Tourism Culture & Communication 16(1-2) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Culture & Communication>

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 1–14
1098-304X/16 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X
14655571061638
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cultural Representation Theory in Constructing Representations of the United States in Chinese and US Media

Yasong (Alex) Wang

Department of Hospitality Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA

This study explores the complex nature of tourism representation. Building on cultural representation theory, the researchers examine the photographic representations of US destinations in both Chinese and US media. From Chinese guide books, 1,827 images were collected that feature US destinations and 1,263 images were collected from the tourism promotion website that is targeted at Chinese viewers by the Corporation for Travel Promotion. The visual research methodologies were employed. The results indicate that there is a significant absence of inland US in Chinese guidebooks, although the most popular destinations along the East and West coasts of the country are primary targets for both sides. It was found that Chinese guidebooks show more interest in cityscapes, while the US side favors nature, though both sides attach highest priority to heritage sites. Finally, the two sides employ different cultural codes to represent the same destinations. This finding demonstrates the significant role of sociocultural contexts in the construction of destination representations.

Key words: Cultural representation; United States; China; Guidebooks; Website

Address correspondence to Yasong (Alex) Wang, Department of Hospitality Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Ackerman Hall Room 14, 911 South Drive, Indiana, PA 15705, USA. Tel: 724-357-6233; Fax: 724-357-7582; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 15–32
1098-304X/16 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X
14655571061674
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cruise Tourist Dress Behaviors and Local–Guest Reactions in a Muslim Country

Manuela Gutberlet

Department of Geography, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
German University of Technology in Oman, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

This article examines the ethics of tourism and cross-cultural communication between Western tourists and the local community in a Muslim country. Communicating with people who have different value systems and communication styles can contribute to various “culture shock situations” and to an increase in stereotypes and “stigma.” The main goal of this research is to analyze the dress behavior of cruise tourists, applying the concept of “mindfulness” and secondly to analyze the voices and values of the resident community and of other tourists. Any apparent contradictions will be identified between local values, pretravel information, media social constructions, and tourist dress behaviors, and suggestions will be proposed about how to avoid culture shock situations. Two questionnaire surveys were conducted with German-speaking cruise tourists visiting two different destinations in the Sultanate of Oman during 2012 (N = 830) and 2013 (N = 235). In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with members of the local community and cultural brokers as well as with tourists, onboard tour guides, and an onboard pastor. Moreover, government officials and the Assistant Grand Mufti were interviewed and pretravel information was studied. The results indicate that a mindless dress behavior has been facilitated by the type of information that is provided prior to travel and by cultural brokers, both on shore and on board, who do not make explicit reference to local dress codes. This approach promotes a concept of tolerance towards the tourist and an “accommodationist” and “laissez faire” attitude. On the other hand, tourist dress behaviors can be seen as a reflection of the posttourist, who is seeking individual authenticity and freedom. For the local community the increase in the number of mindless cruise tourists exceeds the level of acceptable tolerance in both places and has created “culture shock” situations. This research fills a major gap in applied research on the cruise tourist behaviors in a Muslim country and on crossculturalcommunication.

Key words: Cruise tourists; Dress behavior; Cross-cultural communication; Mindfulness; Questionnaire survey; Sultanate of Oman

Address correspondence to Manuela Gutberlet, Ph.D. candidate, Department of Geography, Cultural Geography Working Group, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, D-52056 Aachen, Germany. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 33–58
1098-304X/16 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X
14655571061719
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Hunting the Light in the High Arctic: Interest Development Among English Tourists Aboard the Coastal Steamer Hurtigruten

Christian B. Ekeland and Tove I. Dahl

Department of Social Sciences, Institute for Tourism Studies, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

This article explores the dynamics of interest as an emotion-related component of the tourism experience. The research site was the Norwegian coastal steamer Hurtigruten and the subjects were English visitors “hunting the northern light.” The latter experience has become a pillar of regional tourism development over the Arctic winter. The effectiveness of Hurtigruten in attempting to trigger and sustain interest is measured through the use of questionnaires, observations, and interviews. There were two main findings. First, existing theory is extended through the characterization of interest as a form of “wanting schismogenesis,” which occurs in the absence of the object of interest, namely the northern lights. Second, the use of triangulation has highlighted the importance of distinguishing between the “remembering self” and the “experiencing self” in the study of emotions. By combining observations, which capture representations of the experiencing self, with interviews and questionnaires, which capture representations of the remembering self, and deviations between these phenomena, the researchers offer a new perspective on the study of emotions in the tourism context.

Key words: Interest development; Multimethod triangulation; Emotion; Arctic winter tourism

Address correspondence to Christian Buschmann Ekeland, Ph.D. student, Department of Social Sciences, Institute for Tourism Studies, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromso, Norway. Tel: +47 95073988; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 59–73
1098-304X/16 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X
14655571061755
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Still a White Paradise? Photographic Representations of Jamaica as a Tourism Destination

Nicole Hay Walters* and Susanna Heldt Cassel†

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Business and Management, University of Technology, Jamaica
†Department of Tourism Studies, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden

Visual images, from travel brochures and television commercials to internet advertisements, represent a powerful element of tourist destination marketing. This article seeks to understand how destination marketing represents people and places through visual images while examining the role of tourism discourse in the construction of cultural meanings and identity. Using Jamaica as a case study, the researchers explore the issue of contemporary touristic images. A combination of content and discourse analysis was used to examine images included in printed marketing materials and on the DMO’s website drawing upon postcolonial theory as a critical and contextual perspective that provides an interpretation of the meanings that are conveyed by these representations. The main findings indicate that decades after the end of colonialism in Jamaica, marketers perpetuate the presentation of paradisal destination images using visual representations. It is argued that colonial tropes and practices of “Othering” remain fundamental to the meaning and rationale of seeing Jamaica and the travel experience. However, this study also identified strategies that could be further explored in an effort to counteract colonial discourse, as the use of culture and local folkways opens up avenues for the (re)evaluation and (re)representation of Jamaica and the holiday experience.

Key words: Visual images; Tourism representations; Content analysis; Colonial discourse; Destination marketing; Jamaica

Address correspondence to Susanna Heldt Cassel, Department of Tourism Studies, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, 791 88 Falun, Sweden. Tel: +46(0)23778531; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 75–89
1098-304X/16 $60.00
+ .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X
14655571061791
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright ©
2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

“Tourism Is for Foreigners”: Resident Views About Community Participation in Zambia’s Tourist Capital

Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga*† and Bridget Bwalya Umar*‡

*Geography and Environmental Studies Department, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
†Department of Geography, Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
‡Geography and Economic History Department, Umea University, Umea, Sweden

This study investigates community tourism participation in Livingstone city—“the tourist capital” of Zambia—drawing upon 263 semistructured household interviews, several key informant interviews, and desk analysis. The results show that over half of the residents (57%) do believe that they participate in tourism in Livingstone. The participation levels were lowest (32%) in the case of low income households. Tourism participation was “framed” by residents as occurring through the medium of employment or from engagement in income generating activities, and not through visiting tourist sites for leisure purposes. Any community participation in local governance structures was passive and tokenistic, with residents being recipients of information about decisions that had already been made at the center and had then “trickled down” to the periphery. The researchers conclude that implementation of initiatives are needed to enhance community participation in tourism-related decision making, in income generation, and employment. These changes would lead to more favorable tourism perceptions among residents.

Key words: Tourism development; Decision making; Typology of participation; Livingstone

Address correspondence to Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga, Geography and Environmental Studies Department, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: +27826333602; Fax: +27 012 4203210; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it