Event Management 20(2) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 119-133
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108549
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Damage Control: Media Framing of Sport Event Crises and the Response Strategies of Organizers

K. Meaghan Carey and Daniel S. Mason

Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

The hosting of major sporting events has gained favor with governments seeking to reimage their city or nation. These events are often considered a policy tool able to accelerate infrastructure development, promote tourism, and act as an economic stimulator. However, hosting a major event requires significant coordination between stakeholders and the skillful management of resources; when this does not occur a crisis may arise. The resulting negative media coverage needs to be correctly managed by organizers to mitigate any lasting damage to the reputation of the region and event. The 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games was selected as a single case study to examine the management of, and response by, event organizers to negative media coverage created by organizational crisis. The study examined 478 media news articles from media outlets with national and international distribution. Analysis explored four media frames commonly found in crisis communication: attribution of responsibilityconflictconsequences, and human interest. The result shows that the attribution of responsibility and conflict frames were the most commonly used in this case study, which is congruent with past research on preventable organizational crisis. In attempting to mitigate reputational damage, the event organizers focused on scapegoating and excuse responses. The results also indicate that the organizers did not appear to be successful in their management or containment of the media coverage of the crises.

Key words: Crisis communication; Sport event; Media; Crisis responses; Commonwealth Games

Address correspondence to Daniel Mason, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 2-130N Van Vliet Complex, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H9. Tel: 780-492-6822; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 135-146
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108585
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

To Find Equilibrium of Food Festival Tourism: An Application of Factor Analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAAHP)

Young Hoon Kim

Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA

As one of the most flourishing interests and growth engine in tourism, food became a great resource for destination marketing. Thus, food and tourism have been studied and developed together. Destination marketing organizations (DMOs) have utilized and developed their own regional resources (i.e., food and tourism attractions). It is also recommended that regional restaurant and cuisine need to be developed together to promote special cuisines of a destination. However, it is generally acknowledged that there has been a research gap between the two aspects of supply and demand in destination marketing and management. The objective of this study is to compare and find the equilibrated position from both sides, and possibly suggest a practical method (i.e., combining of factor analysis and analytical hierarchy process) that can also be applied in other studies. The results point out that this new method (i.e., FaAHP) represents the first approach in finding an equilibrated point by providing efficient and effective decision making process for DMOs. In addition, this practical approach can be useful in strategic planning for the future food tourism and festival research.

Key words: Food; Festival; Event; Tourism; FaAHP

Address correspondence to Young Hoon Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311100, Denton, TX 76203, USA. Tel: 1-940-565-4786; Fax: 1-940-565-4348; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 147-163
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108620
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Managing Live Music Performances: A Demand and Supply Analysis

Bianca Manners,1 Martinette Kruger, and Melville Saayman

TREES, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison between the demand and supply aspects of live music performances in order to establish whether any differences exist between those aspects regarded as important by management and those critical success factors that visitors regard as important in achieving a memorable visitor experience. This research employed qualitative (supply aspect) and quantitative (demand aspect) research methods. The surveys concerning the visitors (demand) were conducted at six musical events representing diverse genres: classical, R&B, rock, blues, pop, and Afrikaans, where a total of 4,110 questionnaires were administered for all six genres. To determine the critical success factors in terms of what the visitors regarded as being important for a memorable visitor experience, a factor analysis was employed. The qualitative research method was applied by means of interviews to obtain the relevant information from the selected participants. All the data collected in the process were transcribed into text and presented in a narrative form. Creswell’s six steps for data analysis and interpretation were utilized to analyze the data. Two themes were identified from the analysis; each of these was differentiated in terms of various categories and subcategories. The results from both the demand and the supply sides were compared with one another and significant differences were identified. The results of this research contribute greatly to existing literature and to the music industry as a whole, as this was the first time that research has been conducted on both the demand and the supply side. Moreover, this was also the first occasion on which both a qualitative and a quantitative research method was employed in research conducted at live music performances and where these were subsequently compared to one another.

Key words: Critical success factors; Live music performances; Qualitative research; Quantitative research

1Current affiliation: School of Sports, Events, Tourism and Hospitality Management (SETH), Faculty of Business & Management Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa.
Address correspondence to Martinette Kruger, TREES, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 2531. Tel: +27 182991980; Fax: +27182994140; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 165-179
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108666
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Applicability and Usefulness of the Stakeholder Strategy Matrix for Festival Management

Mathilda Van Niekerk

Tourism, Events & Attractions Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

This article examines the applicability and usefulness of the stakeholder strategy matrix in the context of festival management. An extensive literature review gave rise to the development of an online survey. Data for the study were collected from festival managers in the US. This empirical study indicated that internal and external festival stakeholders differ from each other in significant ways, and that different management strategies should be used to manage them. The stakeholder strategy matrix appears to be more effective for the management of internal festival stakeholders and the least effective for managing external festival stakeholders. Based on the results of the study, it can be postulated that the stakeholder strategy matrix can be applied effectively towards managing festival stakeholders and may provide useful management strategies for festival managers when managing their internal and external stakeholders. This is one of the first studies to be conducted in this area, and as such it contributes to the body of knowledge on management strategies for internal and external festival stakeholders.

