as “cosmic strangers.” It deploys this concept to the study of cartoons depicting human–alien encounters on Earth and on other heavenly bodies. An analysis of a small database of such cartoons shows that their humorous point is primarily derived from an incongruity inherent in the mixture of familiarity and Otherness in the representation of the aliens. Four principal types of such mixture are distinguished, and the different saliency of familiarity as against Otherness in the representation of aliens on Earth and on other stars is pointed out. The article thus opens an avenue to the sociological study of space travel humor.

Key words: Cartoons; Aliens; Cosmic strangers; Space travel humor; Familiarity; Other

Address correspondence to Erik Cohen, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 145–157
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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Homogeneity, Trust, and Reciprocity: Three Keys to the Sustainable Hospitality Exchange of Couchsurfing

Yaping Liu,* Linlin Nie,† and Li Li*

*Department of Tourism Management, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China
†Shaanxi Institute of International Trade and Commerce, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China

Couchsurfing is an increasingly popular hospitality exchange community that is building bridges between travelers and locals. This article is an attempt to explore its critical success factors. On the basis of questionnaires and online statistics, Couchsurfers’ demographics, preferences, and relations are discussed by applying statistical, linear regression and text model methods. Results show that (a) Couchsurfers are a group of people with strong homogeneous features, (b) the effective evaluation system builds mutual trust, and (c) the hospitality is passed on in a circular manner rather than point-to-point. In conclusion, the homogeneity of Couchsurfers, the trust evaluation system, and the generalized reciprocity principle prove to be main contributors to Couchsurfing’s development.

Key words: Couchsurfing; Homogeneity; Trust; Reciprocity; Couchsurfer

Address correspondence to Yaping Liu, Department of Tourism Management, Business College, Guangxi University, No. 100 College Road, Postcode 530004, Nanning, Guangxi, Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 159–172
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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Community Stakeholders and the Perception of Tourism Downtowns: An Assessment of Brand Identity

Nathaniel D. Line,* Rodney C. Runyan,†‡ Jane L. Swinney,§ and Christopher Sneed¶

*Dedman School of Hospitality, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
†School of Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
‡Management School Marketing Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
§Design, Housing, and Merchandising, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
¶Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

The purpose of this article is to examine the brand identity of tourism-dependent downtowns as perceived by stakeholders in the community. From the theoretical perspective of the resource-based view of the firm, perceptions of local residents and downtown business owners are considered in terms of how each group perceives the downtown’s brand. Specifically, this research seeks to identify and better understand differences in how these two groups attribute elements of the downtown’s brand identity to overall downtown performance. Hypotheses are developed and tested using data collected from residents and downtown business owners in four tourism-dependent communities in the Midwestern US. The results suggest that whereas business owners attribute downtown success to both brand image and positioning, brand image alone affects residents’ perceptions of downtown performance.

Key words: Destination stakeholders; Downtowns; Brand identity; Resource-based view

Address correspondence to Nathaniel D. Line, Dedman School of Hospitality, Florida State University, B4113 University Center, 288 Champions Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 173–187
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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Tourism Destination Image (TDI) Perception Within a Regional Winescape Context

Johan Bruwer,* Michael J. Gross,† and Hong Chul Lee†

*School of Marketing, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
†School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

This study conceptualizes the perception of a tourism destination image (TDI) in the process integrating multiple theories such as servicescape, place-based, and destination perceptions. The research outlines the conceptualization of a wine TDI in the form of a regional winescape framework as perceived by visitors. The nature of the wine tourism product and experience requires that a research approach be developed that differs from the generic approaches used in mainstream TDI studies. A free form approach was used to integrate TDI perception, services marketing, servicescape, and place-based marketing theories. The winescape construct is identified within a framework of eight dimensions for a well-known Australian region. The most important winescapedimension is the natural beauty/geographical setting. The in-state and out-of-state origin dynamic affects visitors’ wine tourism behavior and perception of the region’s winescape. For in-state and out-of-state visitors, there are pronounced differences in their perception of the region’s winescape dimensions. Increasing distance from the destination region is pivotal in the perception of the winescape dimensions and thus the TDI.

