Tourism in Marine Environments 11(4) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 215-227
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X
14580612748560
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Effects of Whale-Watching Vessels on Adult Male Sperm Whales Off Andenes, Norway

A. Mel Cosentino*†1

*School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
†Marine Research and Education Fund of AndenesAndenes, Norway

This study investigated the effects of whale-watching vessels (WWV) on solitary sperm whales off Andenes in northern Norway. The presence of WWV did not have a significant effect on the duration of the surface and foraging dive periods or on the respiration pattern and dynamics. However, the presence of WWV made sperm whales almost seven times more likely to perform a near-surface event (NSE). NSEs are submersions without fluking for short periods of time that take place during the surface phase. The occurrence of NSEs led to a significant increase of 75% in surface time, which is 6 min more at the surface that were not compensated with longer foraging dives. Additionally, the occurrence of NSEs was associated with changes in the animals’ respiration pattern and dynamics. Data collection concerning NSEs and respiration dynamics (both parameters assessed here for the first time) is strongly recommended in future impact studies on this species. NSEs may be indicators of disturbance and are reasonably easy to identify, and thus identifying and better understanding the causes of this behavior have management implications.

Key words: Sperm whale; Tourism impact; Behavior; Respiration

1Current affiliation: Wild Earth Foundation, Av de las Ballenas 9500, Puerto Piramides, Peninsula Valdes, Chubut, Argentina.
Address correspondence to A. Mel Cosentino, 1 Roslin Terrace, Aberdeen, AB24 5LJ, UK. Tel: +44-7806648692; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 229-239
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X14580612748605
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Personality Traits of Surf Voluntourists

Jennifer M. Thomsen,* Lorraine L. Taylor,† and Matthew D. Hughes‡

*Department of Society and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA
†School of Business Administration, Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO, USA
‡Miami-Dade County Government, Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces, Miami, FL, USA

Surfing is a growing international industry with an increasingly diverse participant population and infrastructure that can result in positive and negative social, ecological, and economic impacts on the surfing communities. Surfers who are seeking authentic experiences may require travel to remote, rural, and economically impoverished areas. Many of these destinations have significant developmental needs that can be addressed via volunteering by surf tourists. As sustainability becomes an increasingly critical and pressing issue, more surf voluntourism organizations are emerging. Yet, there have been no studies exploring the personality traits of surf voluntourists, which could be leveraged to influence the success of the programs. This research study used the HEXACO-PI-R scale to identify personality traits of surf voluntourists that can help community and nonprofit organizations develop more effective programs for surf tourists to maximize benefits, minimize conflicts, and contribute to the sustainability of the surfing destination.

Key words: Surf tourism; Voluntourism; HEXACO

Address correspondence to Jennifer M. Thomsen, Department of Society and Conservation, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 243-249
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X14580612748641
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

STUDENT RESEARCH SUMMARY

Using Long-Term Ecological Research to Promote Sustainable Whale-Watching Practices in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia

Kira K. Stevenson1

Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

Whale watching has experienced rapid growth worldwide while management of the industry has typically lagged behind, assumed an apparent precautionary approach, and lacked an ecological understanding of the species of focus. Considering both socioeconomic and ecological factors in tandem and not as isolated circumstances is important when managing wildlife and related tourism activities, including whale watching. The goal of this article is to address the research gap between social and ecological components in wildlife tourism management using a case study from the University of Victoria Whale Research Lab that has been collecting ecological data surrounding gray whale presence in Clayoquot Sound, Canada for almost 30 years. Results indicate that the boat behavior with respect to whales as well as whale-watching industry pressure depend on the ecological factors that contribute to whale presence. Based on this information, I propose five management recommendations that promote sustainable development and use of the commercial whale-watching industry.

Key words: Whale watching; Ecology; Tourism; Management

1For the degree of Master of Science. Supervisor: Dr. David A. Duffus, Department of Geography, University of Victoria.
Address correspondence to Kira Stevenson, M.Sc., at her current address: Senior Policy Advisor, Intergovernmental and External Relations, Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, BC Ministry of Environment, 2975 Jutland Road, Victoria, BC, V8W 9M1, Canada. Tel: 250-387-3929; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 251-262
1544-273X/15 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427316X14580612748687
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

REVIEW

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2014–2015

E. C. M. Parsons* and Carol Scarpaci†

*Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
†College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Werribee Campus, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2014.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management Swim-with-dolphin/whale tourism; Whale watchers; Illegal feeding; Whale ecotourism

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it