Tourism Review International 20(1) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 3-10
1544-2721/16 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14581596798906
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Comparing Expenditure Patterns and Travel Characteristics Among NFL Fans With Different Levels of Team Identification

Chengming Hu and Shu Cole

Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA

Sport tourism is one of the more rapidly developing leisure activities worldwide, and is widely discussed in literature of the field. The anticipated economic impact generated from tourists in sport events is a key motivation for hosting them. Investigation of psychological and sociodemographic factors that enhance sport tourist expenditure can enhance our overall understanding of sport tourist consumptive and travel behaviors for industry and research purposes. As fans’ team identification has been identified as a major motivation for attending sport events, the sampling in this study consists of sport tourists attending the 2012 Super Bowl who were divided into two groups based on the levels of team identification: fans of 2012 Super Bowl NFL teams and fans of other, non-2012 Super Bowl NFL teams. The results indicate that these two Super Bowl tourist segments have significantly different expenditure patterns on food and beverage, shopping, local transportation, and entertainment. They also differ greatly on travel characteristics such as party size, travel length, and numbers of previous visits. Applying team identification as a variable to analyze sport tourists’ expenditure patterns and travel characteristics can thus help event marketers and local tourism stakeholders to design effective marketing strategies for mega-sport events and local tourist attractions both on and off season.

Key words: Sport tourism; Fan attachment; Sport tourist expenditure

Address correspondence to Chengming Hu, Visiting Lecturer, Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 11-28
1544-2721/16 $60.00
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14581596798942
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Does Culture Influence Risk Perceptions?

Hany Kim,* Ashley Schroeder,† and Lori Pennington-Gray†

*Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Tourism Crisis Management Initiative, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

In an investigation of risk perceptions, this study found three distinct factors: risk perceptions associated with travel in general; risk perceptions associated with travel to the destination; and safety concerns associated with destination choice. This study also sought to examine tourists’ risk perceptions from a cross-cultural perspective. Accordingly, the influence of cultural differences in terms of Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), as well as destination past experience and sociodemographic characteristics on risk perceptions, were examined. The findings indicated that age, gender, and UAI significantly influenced risk perceptions. Specifically, there was a positive relationship between UAI and both travel risk perceptions and destination risk perceptions. Travelers without past experience visiting the destination were associated with higher destination risk perceptions and safety concerns than those with past experience. Furthermore, the findings revealed that destination past experience only played a significant moderating role in the relationship between age and travel risk perceptions.

Key words: Risk perceptions; Destination risk; Safety concerns; Culture; Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI); Destination past experience

Address correspondence to Hany Kim, Ph.D., Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Eric Friedheim Tourism Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Tel: 352-294-1681; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 29-39
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14581596798988
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding the Benefits of School Travel: An Educator’s Perspective

David A. Cárdenas, Simon Hudson, Fang Meng, and Pei Zhang

School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Using a theoretical framework that incorporates Aristotle’s three intellectual competencies (epistmetechne, and phronesis), this article examines the perceptions of educational travel from the administrators’ perspective. A total of 336 elementary, middle, and high school principals from around the US participated in the study and thematic responses were analyzed from open-ended questions. Results indicate that educational field trips can have positive impacts on all three of Aristotle’s intellectual competencies (practical knowledge, skills, and attitude/experience), and that the effects of educational travel are far reaching with substantive benefits for students of all grades.

Key words: Educational travel; School trips; Aristotle; School principles

Address correspondence to David A. Cárdenas, School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, The University of South Carolina, Carolina Coliseum, Room 1011-B, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: 803-777-5120; Fax: 803-777-6427; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 41-55
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14581596799022
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Women’s Self-Determination in Cooperative Tourism Microenterprises

Chantell Lapan,* Duarte B. Morais,*† Tim Wallace,‡ and Carla Barbieri*

*Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
†Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
‡Department of Anthropology and Sociology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

The purpose of this study is to better understand how cooperative forms of microentrepreneurship influence women’s self-determination. Utilizing the framework of self-determination theory, this study employed a multiple case study approach that involved in-depth interviews, content analysis, field notes, and direct observations. Findings indicate that livelihood opportunities afforded under cooperative tourism microentrepreneurship offer women increased levels of self-determination, but that economic improvements alone are not sufficient in enhancing overall well-being. This study provides a detailed account of the strategies indigenous women employ to enhance their self-determination under cooperative tourism microentrepreneurship models. The results of this study suggest that programs by governments and NGOs should consider non-individual benefits when they engage with communities in tourism planning initiatives. Additionally, interventions aimed at women must also engage men or women may suffer from tensions at home. Finally, this study indicates that simply offering access to credit does not foster self-reliant development. The structures of cooperative models determine outcomes. Therefore, whenever possible, microentrepreneurship models should be designed to enhance strong cooperative social structures.

Key words: Tourism; Microentrepreneurship; Gender; Guatemala; Maya; Poverty

Address correspondence to Chantell LaPan, Ph.D., Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 57-70
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14581596799068
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Can Small and Medium-Sized Hotels Compete With International Hotel Chains? Egypt as a Case Study

Abuelkassem A. A. Mohammad

Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Minia University, Minya, Egypt

The majority of the accommodation properties in Egypt, nearly 54%, can be considered as small and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs). This study aimed to explore the position of SMSHs regarding competition with chain hotels, as well as to ascertain the practices that could potentially strengthen the competitive position of SMSHs. This study considers the perceptions of four major stakeholder groups (i.e., managers of SMSHs, tourism intermediaries, hotel guests, government officials) regarding the investigated issue. A qualitative approach was adopted in this study using in-depth semistructured interviews that were conducted with 42 participants. The results of the study revealed that SMSHs held a very weak competitive position against chain hotels. Such weak competitive position can be contributed to a number of operational shortcomings such as: limited services and facilities; low-quality services; and unqualified personnel. However, SMSHs had some operational advantages that could possibly be used for improving their competitiveness (e.g., low prices, friendly service style, and providing original accommodation experience). The results also concluded some suggested practices, for both SMSHs and other stakeholders, which could potentially enhance the competitiveness of SMSHs, such as: developing marketing activities and promoting SMSHs internationally, and establishing independent consortia for SMSHs. The study ended by providing a proposed model and a set of practical implications that would improve the competitive position of SMSHs in Egypt and enhance their performance.

Key words: Small and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs); Chain hotels; Competitiveness

Address correspondence to Abuelkassem A. A. Mohammad, Ph.D., Lecturer at Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Minia University, Minya, Egypt. Tel: 002 01063731784; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it