Key words: Destination image; TDI; Winescape; Wine tourist; Region-of-origin; ROO; Branding; Australia

Address correspondence to Johan Bruwer, School of Marketing, University of South Australia, City West Campus, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 189–202
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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Examining Chinese Tourists’ Nature-Based Tourism Participation Behavior: Incorporating Environmental Concern Into a Constraint-Negotiation Model

Annie Chen* and Norman Peng†

*Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK
Salford Business School, University of SalfordSalford, UK

Finding the balance between economic development and preservation of the natural environment is a challenging yet important task. This is a particularly pressing issue in the case of China, because it is the largest and fastest growing market for tourism. The purpose of this research is to examine Chinese tourists’ participation in nature-based, tourism activities by incorporating tourists’ environmental concern—measured by a revised New Environmental Paradigm scale—into a tourism constraint-negotiation model. The responses of 409 Chinese tourists show that environmental concern will positively affect tourists’ motivation, which, in turn, will affect their negotiation strategy and ultimately their participation behavior. The theoretical and managerial implications of this study are discussed in the context of the tourism literature.

Key words: China; New Environmental Paradigm; Environmental concern; Nature-based tourism

Address correspondence to Norman Peng, Salford Business School, University of Salford, The Crescent, Salford, M5 4WT, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 203–220
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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Forecasting Tourism Demand With Google Trends for a Major European City Destination

Irem Onder and Ulrich Gunter

Department of Tourism and Service Management, MODUL University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether using Google Trends indices for web and image search improves tourism demand forecast accuracy relative to a purely autoregressive baseline model. To this end, Vienna—one of the top-10 European city destinations—is chosen as a case example for which the predictive power of Google Trends is evaluated at the total demand and at the source market levels. The effect of the search query language on predictability of arrivals is considered, and differences between seasonal and seasonally adjusted data are investigated. The results confirm that the forecast accuracy is improved when Google Trends data are included across source markets and forecast horizons for seasonal and seasonally adjusted data, leaning toward native language searches. This outperformance not only holds relative to purely autoregressive baseline specifications but also relative to time-series models such as Holt–Winters and naive benchmarks, in which the latter are significantly outperformed on a regular basis.

Key words: Tourism demand forecasting; City tourism; Monthly data; Google trends; Forecast accuracy

Address correspondence to Irem Onder, Department of Tourism and Service Management, MODUL University Vienna, Am Kahlenberg 1, A-1190 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 221–236
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Determinants of Destination Loyalty and the Mediating Role of Tourist Satisfaction

Chartaya Nilplub,* Do Ba Khang,† and Donyaprueth Krairit*

*School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand
†Faculty of Economics and Commerce, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Within the tourism literature, many researchers recognize destination loyalty to be critical for the sustainable development of tourist destinations during the mature stage of life cycle. This study features a structural model designed to identify the most important determinants of tourist loyalty, with a specific focus on the complex role of tourist satisfaction. Empirical results based on a representative sample of 483 international tourists in Thailand reveal that the satisfaction of tourists fully mediates the effects of push and pull motivations and perceived value for money on destination loyalty, and that it partially mediates the relationship between perceived service quality and destination loyalty. These findings suggest that the success of efforts by destination management organizations to attract return travelers pivots on building tourist satisfaction. Destination managers should also continuously improve and measure tourists’ perceptions of service quality at tourism destinations.