Key words: Stakeholder theory; Stakeholder strategy matrix; Festivals; Events; Festival management

Address correspondence to Mathilda van Niekerk, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Tourism, Events & Attractions Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: (+1) 407 903 8052; Fax: (+1) 407 903 8105; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 181-199
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108701
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Positive Psychology Domains of Well-Being Activated Through Charity Sport Event Experiences

Kevin Filo and Alexandra Coghlan

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Charity sport events provide charities with an opportunity to promote the organization’s mission, while providing participants with the opportunity to support the cause through participation. This research applies positive psychology to investigate well-being dimensions present in the event experience. Specifically, this study explores the five domains of well-being: positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment (PERMA) among event participants. Five focus groups were conducted with participants from three different charity sport events. Directed content analysis results indicate that all five domains of PERMA emerged to varying degrees. The results provide implications for event managers to enhance the event experience, and bolster appeals for external funding, as well as a basis for further investigation of well-being and charity sport events in public health policies.

Key words: Positive psychology; Well-being; Charity sport events

Address correspondence to Kevin Filo, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222, Australia. Tel: +61 (07) 555 28719; Fax: +61 (07) 555 28507; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 201-215
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108747
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Spirit Lives on: The Legacy of Volunteering at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

Sheranne Fairley,* Sarah Gardiner,† and Kevin Filo†

*UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
†Griffith Business School, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

This study examines the volunteer legacy of a mega-sport event. An online, qualitative, open-ended questionnaire (n = 15) and in-depth interviews (n = 10) were administered to and conducted with Sydney 2000 Olympic volunteers to ascertain the legacies that exist at least 10 years after the completion of the event. The results show that the legacy of the Olympic volunteer experience includes the starting and/or rekindling of a volunteer career, the development of a unique set of skills and abilities, and nostalgia for the atmosphere of the Games with a special emphasis on the ideals of Olympism. The legacy has been perpetuated via formation of a group of volunteers soon after the Games as well as through the use of memorabilia along with sharing stories and expertise on the volunteer experience. The findings provide valuable insights for those seeking to recruit and retain volunteers as well as those who are concerned with developing event legacy strategies to leverage volunteer efforts.

Key words: Volunteers; Legacy; Olympic Games; Event management

Address correspondence to Sheranne Fairley, UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 0761; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 217-226
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14610017108783
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Events Management Awards in the UK in View of First Destination Employment (FDE): A Student Perspective

W. Gerard Ryan

University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK

The ongoing expansion in university attendance in the UK has led to the development and growth of a number of vocational awards. Among these, Events Management has become one of the fastest growing sectors. In recent years, Events Management Education (EME) has come under scrutiny, receiving a number of critical accounts that appear to be lacking any academic underpinning. Considering the scarcity of publications on the topic, this article has gathered data directly from the main source (the student) and aims to provide a foundation on which to base a more comprehensive discussion on EME. The study provides an insightful evaluation from a student perspective providing data on the challenges, developments, and strategies universities face in providing the events industry with new recruits. Results suggest that while a great deal of student satisfaction with EME is evident, EME awards must review the broad content approach in order to meet the sometimes unknown needs of the student and the extensive needs employer.

Key words: Events management education (EME); First destination employment; Curriculum design; Professionalization; Pedagogy; Higher education

Address correspondence to W. Gerard Ryan, Lecturer in Tourism & Events Management, University of Salford, 213 Maxwell Building, The Crescent, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT, UK. Tel: + 0161 295 5379; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 227-238
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14643674421771
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Consumers’ Perceived Functions of and Attitude Toward Corporate Sponsors of Small-Scale Amateur Sporting Events


Xiao Ting Bernice Low* and Do Young Pyun†

*Ministry of Home Affairs, Singapore
†School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

Aspiring to become a sporting nation, one recommendation from Singapore’s Vision 2030 is to develop a sustainable resourcing model by encouraging more corporate companies to sponsor sporting events. This research aimed to identify the perceived functions of corporate sponsors, which influenced consumers to develop positive attitudes toward these sponsors. A total of 210 undergraduate students participated in this study. The five perceived functions of corporate sponsors were ubiquity, sincerity, credibility, sponsor–event fit, and profit orientation. It was hypothesized that perceived ubiquity and profit orientation negatively influenced consumers’ attitude while perceived sincerity, credibility, and sponsor–event fit were positive influences. A multiple regression test showed perceived ubiquity and sponsor–event fit as significant functions that positively influenced consumers’ attitude toward corporate sponsors of small-scale sporting events.