Key words: Destination loyalty; Tourist satisfaction; Push and pull motivations; Perceived value for money; Perceived service quality; Structural equation modeling

Address correspondence to Chartaya Nilplub, School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong LuangPathumthani 12120, Thailand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 237–249
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
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From Νudism and Νaturism Tourism to “Νatourism”: Defining Natourism and Exploring Natourists’ Motivations

Konstantinos Andriotis

Department of Marketing, Branding, and Tourism, Middlesex University Business School, London, UK

This article reviews previous attempts to define nudist and naturist tourism, and it elaborates detailed definitions through analyzing and discussing views of numerous natourist/nudist associations worldwide. Out of this process, the term “natourism” emerged, which includes the notion of “social nudity” as a main reason for traveling as well as a wide variety of ancillary stereotypical activities. As a term, “natourism” was tested after exploring the motivations of 1,508 natourists from all over the world. Although initially this study, through a literature review, identified three general motivation groups of natourism—namely, human motivations, motivations to travel, and nudism/naturism motivations—factor analysis made it possible to identify additional factors ofnatourists’ motivations, which included Naturalism and Relaxation, Sexuality, Stereotypical Travel Motivations, and Personal and Family Motivations. Despite the limitations of the study, findings confirm the appropriateness of the term “natourism” to establish parameters for further research.

Key words: Naturism tourism; Nudism tourism; Natourism; Social nudity; Natourists’ motivations; Behavior

Address correspondence to Konstantinos Andriotis, Department of Marketing, Branding, and Tourism, Room W215, Williams Building, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 251–266
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354215X
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The Factor Structure of Tourist Satisfaction in Forest Recreation Tourism: The Case of Taiwan

Cheng-Fei Lee

Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, Neimen Shiang, Taiwan

Previous studies have identified overall tourist satisfaction as a function of satisfaction with multiple destination attributes and examined the asymmetric relationship between attribute-level satisfaction and overall tourist satisfaction in a variety of tourism contexts. However, this issue has not been empirically tested in the context of forest recreation tourism. This study aims to fill this literature gap by examining the perceptions of Chinese tourists toward the determinants of tourist satisfaction in a specific context, the Alishan National Forest Recreation Area, Taiwan. Alishan is one of the attractions Chinese tourists consider a “must see” in Taiwan. However, there has been insufficient provision of tourism infrastructure to accommodate the steady influx of Chinese tourists. To achieve long-term sustainability, forest managers are requested to allocate their limited resources to those sector-specific attribute-level satisfaction factors that potentially enhance overall tourist satisfaction the most. According to the three-factor theory of tourist satisfaction, “information services” and “recreation facilities” were classified as basic factors, whereas “safety and emergency system” was considered as an excitement factor. It is concluded that the top priority of improvement should be paid to the existing provision of recreation facilities, because they are identified as a sector-specific basic factor with low satisfaction.

Key words: Forest recreation tourism; Three-factor theory of tourist satisfaction; Asymmetric influences; Chinese tourists; Taiwan

Address correspondence to Cheng-Fei Lee, Associate Professor, Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, No. 200, University Rd, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung Campus, Taiwan, 845, R.O.C. Tel: 886-076678888, ext 6126; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 267–277
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Research Note

A Tour Operator With a Global, Innovative Spirit: The Case of ApitourWorld

Elisa Giacosa,* Chiara Giachino,* Margherita Stupino,* and Alberto Mazzoleni

*Department of Management, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
†Department of Economics and Management, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy

In this study, our research goal is to identify the organizational and operational approaches that a tour operator could adopt with the purpose of offering clients a comprehensive tourist product, increasing its competitive advantage. The research was conducted using the qualitative case study method. We selected AlpitourWorld, a leader in generalist holidays in the Italian market. AlpitourWorld may be considered as a best practice in its sector: It is based on an integrated management of the various company processes, through a divisional organizational structure. Each stage of the product creation and commercialization is controlled internally: This improves the control of the product quality as well as the level of efficiency and effectiveness of the activity carried out.

Key words: Tourism sector; Tour operator; AlpitourWorld; Comprehensive tourist product

Address correspondence to Chiara Giachino, Department of Management, University of Turin, 218 BisUnione Sovietica Street, Turin, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 279–285
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Research Note

Understanding the Role of Social Influences in Festival Revisiting Intentions: Comparison Between First-Timers and Repeaters

Hyungsuk Choo* and James F. Petrick

*Department of Tourism, Leisure, and Event Planning, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This study examines and compares the role of social influence in festival revisit intentions between first-time and repeat visitors by adopting Kelman’s social influence theory. A multiple group analysis with partial least squares was conducted using the data collected from an onsite survey. The results of the analysis revealed that there was a distinct difference in social influence between first-time visitors’ and repeat visitors’ revisit intentions to the festival. It was also found that social identity was the best predictor of repeaters’ revisit intentions, whereas subjective norms were the best predictor for first-timers’ revisit intentions. Conclusion and implications for research and practice are discussed.