Key words: Corporate sponsorship; Small-scale events; Perceived functions; Attitude

Address correspondence to Do Young Pyun, Senior Lecturer, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1509 228 443; Fax: +44 (0) 1509 226 301; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 239-254
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14643674421816
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Measuring Motivations for Popular Music Concert Attendance

Alicia Kulczynski, Stacey Baxter, and Tamara Young

Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia

An understanding of consumer motivations for event attendance is important to designing product offerings, planning event programs, and effectively marketing them to potential audiences, yet audience analysis in reference to the market for live music concerts is extremely sparse. The purpose of this study was to understand consumer’s motivations for attending a popular music concert and to develop a valid and reliable scale to empirically measure these motivations. A multiphased approach was adopted. First, focus groups were conducted to explore motivations for popular music concert attendance. Second, drawing from literature and focus group findings, a pool of items was developed and evaluated to establish face validity. Third, a pretest was conducted (n = 60) and exploratory factor analysis performed to ensure items adequately explained motivation dimensions. Finally, an online questionnaire was administered to the general public (n = 502). Content, criterion, and construct validity as well as internal consistency were examined and the psychometric properties of the scale assessed to determine the accuracy and reliability of the concert attendance motivation scale (CAMS). Focus group findings revealed 10 primary motivations for concert attendance. The empirical data also supported the notion that the CAMS is a multifaceted construct, comprising 10 dimensions.

Key words: Music concerts; Motivations; Attendance; Marketing; Scale development

Address correspondence to Alicia Kulczynski, Lecturer in Marketing, Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia. Tel: +61 2 49216805; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 255-265
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14643674421852
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants of Spending by Motorcycle Rally Visitors

Kwangsoo Park

Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA

The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of festival spending by estimating expenditure models. This study analyzed the impact of sociodemographic and travel context factors on aggregated and disaggregated event expenditures by the visitors who attended the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally held in Sturgis, South Dakota. The results indicated that length of stay and income had a significantly positive effect on the total on-site expenditures and accommodation spending. Length of stay and past experience (among travel context variables) as well as age, income, and gender (among sociodemographic factors) had significant relationships with the on-site expenditure categories. Detailed discussions and implications were provided, and study limitations and recommendations for future studies were discussed.

Key words: Motorcycle rally; Events; Expenditure

Address correspondence to Kwangsoo Park, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. Tel: (701) 231-7355; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 267-284
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14643674421898
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sponsorship Thinking: A Creator for Collaborative Undertakings in the Festival Context


Mervi Luonila

Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

The qualitative case study examines the role and given meanings of sponsorship of festivals both as a resource and as a strategic marketing choice. The research provides insight into the interests and posited goals for collaboration between festival organizers and companies and to examine what characteristics are involved with managerial aspects when sponsorship thinking might been seen as a leveraging role in partnership negotiations between the parties. The findings indicate that the focus of sponsor-linked relationships has shifted towards interactive design between the festival organizers and their partners. The partners’ interests lie in accessing new openings that could leverage their goals regarding their target groups. Conversely, for the festival organizers the focus of their cooperation is on concepts that facilitate experience design in the “festival way.” The festival management perspective highlights the need among partners engaged in the discourse of interactive sponsorship not only for management capabilities, but also for innovation skills to ensure the longevity and vitality of the events. The managers’ ability to improve and maintain effective and productive relationships with other members of their ecosystem is fundamental to the success of networked festival-producing processes.

Key words: Sponsorship; Festival management; Partnership; Relationship; Stakeholders; Collaboration

Address correspondence to Mervi Luonila, M.Mus., Lecturer, Department of Arts Management, Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 285-296
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X14643674421933
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Profiling Masquerade Festival Attendees in Ghana

Oheneba Akwasi Akyeampong* and Aaron Yankholmes†

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
†Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau, China

This article describes a study profiling 241 attendees to the 2014 masquerade festival in Winneba in Southern Ghana according to their support for and past membership of the competing masquerade groups. Three cohorts of attendees were used to highlight the differences that exist in terms of their demographics and trip/event profile, information sources, and how satisfied they were with various facilities and services provided by the event organizers. The study found that two cohorts belonged to or supported a masquerade group while the majority neither belonged to nor supported a masquerade group nor ever been masqueraders. The demographic profile of the majority subsample showed they were likely to be female, young, employed with above-average incomes and educational attainment. Their main source of information on the festival was friends, and they also tended to be intolerable of the long ticket queues and other appalling conditions of the event venue more than the other subgroups and this had implications for marketing and product development.

Key words: Masquerade festival; Winneba; Ghana; Satisfaction; Information source

Address correspondence to Oheneba Akwasi Akyeampong, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Tel: (233) 03321 32440; Fax: (233) 03321 32484; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it