Key words: Group norms; Social identity; Subjective norms; Revisit intentions; First-timers; Repeaters

Address correspondence to Hyungsuk Choo, Department of Tourism, Leisure, and Event Planning, Bowling Green State University, 109 Eppler Center, Bowling Green, OH 43402, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 287–292
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Research Note

Barcelona: New Stakeholders and New Images in Social Media Reviews

Lluis Garay* and Gemma Canoves

*Economics and Management Department, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
†Geography Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain

Image creation for destinations is undergoing a revolution based on the consolidation of spaces on the Internet as well as the Internet’s capacity to empower new actors (or stakeholders) and discourses. The literature emphasizes the role of websites and travel blogs as key spaces in generating this image, strengthening the actions of official entities, service providers, and travel bloggers in its projection as well as highlighting the lack of communication between them. Using the case of the Turisme de Barcelonawebsite and TripAdvisor forum, the present article goes a step further, analyzing the increasing role of social media in this process, as social media give both past and future travelers as well as residents the ability to generate destination images in a dialogue-based discourse that gives a deeper and clearer vision of diverse resources—particular tourism products—and urban spaces. This user-generated content can be useful for destination management organizations in adapting resources and infrastructures to tourists as well as residents.

Key words: Internet; Social media; Destination image; Barcelona

Address correspondence to Lluis Garay Tamajon, Economics and Management Department, Universitat Oberta de CatalunyaAvenida Tibidabo, 39-43, 08035, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 293–298
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Research Note

Nonresponse Bias in Tourism Advertising Studies: Further Analyses

Yeongbae Choe and Daniel R. Fesenmaier

National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute, Department of Tourism, Recreation & Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Although online surveys enable researchers to quickly and easily conduct advertising conversion studies, data obtained from online surveys are potentially problematic because of nonresponse bias. This study builds on earlier research concerning nonresponse bias in Internet-based tourism advertising studies using a number of different destinations across a number of years; in particular, this study uses the Propensity Score Adjustment approach to adjust for potential nonresponse bias in the collected data. The results of this study clearly indicate that online surveys generally result in relatively small errors when estimating conversion rates and various aspects of traveler behavior. However, this study additionally indicates that potential nonresponse biases are not consistent across advertising programs and survey waves, suggesting that destination marketers should put more effort into understanding response bias so as to represent the total target markets more accurately. To do so, destination marketing organizations and practitioners need to collect auxiliary variables that help to adjust potential nonresponse bias.

Key words: Destination advertising; Conversion study; Nonresponse bias

Address correspondence to Yeongbae Choe, National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute, University of Florida, 200 Fletcher Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611-8250, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 299–305
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Research Note

Challenging Environment of the Club Industry and Impact for Local Gamblers and Tourists

Timothy J. Lee

Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University, Beppu, Japan

This article examines the constantly growing club industry in Australia. Sociologically, the industry provides employment opportunities but at the same time has an impact on the growth of problem gambler numbers. Economically, Australia has prospered with the development of the club industry, primarily through raised revenue, and increased tourist numbers and employment. The industry faces a range of legislative and competitive market forces, which have significantly changed the operating environment, and there is no indication that these will abate in the foreseeable future. This article also investigates how the external leisure industry and advances in technology has affected Australian clubs. This study contributes to provide ideas of sustainable approaches for healthy development of the club industry in Australia and worldwide.

Key words: Club industry; Socioeconomic impact; Legislation; Australia

Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University (APU), Beppu, 874-8577 Japan. Tel: +81 977 78 1224; Fax: +81 977 78 1121; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 309–324
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Review

Worldmaking and Domestic Tourists: Critical Insights From Philosophical Hermeneutics

Damien Jacobsen

School
of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia

This review article raises insights into domestic tourism that deserve earnest attention from conceptualists and practitioners in Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (hereafter Tourism Studies). In it, Jacobsen critiques the movement in Tourism Studies, which is described by Hollinshead as worldmaking and which is indicative of the shift toward critical inquiry into the sociopolitical nature of tourism and travel. Jacobsen considers that the notion of (and practice of) worldmaking highlights the globalized nature of tourism that must be considered in relation to the complex place-specific processes of production. However, Jacobsen critically argues in this review article that the range of sociopolitical agencies illuminated via a worldmaking approach is anoverinternationalized one and is therefore stifled by a presupposition that can obscure the conceptualization of, and therefore inquiry into, domestic tourism. In this light, Jacobsen maintains that this undersuspected presupposition relates to the construction of existential tourist being as “a place relation” that commences from “rupture.” He attempts to remedy this constrained Tourism Studies thinking by drawing on Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics—in support of Caton’s recent call (within this journal) for more informed reflections on Gadamerian interpretations of “tourism.” Following Gadamer’s insistence on the extent to which historical influence conditions the present, Jacobsen assigns “historicity” to touristhood in a move embracing the view that tourist being commonly implicates relations to place that actually precede the act of or experience in tourism. In examining the advocations that worldmaking is a helpful working conceptualization that can potentially and incrementally envision/reenvision tourism as a facilitator for genuine dialogue between disparate peoples, Jacobsen seeks to recast received considerations about “tourist being,” ipso facto. Yet, Jacobsen’s review article suggests that this potential for tourism to provide settings to contend with seemingly irreconcilable difference in the world is problematic, especially in regard to Heideggerian understandings about the inauthenticities of our time and the historically conditioned links between domestic tourists and place. Overall, this review article proposes that philosophical hermeneutics can indeed provide crucial insights that extend what he sees as Hollinshead’s ideas beyond current thresholds of thinking about worldmaking to open up new even further and fresher awarenesses of and about emancipated being, or rather of “being through tourism.” (Abstract by Reviews Editor)

Key words: Domestic tourism; Worldmaking; Philosophical hermeneutics; Rupture; Historically conditioned being; Gadamer; Goodman; Hollinshead

Address correspondence to Damien Jacobsen, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore NSW 2480, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 325–327
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Review

Can Anybody Hear Me? A Critical Analysis of Young Residents’ Voices in Tourism Studies

Antonia Canosa,* Brent D. Moyle,† and Meredith Wray‡

*Centre for Children and Young People, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia
†Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
‡Wray Sustainable Tourism Research and Planning, Myocum, New South Wales, Australia

In this review article, tourism is recognized as a powerful force of change for host communities. The authors maintain that many empirical studies of residents’ perceptions of tourism have argued that tourism has the ability to transform the lives of locals who inhabit a given destination region, generating both positive and negative economic, environmental, and sociocultural impacts there. However, the authors suggest that the focus of these received studies has been placed on the perceptions and experiences of adult residents, resulting in an absence of research that examines how young residents view, perceive, and adapt to tourism in their communities. To address this gap, this review article critically analyzes the role of young residents in Tourism Studies to date. An inventory of 30 previous studies that focused on young residents in tourism research was compiled and analyzed. Adapting a framework of the presence and role of Indigenous people in tourism research, the authors classified these articles into three categories—namely, the silent, the acknowledged, and the youth-focused. In this inspection, key findings identified the lack of children’s and young people’s agency and voice, providing a theoretically driven undercurrent guiding future inquiry and developing a pathway toward new “voice-generative” methods. The authors recommend that the specific approaches that they identify for deployment in the field should be ethically sensitive to the needs of children and young people and thereby be more accommodating in their capacity to develop and enhance discourse on youth in tourism. (Abstract by Reviews Editor)

Key words: Children; Young people; Youth; Participation; Collaboration; Agency; Voice; Critical tourism studies

Address correspondence to Antonia Canosa, Centre for Children and Young People, Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore NSW 2480, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it